1932

Abstract

Searches for magnetic monopoles (s) are a fascinating interdisciplinary area with implications for fundamental theories, particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. The quantum theory of s, and its consistency with electrodynamics, was originally derived by Dirac, marking the beginning of the search for classical monopoles at every new accelerator, including the Large Hadron Collider. s are required by Grand Unification Theories (GUTs), but unlike classical monopoles they would be incredibly massive, out of reach for any conceivable accelerator. Significant effort has been made to search for s in the cosmic radiation as relic particles from the early Universe in the widest experimentally available range of mass and velocity. In this review, we discuss the status of the searches for classical s at accelerators for GUTs, superheavy s in the penetrating cosmic radiation, and intermediate-mass s at high altitudes, emphasizing the most recent results and future perspectives.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-102014-022137
2015-10-19
2024-06-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/nucl/65/1/annurev-nucl-102014-022137.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-102014-022137&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Dirac PAM. 1.  Proc. R. Soc. 133:60 1931. [Google Scholar]
  2. ’t Hooft G. 2.  Nucl. Phys. B 79:276 1974. [Google Scholar]
  3. Polyakov AM. 3.  JETP Lett. 20:194 1974. [Google Scholar]
  4. Lazarides G. 4.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 58:1707 1987. [Google Scholar]
  5. Cho Y, Maison D. 5.  Phys. Lett. B 391:360 1997. [Google Scholar]
  6. Yang Y. 6.  Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 454:155 1998. [Google Scholar]
  7. Cho YM, Kyoungtae Kimm, Yoon JH. 7.  arXiv1212.3885 [hep-ph] 2012.
  8. Preskill J. 8.  Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 34:461 1984. [Google Scholar]
  9. Giacomelli G. 9.  Nuovo Cim. 7:12 1984. [Google Scholar]
  10. Milton KA. 10.  Rep. Prog. Phys. 69:1637 2006. [Google Scholar]
  11. Rajantie A. 11.  Contemp. Phys. 53:195 2012. [Google Scholar]
  12. Kibble TWB. 12.  J. Phys. A 9:1387 1976. [Google Scholar]
  13. Preskill J. 13.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 43:1365 1979. [Google Scholar]
  14. Olive KA. 14.  et al. (Part. Data Group) Chin. Phys. C 38:090001 2014. [Google Scholar]
  15. Guth A. 15.  Phys. Rev. D 23:347 1981. [Google Scholar]
  16. Kephart TW, Shafi Q. 16.  Phys. Lett. B 520:313 2001. [Google Scholar]
  17. Bhattacharjee B, Sigl G. 17.  Phys. Rep. 327:109 2000. [Google Scholar]
  18. Julia B, Zee A. 18.  Phys. Rev. D 11:2227 1975. [Google Scholar]
  19. Bracci L, Fiorentini G. 19.  Phys. Lett. B 124:493 1983. [Google Scholar]
  20. Rubakov VA. 20.  JETP Lett. 33:644 1981. Rubakov VA Nucl. Phys. B 203:311 1982. [Google Scholar]
  21. Callan CG. 21.  Phys. Rev. D 26:2058 1982. [Google Scholar]
  22. Arafune J, Fukugita M. 22.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 50:1901 1983. [Google Scholar]
  23. Parker EN. 23.  Astrophys. J. 160:383 1970. [Google Scholar]
  24. Turner MS, Parker EN, Bogdan TJ. 24.  Phys. Rev. D 26:1296 1982. [Google Scholar]
  25. Adams F. 25.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70:2511 1993. [Google Scholar]
  26. Lewis MJ, Freese K, Tarlé G. 26.  Phys. Rev. D 62:025002 2000. [Google Scholar]
  27. Kazama Y, Yang CN, Goldhaber AS. 27.  Phys. Rev. D 15:2287 1977. [Google Scholar]
  28. Ahlen SP. 28.  Phys. Rev. D 17:229 1978. [Google Scholar]
  29. Derkaoui J. 29.  et al. Astropart. Phys. 9:173 1998. [Google Scholar]
  30. Agostinelli S. 30.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 506:250 2003. [Google Scholar]
  31. Bauer G. 31.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 545:503 2005. [Google Scholar]
  32. Ahlen SP, Kinoshita K. 32.  Phys. Rev. D 26:2347 1982. [Google Scholar]
  33. Burdin S. 33.  et al. arXiv1410.1374 [hep-ph] 2014.
  34. Eberhard PH, Ross RR, Taylor JD. 34.  Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46:362 1978. [Google Scholar]
