1932

Abstract

Heavy ion collisions quickly form a droplet of quark–gluon plasma (QGP) with a remarkably small viscosity. We give an accessible introduction to how to study this smallest and hottest droplet of liquid made on Earth and why it is so interesting. The physics of heavy ion collisions ranges from highly energetic quarks and gluons described by perturbative QCD to a bath of strongly interacting gluons at lower energy scales. These gluons quickly thermalize and form QGP, while the energetic partons traverse this plasma and end in a shower of particles called jets. Analyzing the final particles in various ways allows us to study the properties of QGP and the complex dynamics of multiscale processes in QCD that govern its formation and evolution, providing what is perhaps the simplest form of complex quantum matter that we know of. Much remains to be understood, and throughout the review big open questions are encountered.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-101917-020852
2018-10-19
2024-04-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/nucl/68/1/annurev-nucl-101917-020852.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-101917-020852&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1.  Yagi K, Hatsuda T, Miake Y Camb. Monogr. Part. Phys. Nucl. Phys. Cosmol. 23:1 2005.
  2. 2.  Florkowski W Phenomenology of Ultra-Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions Singapore: World Sci 2010.
  3. 3.  Wang XN Quark–Gluon Plasma 5 Singapore: World Sci 2016.
  4. 4.  Toia A J. Phys. G 38:124007 2011.
  5. 5.  Heinz U, Snellings R Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 63:123 2013.
  6. 6.  Romatschke P, Romatschke U arXiv:1712.05815 [nucl-th] 2017.
  7. 7.  van der Schee W PhD thesis Utrecht Univ. Utrecht, Neth: 2014.
  8. 8.  Lee YJ, Yoon AS, Busza W MIT heavy ion event display: Pb+Pb 2.76 TeV Video MIT Cambridge, MA: http://web.mit.edu/mithig/movies/LHCanmation.mov 2018.
  9. 9.  Busza W, Ledoux R Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 38:119 1988.
  10. 10.  Busza W, Goldhaber AS Phys. Lett. B 139:235 1984.
  11. 11.  Kharzeev DE, Liao J, Voloshin SA, Wang G Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 88:1 2016.
  12. 12.  Baltz AJ et al. Phys. Rep. 458:1 2008.
  13. 13.  Heisenberg W Nature 164:65 1949.
  14. 14.  Hamilton J, Heitler W, Peng HW Phys. Rev. 64:78 1943.
  15. 15.  Fermi E Prog. Theor. Phys. 5:570 1950.
  16. 16.  Landau L Izv. Akad. Nauk Ser. Fiz. 17:51 1953.
  17. 17.  Feynman RP Phys. Rev. Lett. 23:1415 1969.
  18. 18.  Borsanyi S et al. Phys. Lett. B 730:99 2014.
  19. 19.  Bazavov A et al. (HotQCD Collab.) Phys. Rev. D 90:094503 2014.
  20. 20.  Casalderrey-Solana J et al. arXiv:1101.0618 [hep-th] 2014.
  21. 21.  Paquet JF et al. Phys. Rev. C 93:044906 2016.
  22. 22. Nucl. Sci. Advis. Comm. The 2015 long-range plan for nuclear science Report US Dep. Energy/Natl. Sci. Found. Washington, DC: https://science.energy.gov/∼/media/np/nsac/pdf/2015LRP/2015_LRPNS_091815.pdf 2015.
  23. 23.  Collins JC, Perry MJ Phys. Rev. Lett. 34:1353 1975.
  24. 24.  Linde AD Rep. Prog. Phys. 42:389 1979.
  25. 25.  Witten E Phys. Rev. D 30:272 1984.
  26. 26.  Applegate JH, Hogan CJ Phys. Rev. D 31:3037 1985.
  27. 27.  Karsch F Nucl. Phys. A 698:199 2002.
  28. 28.  Aoki Y et al. Nature 443:675 2006.
  29. 29.  Thomas D et al. Astrophys. J. 430:291 1994.
  30. 30.  Policastro G, Son D, Starinets A Phys. Rev. Lett. 87:081601 2001.
  31. 31.  Hubeny VE, Minwalla S, Rangamani M arXiv:1107.5780 [hep-th] 2011.
