1932

Abstract

Studying the violation of parity and time-reversal invariance in atomic systems has proven to be a very effective means of testing the electroweak theory at low energy and searching for physics beyond it. Recent developments in both atomic theory and experimental methods have led to the ability to make extremely precise theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of these effects. Such studies are complementary to direct high-energy searches, and can be performed for only a fraction of the cost. We review the recent progress in the field of parity and time-reversal violation in atoms, molecules, and nuclei, and examine the implications for physics beyond the Standard Model, with an emphasis on possible areas for development in the near future.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-102014-022331
2015-10-19
2024-06-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/nucl/65/1/annurev-nucl-102014-022331.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-102014-022331&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Wu CS. 1.  et al. Phys. Rev. 105:1413 1957. [Google Scholar]
  2. Lee TD, Yang CN. 2.  Phys. Rev. 104:254 1956. [Google Scholar]
  3. Wood CS. 3.  et al. Science 275:1759 1997. [Google Scholar]
  4. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV, Sushkov OP. 4.  Phys. Lett. A 141:147 1989. [Google Scholar]
  5. Blundell SA, Johnson WR, Sapirstein J. 5.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 65:1411 1990. [Google Scholar]
  6. Kozlov MG, Porsev SG, Tupitsyn II. 6.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 86:3260 2001. [Google Scholar]
  7. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV, Ginges JSM. 7.  Phys. Rev. D 66:076013 2002. [Google Scholar]
  8. Porsev SG, Beloy K, Derevianko A. 8.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 102:181601 2009. Porsev SG, Beloy K, Derevianko A Phys. Rev. D 82:036008 2010. [Google Scholar]
  9. Dzuba VA, Berengut JC, Flambaum VV, Roberts BM. 9.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 109:203003 2012. [Google Scholar]
  10. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV, Khriplovich IB. 10.  Z. Phys. D 1:243 1986. [Google Scholar]
  11. Flambaum VV, Khriplovich IB. 11.  Sov. Phys. JETP 52:835 1980. [Google Scholar]
  12. Flambaum VV, Khriplovich IB, Sushkov OP. 12.  Phys. Lett. B 146:367 1984. [Google Scholar]
  13. Haxton WC, Wieman CE. 13.  Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 51:261 2001. [Google Scholar]
  14. Sushkov OP, Flambaum VV. 14.  Sov. Phys. JETP 48:608 1978. [Google Scholar]
  15. Zel'dovich YB. 15.  Sov. Phys. JETP 6:1184 1958. [Google Scholar]
  16. Christenson JH, Cronin JW, Fitch VL, Turlay R. 16.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 13:138 1964. [Google Scholar]
  17. Flambaum VV, Khriplovich IB. 17.  Sov. Phys. JETP 62:872 1985. [Google Scholar]
  18. Bouchiat CC, Piketty CA. 18.  Phys. Lett. B 269:195 1991. [Google Scholar]
  19. Zel'dovich YB. 19.  Sov. Phys. JETP 9:682 1959. [Google Scholar]
  20. Bouchiat M-A, Bouchiat CC. 20.  Phys. Lett. B 48:111 1974. Bouchiat M-A, Bouchiat CC J. Phys. 35:899 1974. Bouchiat M-A, Bouchiat CC J. Phys. 36:493 1975. [Google Scholar]
  21. Khriplovich IB. 21.  Parity Nonconservation in Atomic Phenomena Philadelphia: Gordon & Breach 1991. [Google Scholar]
  22. Ginges JSM, Flambaum VV. 22.  Phys. Rep. 397:63 2004. [Google Scholar]
  23. Barkov LM, Zolotorev M. 23.  JETP Lett. 27:357 1978. [Google Scholar]
  24. Macpherson M. 24.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67:2784 1991. [Google Scholar]
  25. Bouchiat M-A, Guéna J, Hunter LR, Pottier L. 25.  Phys. Lett. B 117:358 1982. [Google Scholar]