  35. Cabrera B. 35.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 48:1378 1982. [Google Scholar]
  36. Derkaoui J. 36.  et al. Astropart. Phys. 10:339 1999. [Google Scholar]
  37. Drell SD. 37.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 50:644 1983. [Google Scholar]
  38. Ahlen SP. 38.  Phys. Rev. D 14:2935 1976. [Google Scholar]
  39. Cecchini S. 39.  et al. Nucl. Phys. A 707:513 2002. [Google Scholar]
  40. Cecchini S. 40.  et al. Nucl. Phys. A 807:206 2008. [Google Scholar]
  41. Cecchini S. 41.  et al. Nuovo Cim. A 109:1119 1996. [Google Scholar]
  42. Giacomelli G. 42.  et al. arXivhep–ex/0005041 2000.
  43. Giacomelli G. 43.  et al. arXiv1105.5587 [hep-ex] 2011.
  44. Fairbairn M. 44.  et al. Phys. Rep. 438:1 2007. [Google Scholar]
  45. Aad G. 45.  et al. (ATLAS Collab.) Phys. Rev. Lett 109:261803 2012. [Google Scholar]
  46. Price MJ. 46.  NATO Adv. Study Inst. B 111:621 1983. [Google Scholar]
  47. Giacomelli G. 47.  et al. Nuovo Cim. A 28:21 1975. Hoffmann H et al. Lett. Nuovo Cim. 23:357 1978. [Google Scholar]
  48. Abbiendi G. 48.  et al. (OPAL Collab.) Phys. Lett. B 663:37 2008. [Google Scholar]
  49. Kinoshita K. 49.  et al. Phys. Rev. D 46:R881 1992. [Google Scholar]
  50. Pinfold JL. 50.  et al. Phys. Lett. B 316:407 1993. [Google Scholar]
  51. Kinoshita K. 51.  et al. Phys. Lett. B 228:543 1989. [Google Scholar]
  52. Musset P. 52.  et al. Phys. Lett. B 128:333 1983. [Google Scholar]
  53. Fryberger D, Coan T, Kinoshita K, Price PB. 53.  Phys. Rev. D 29:1524 1984. [Google Scholar]
  54. Abulencia A. 54.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96:201801 2006. [Google Scholar]
  55. Abbott B. 55.  et al. (D0 Collab.) Phys. Rev. Lett. 81:524 1998. [Google Scholar]
  56. Bertani M. 56.  et al. Europhys. Lett. 12:613 1990. [Google Scholar]
  57. Aktas A. 57.  et al. (H1 Collab.) Eur. Phys. J. C 41:133 2005. [Google Scholar]
  58. Kalbfleisch GR. 58.  et al. Phys. Rev. D 69:052002 2004. [Google Scholar]
  59. De Roeck A. 59.  et al. Eur. Phys. J. C 72:2212 2012. [Google Scholar]
  60. Giacomelli G, Patrizii L, Sahnoun Z. 60.  arXiv1105.2724 [hep-ex] 2011.
  61. Cecchini S, Spurio M. 61.  Geosci. Instrum. Methods Data Syst. 1:185 2012. [Google Scholar]
  62. Balestra S. 62.  et al. Eur. Phys. J. C 55:57 2008. [Google Scholar]
  63. Ambrosio M. 63.  et al. Eur. Phys. J. C 25:511 2002. [Google Scholar]
  64. Orito S. 64  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 66:1951 1991. [Google Scholar]
  65. Novoseltsev YF. 65.  et al. Nucl. Phys. B 151:337 2006. [Google Scholar]
  66. Thron JL. 66.  et al. (Soudan 2 Collab.) Phys. Rev. D 46:4846 1992. [Google Scholar]
  67. Krishnaswamy MR. 67.  et al. Phys. Lett. B 142:99 1984. [Google Scholar]
  68. Aynutdinov K. 68.  et al. Astropart. Phys. 29:366 2008. [Google Scholar]
  69. Abbasi R. 69.  et al. Eur. Phys. J. C 69:361 2010. [Google Scholar]
  70. Adrián-Martínez S. 70.  et al. (ANTARES Collab.) Astropart. Phys. 35:634 2012. [Google Scholar]
  71. Abbasi R. 71.  et al. (IceCube Collab.) Phys. Rev. D 87:022001 2013. [Google Scholar]
  72. Chiarusi T, Spurio M. 72.  Eur. Phys. J. C 65:649 2010. [Google Scholar]
  73. Lubsandorzhiev BK. 73.  Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 553:308 2005. [Google Scholar]