  32. 32.  Lin HW, Meyer HB Lattice QCD for Nuclear Physics Berlin: Springer 2015.
  33. 33.  Borsanyi S et al. J. High Energy Phys. 07:056 2012.
  34. 34.  Meyer HB Eur. Phys. J. A 47:86 2011.
  35. 35.  van der Schee W Phys. Rev. D 87:061901 2013.
  36. 36.  Chesler PM Phys. Rev. Lett. 115:241602 2015.
  37. 37.  Chesler PM J. High Energy Phys. 03:146 2016.
  38. 38.  Nagle JL, Zajc WA Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 68211 2018.
  39. 39.  Aduszkiewicz A et al. (NA61/SHINE Collab.) Eur. Phys. J. C 77:671 2017.
  40. 40.  Luo X Nucl. Phys. A 956:75 2016.
  41. 41.  Heuser JM (CBM Collab.) Eur. Phys. J. Web Conf. 13:03001 2011.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42.  Toneev V Proc. Sci. CPOD07:057 2007.
  43. 43.  Stephanov MA Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 153:139 2004.
  44. 44.  Rajagopal K, Wilczek F At the Frontier of Particle Physics: Handbook of QCD M Shifman, B Ioffe 32061 Singapore: World Sci 2000.
  45. 45.  de Forcrand P Proc. Sci. LAT2009:010 2009.
  46. 46.  Stephanov MA Phys. Rev. Lett. 102:032301 2009.
  47. 47.  Athanasiou C, Rajagopal K, Stephanov M Phys. Rev. D 82:074008 2010.
  48. 48.  Luo X (STAR Collab.) Proc. Sci. CPOD2014:019 2015.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49.  Alford MG, Schmitt A, Rajagopal K, Schafer T Rev. Mod. Phys. 80:1455 2008.
  50. 50.  Abbott B et al. (Virgo Collab., LIGO Collab.) Phys. Rev. Lett. 119:161101 2017.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51.  Eskola KJ, Paakkinen P, Paukkunen H, Salgado CA Eur. Phys. J. C 77:163 2017.
  52. 52.  Patrignani C et al. (Part. Data Group) Chin. Phys. C 40:100001 2016.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53.  Alver B, Baker M, Loizides C, Steinberg P arXiv:0805.4411 [nucl-ex] 2008.
  54. 54.  Alver B et al. (PHOBOS Collab.) Phys. Rev. C 83:024913 2011.
  55. 55.  Adam J et al. (ALICE Collab.) Phys. Lett. B 772:567 2017.
  56. 56.  Busza W Acta Phys. Polon. B 8:333 1977.
  57. 57.  Miller ML, Reygers K, Sanders SJ, Steinberg P Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 57:205 2007.
  58. 58.  Arsene I et al. (BRAHMS Collab.) Nucl. Phys. A 757:1 2005.
  59. 59.  Back B et al. (PHOBOS Collab.) Nucl. Phys. A 757:28 2005.
  60. 60.  Adams J et al. (STAR Collab.) Nucl. Phys. A 757:102 2005.
  61. 61.  Adcox K et al. (PHENIX Collab.) Nucl. Phys. A 757:184 2005.
  62. 62.  Armesto N, Scomparin E Eur. Phys. J. Plus 131:52 2016.
  63. 63.  Foka P, Janik MA Rev. Phys. 1:154 2016.
  64. 64.  Foka P, Janik MA Rev. Phys. 1:172 2016.
  65. 65.  Azaiez F et al. NuPECC long range plan 2017: perspectives in nuclear physics Report NuPECC/Eur. Sci. Found. Strasbourg, Fr: http://www.esf.org/fileadmin/user_upload/esf/Nupecc-LRP2017.pdf 2017.
  66. 66.  Aad G et al. (ATLAS Collab.) Phys. Rev. Lett. 110:022301 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67.  Chatrchyan S et al. (CMS Collab.) J. High Energy Phys 03:022 2015.
  68. 68.  Aad G et al. (ATLAS Collab.) Phys. Rev. C 93:034914 2016.
  69. 69.  Connors M, Nattrass C, Reed R, Salur S arXiv:1705.01974 [nucl-ex] 2017.
  70. 70.  Collab CMS arXiv:1803.00042 [nucl-ex] 2018.
  71. 71.  Khachatryan V et al. (CMS Collab.) J. High Energy Phys 01:006 2016.
  72. 72.  Brenner AE et al. Phys. Rev. D 26:1497 1982.
  73. 73.  Barton DS et al. Phys. Rev. D 27:2580 1983.
  74. 74.  Arsene IC et al. (BRAHMS Collab.) Phys. Lett. B 677:267 2009.
  75. 96.  Adamczyk L et al. (STAR Collab.) Phys. Rev. C 96:044904 2017.
  76. 76.  Elias JE et al. (E178 Collab.) Phys. Rev. D 22:13 1980.
  77. 77.  Back B et al. (PHOBOS Collab.) Phys. Rev. C 74:021902 2006.
  78. 78.  Müller B, Rajagopal K Eur. Phys. J. C 43:15 2005.
  79. 79.  Abbas E et al. (ALICE Collab.) Phys. Lett. B 726:610 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80.  Back B et al. (PHOBOS Collab.) Phys. Rev. Lett. 91:052303 2003.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81.  Aamodt K et al. (ALICE Collab.) Phys. Rev. Lett. 105:252301 2010.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82.  Aad G et al. (ATLAS Collab.) Phys. Lett. B 710:363 2012.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83.  Adam J et al. (ALICE Collab.) Phys. Rev. Lett. 116:222302 2016.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84.  Busza W Nucl. Phys. A 854:57 2011.
  85. 85.  Gelis F, Stasto AM, Venugopalan R Eur. Phys. J. C 48:489 2006.
  86. 86.  Chatrchyan S et al. (CMS Collab.) Phys. Rev. C 84:024906 2011.
  87. 87.  Chatrchyan S et al. (CMS Collab.) Eur. Phys. J. C 72:2012 2012.
  88. 88.  Aamodt K et al. (ALICE Collab.) Phys. Lett. B 708:249 2012.
  89. 89.  Li W Nucl. Phys. A 967:59 2017.
  90. 90.  Braun-Munzinger P, Koch V, Schäfer T, Stachel J Phys. Rep. 621:76 2016.
  91. 91.  Mehtar-Tani Y, Milhano JG, Tywoniuk K Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 28:1340013 2013.
  92. 92.  Qin GY, Wang XN Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 24:1530014 2015.
  93. 93.  Koch P, Müller B, Rafelski J Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 32:1730024 2017.
  94. 94.  Becattini F et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111:082302 2013.
  95. 95.  Andronic A, Braun-Munzinger P, Redlich K, Stachel J arXiv:1710.09425 [nucl-th] 2017.
  96. 75.  Abelev B et al. (ALICE Collab.) Phys. Rev. C 88:044910 2013.
  97. 97.  Back B et al. (PHOBOS Collab.) Phys. Rev. C 70:051901 2004.
  98. 98.  Rajagopal K arXiv:hep-ph/9504310 [hep-ph] 1995.
  99. 99.  Sirunyan AM et al. (CMS Collab.) arXiv:1706.05984 [hep-ex] 2017.
  100. 100.  Zhang BW, Ko CM, Liu W Phys. Rev. C 77:024901 2008.
  101. 101.  Khachatryan V et al. (CMS Collab.) Eur. Phys. J. C 76:372 2016.
  102. 102.  Busza W Acta Phys. Polon. B 35:2873 2004.
  103. 103.  Adam J et al. (ALICE Collab.) Phys. Lett. B 760:720 2016.
  104. 104.  Adam J et al. (ALICE Collab.) Nat. Phys. 13:535 2017.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. 105.  Bozek P, Broniowski W Phys. Rev. C 88:014903 2013.
  106. 106.  Aaboud M et al. (ATLAS Collab.) Phys. Rev. C 96:024908 2017.
  107. 107.  Niemi H, Eskola KJ, Paatelainen R Phys. Rev. C 93:024907 2016.
  108. 108.  Aamodt K et al. (ALICE Collab.) Phys. Rev. Lett. 107:032301 2011.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 109.  Aad G et al. (ATLAS Collab.) J. High Energy Phys 1311:183 2013.
  110. 110.  Rischke D, Levin G Nucl. Phys. A 750:1 2005.