  74. Hogan DP. 74.  et al. Phys. Rev. D 78:075031 2008. [Google Scholar]
  75. Detrixhe M. 75.  et al. (ANITA-II Collab.) Phys. Rev. D 83:023513 2011. [Google Scholar]
  76. Huber ME, Cabrera B, Taber MA, Gardner RD. 76.  Phys. Rev. D 44:636 1991. [Google Scholar]
  77. Gardner RD, Cabrera B, Huber ME, Taber MA. 77.  Phys. Rev. D 44:622 1991. [Google Scholar]
  78. Ambrosio M. 78.  et al. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 486:663 2002. [Google Scholar]
  79. Ambrosio M. 79.  et al. Phys. Lett. B 434:451 1998. [Google Scholar]
  80. Ambrosio M. 80.  et al. Astropart. Phys. 6:113 1997. [Google Scholar]
  81. Ambrosio M. 81.  et al. Astropart. Phys. 4:33 1995. [Google Scholar]
  82. Ambrosio M. 82.  et al. Phys. Lett. B 406:249 1997. [Google Scholar]
  83. Ficenec DJ. 83.  et al. Phys. Rev. D 36:311 1987. [Google Scholar]
  84. Ahlen S. 84.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 72:608 1994. [Google Scholar]
  85. Ambrosio M. 85.  et al. Astropart. Phys. 18:27 2002. [Google Scholar]
  86. Price PB, Salamon MH. 86.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 56:1226 1986. [Google Scholar]
  87. Ghosh D, Chatterjea S. 87.  Europhys. Lett. 12:25 1990. [Google Scholar]
  88. Bendtz K. 88.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110:121803 2013. [Google Scholar]
  89. Bartelt J. 89.  et al. Phys. Rev. D 36:1990 1987. [Google Scholar]
  90. Becker-Szendy R. 90.  et al. Phys. Rev. D 49:2169 1994. [Google Scholar]
  91. Kajita T. 91.  et al. J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 54:4065 1985. [Google Scholar]
  92. Ambrosio M. 92.  et al. Eur. Phys. J. C 26:163 2002. [Google Scholar]
  93. Balkanov VA. 93.  et al. Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 40:391 1998. [Google Scholar]
  94. Belolaptikov I. 94.  et al. Astropart. Phys. 7:263 1997. [Google Scholar]
  95. Aartsen MG. 95.  et al. Eur. Phys. J. C 74:2938 2014. [Google Scholar]
  96. Ueno K. 96.  et al. (Super-Kamiokande Collab.) Astropart. Phys. 36:131 2012. [Google Scholar]
  97. Spurio M. 97.  Particles and Astrophysics Berlin: Springer 2014. [Google Scholar]
  98. De Roeck A. 98.  et al. Eur. Phys. J. C 72:1985 2012. [Google Scholar]
  99. Aad G. 99.  et al. J. Instrum. 3:S08003 2008. [Google Scholar]
  100. Adolphi R. 100.  et al. J. Instrum. 3:S08004 2008. [Google Scholar]
  101. Mermod P. 101.  arXiv1305.3718 [hep-ex] 2013.
  102. Acharya B. 102.  et al. (MoEDAL Collab.) Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 29:1430050 2014. [Google Scholar]
  103. Hill CT. 103.  Nucl. Phys. B 224:469 1983. [Google Scholar]
  104. Epele LN. 104.  et al. Eur. Phys. J. Plus 127:60 2012. [Google Scholar]
  105. Wang Z. 105.  et al. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 513:012039 2014. [Google Scholar]
  106. Dash N, Datar VM, Majumder G. 106.  arXiv1406.3938 [physics.ins-det] 2014.
  107. Ostrovskiy I, Pinfold J. 107.  arXiv1410.5521 [physics] 2014.
  108. Castelnovo C. 108.  et al. Nature 451:42 2008. [Google Scholar]
  109. Morris DJP. 109.  et al. Science 326:411 2009. [Google Scholar]
  110. Ray MW. 110.  et al. Nature 505:657 2014. [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-102014-022137
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-102014-022137
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error