  111. 111. BRAHMS Collab., PHOBOS Collab., STAR Collab., PHENIX Collab. Nucl. Phys. A 757:1 2005.
  112. 112.  Molnar D, Gyulassy M Nucl. Phys. A 697:495 2002. Erratum Nucl. Phys. A 703:893 2002.
  113. 113.  Xu Z, Greiner C Phys. Rev. Lett. 100:172301 2008.
  114. 114.  Lin ZW et al. Phys. Rev. C 72:064901 2005.
  115. 115.  Ackermann KH et al. (STAR Collab.) Phys. Rev. Lett. 86:402 2001.
    [Google Scholar]
  116. 116.  Ollitrault JY, Poskanzer AM, Voloshin SA Phys. Rev. C 80:014904 2009.
  117. 117.  Adams J et al. (STAR Collab.) Phys. Rev. Lett. 92:052302 2004.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. 118.  Chatrchyan S et al. (CMS Collab.) Phys. Rev. C 89:044906 2014.
  119. 119.  Huovinen P, Petreczky P Nucl. Phys. A 837:26 2010.
  120. 120.  Pratt S, Sangaline E, Sorensen P, Wang H Phys. Rev. Lett. 114:202301 2015.
  121. 121.  Baier R, Romatschke P Eur. Phys. J. C 51:677 2007.
  122. 122.  Shen C et al. Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Ultrarelativistic Nucleus–Nucleus Collisions (Quark Matter 2017) U Heinz, O Evdokimov, P Jacobs 796 Amsterdam: Elsevier 2017.
    [Google Scholar]
  123. 123.  York MA, Moore GD Phys. Rev. D 79:054011 2009.
  124. 124.  Cooper F, Frye G Phys. Rev. D 10:186 1974.
  125. 125.  van der Schee W, Romatschke P, Pratt S Phys. Rev. Lett. 111:222302 2013.
  126. 126.  Romatschke P, Romatschke U Phys. Rev. Lett. 99:172301 2007.
  127. 127.  Schenke B, Jeon S, Gale C Phys. Rev. Lett. 106:042301 2011.
  128. 128.  Alver B, Roland G Phys. Rev. C 81:054905 2010. Erratum Phys. Rev. C 82:039903 2010.
  129. 129.  Ryu S et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 115:132301 2015.
  130. 130.  Niemi H, Denicol GS, Holopainen H, Huovinen P Phys. Rev. C 87:054901 2013.
  131. 131.  Bernhard JE et al. Phys. Rev. C 94:024907 2016.
  132. 132.  Arnold PB, Moore GD, Yaffe LG J. High Energy Phys. 0011:001 2000.
  133. 133.  Heller MP, Spalinski M Phys. Rev. Lett. 115:072501 2015.
  134. 134.  Denicol GS, Noronha J arXiv:1711.01657 [nucl-th] 2017.
  135. 135.  Arnold P, Romatschke P, van der Schee W J. High Energy Phys. 1410:110 2014.
  136. 136.  Chesler PM, Kilbertus N, van der Schee W J. High Energy Phys. 11:135 2015.
  137. 137.  Kurkela A Nucl. Phys. A 956:136 2016.
  138. 138.  Casalderrey-Solana J, Heller MP, Mateos D, van der Schee W Phys. Rev. Lett. 111:181601 2013.
  139. 139.  McLerran LD, Venugopalan R Phys. Rev. D 49:2233 1994.
  140. 140.  Iancu E Proceedings of the 2011 European School of High-Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011) C Grojean, M Mulders 197 Geneva: CERN 2014.
    [Google Scholar]
  141. 141.  Baier R, Mueller AH, Schiff D, Son DT Phys. Lett. B 502:51 2001.
  142. 142.  Baier R, Mueller AH, Schiff D, Son DT Phys. Lett. B 539:46 2002.
  143. 143.  Berges J, Boguslavski K, Schlichting S, Venugopalan R Phys. Rev. D 89:074011 2014.
  144. 144.  Kurkela A, Zhu Y Phys. Rev. Lett. 115:182301 2015.
  145. 145.  Horowitz GT, Hubeny VE Phys. Rev. D 62:024027 2000.
  146. 146.  Chesler PM, Yaffe LG Phys. Rev. D 82:026006 2010.
  147. 147.  Heller MP, Janik RA, Witaszczyk P Phys. Rev. Lett. 108:201602 2012.
  148. 148.  Heller MP, Mateos D, van der Schee W, Trancanelli D Phys. Rev. Lett. 108:191601 2012.
  149. 149.  Maldacena JM Int. J. Theor. Phys. 38:1113 1999.
  150. 150.  Chesler PM, Yaffe LG Phys. Rev. Lett. 106:021601 2011.
  151. 151.  Chesler PM, Yaffe LG J. High Energy Phys. 10:070 2015.
  152. 152.  Casalderrey-Solana J, Mateos D, van der Schee W, Triana M J. High Energy Phys. 09:108 2016.
  153. 153.  Attems M et al. arXiv:1604.06439 [hep-th] 2016.
  154. 154.  Grozdanov S, van der Schee W Phys. Rev. Lett. 119:011601 2017.
  155. 155.  Waeber S, Schaefer A, Vuorinen A, Yaffe LG J. High Energy Phys. 11:087 2015.
  156. 156.  Habich M, Nagle J, Romatschke P arXiv:1409.0040 [nucl-th] 2014.
  157. 157.  Keegan L, Kurkela A, Mazeliauskas A, Teaney D J. High Energy Phys. 08:171 2016.
  158. 158.  Schenke B, Tribedy P, Venugopalan R Phys. Rev. Lett. 108:252301 2012.
  159. 159.  Gale C et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110:012302 2013.
  160. 160.  Accardi A et al. Eur. Phys. J. A 52:268 2016.
  161. 161.  Sjostrand T, Mrenna S, Skands PZ Comput. Phys. Commun. 178:852 2008.
  162. 162.  Chatrchyan S et al. (CMS Collab.) Phys. Lett. B 712:176 2012.
  163. 163.  Aaboud M et al. (ATLAS Collab.) arXiv:1805.05635 [nucl-ex] 2018.
  164. 164.  Casalderrey-Solana J et al. J. High Energy Phys. 03:135 2017.
  165. 165.  Adare A et al. arXiv:1501.06197 [nucl-ex] 2015.
  166. 166.  Adcox K et al. (PHENIX Collab.) Phys. Rev. Lett. 88:022301 2002.
    [Google Scholar]
  167. 167.  Spousta M, Cole B Eur. Phys. J. C 76:50 2016.
  168. 168.  Milhano JG, Zapp KC Eur. Phys. J. C 76:288 2016.
  169. 169.  Chesler PM, Rajagopal K J. High Energy Phys. 05:098 2016.
  170. 170.  Rajagopal K, Sadofyev AV, van der Schee W Phys. Rev. Lett. 116:211603 2016.
  171. 171.  Khachatryan V et al. (CMS Collab.) J. High Energy Phys 11:055 2016.
  172. 172.  Sirunyan AM et al. (CMS Collab.) Phys. Lett. B 776:195 2018.
  173. 173.  Chesler PM, Rajagopal K Phys. Rev. D 90:025033 2014.
  174. 174.  Casalderrey-Solana J et al. J. High Energy Phys 10:019 2014. Erratum J. High Energy Phys. 09:175 2015.
    [Google Scholar]
  175. 175.  Casalderrey-Solana J et al. J. High Energy Phys. 03:053 2016.
  176. 176.  Milhano JG, Wiedemann UA, Zapp KC arXiv:1707.04142 [hep-ph] 2017.
  177. 177.  Chen W et al. Phys. Lett. B 777:86 2018.
  178. 178.  Cao S et al. (JETSCAPE Collab.) Phys. Rev. C 96:024909 2017.
  179. 179.  Hulcher Z, Pablos D, Rajagopal K arXiv:1707.05245 [hep-ph] 2017.
  180. 180.  Sirunyan AM et al. (CMS Collab.) arXiv:1708.09429 [nucl-ex] 2017.
  181. 181.  Acharya S et al. (ALICE Collab.) Phys. Lett. B 776:249 2018.
  182. 182.  Kauder K (STAR Collab.) Nucl. Phys. A 967:516 2017.
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-101917-020852
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-101917-020852
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error