  26. Meekhof DM. 26.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 71:3442 1993. [Google Scholar]
  27. Phipp SJ, Edwards NH, Baird PEG, Nakayama S. 27.  J. Phys. B 29:1861 1996. [Google Scholar]
  28. Vetter PA. 28.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 74:2658 1995. [Google Scholar]
  29. Edwards NH, Phipp SJ, Baird PEG, Nakayama S. 29.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 74:2654 1995. [Google Scholar]
  30. Tsigutkin K. 30.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103:071601 2009. [Google Scholar]
  31. Guéna J. 31.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90:143001 2003. Guéna J, Lintz M, Bouchiat M-A Phys. Rev. A 71:042108 2005. [Google Scholar]
  32. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV, Silvestrov PG, Sushkov OP. 32.  Europhys. Lett. 7:413 1988. [Google Scholar]
  33. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV, Silvestrov PG, Sushkov OP. 33.  J. Phys. B 20:3297 1987. [Google Scholar]
  34. Kozlov MG, Porsev SG, Johnson WR. 34.  Phys. Rev. A 64:052107 2001. [Google Scholar]
  35. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV. 35.  Phys. Rev. A 83:042514 2011. [Google Scholar]
  36. Bouchiat M-A, Guéna J, Pottier L, Hunter LR. 36.  J. Phys. 47:1709 1986. [Google Scholar]
  37. Noecker MC, Masterson BP, Wieman CE. 37.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 61:310 1988. [Google Scholar]
  38. Gilbert SL, Wieman CE. 38.  Phys. Rev. A 34:792 1986. [Google Scholar]
  39. Gilbert SL, Noecker MC, Watts RN, Wieman CE. 39.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 55:2680 1985. [Google Scholar]
  40. Flambaum VV, Murray DW. 40.  Phys. Rev. C 56:1641 1997. [Google Scholar]
  41. Lintz M, Guéna J, Bouchiat M-A. 41.  Eur. Phys. J. A 32:525 2007. [Google Scholar]
  42. Antypas D, Elliott DS. 42.  Phys. Rev. A 87:042505 2013. [Google Scholar]
  43. Antypas D, Elliott DS. 43.  Can. J. Chem. 92:144 2014. [Google Scholar]
  44. Sell JF. 44.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 84:010501R 2011. Patterson BM et al. Phys. Rev. A 91:012506 2015. [Google Scholar]
  45. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV. 45.  Phys. Rev. A 62:052101 2000. [Google Scholar]
  46. Bennett SC, Wieman CE. 46.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 82:2484 1999. [Google Scholar]
  47. Cho D. 47.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 55:1007 1997. [Google Scholar]
  48. Derevianko A. 48.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 85:1618 2000. [Google Scholar]
  49. Kuchiev MY, Flambaum VV. 49.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 89:283002 2002. Milstein AI, Sushkov OP, Terekhov IS Phys. Rev. A 67:062103 2003. Johnson WR, Bednyakov I, Soff G Phys. Rev. Lett. 87:233001 2001. Sapirstein J, Pachucki K, Veitia A, Cheng KT Phys. Rev. A 67:052110 2003. [Google Scholar]
  50. Flambaum VV, Ginges JSM. 50.  Phys. Rev. A 72:052115 2005. [Google Scholar]
  51. Shabaev VM, Pachucki K, Tupitsyn II, Yerokhin VA. 51.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 94:213002 2005. [Google Scholar]
  52. 52. Part. Data Group Phys. Rev. D 86:010001 2012. [Google Scholar]
  53. Peskin ME, Takeuchi T. 53.  Phys. Rev. D 46:381 1992. [Google Scholar]
  54. Rosner JL. 54.  Phys. Rev. D 65:073026 2002. [Google Scholar]
  55. Marciano WJ, Rosner JL. 55.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 65:2963 1990. [Google Scholar]
  56. 56. Q-weak Collab Phys. Rev. Lett. 111:141803 2013. [Google Scholar]
  57. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV, Sushkov OP. 57.  Phys. Rev. A 51:3454 1995. [Google Scholar]
  58. Safronova MS, Johnson WR. 58.  Phys. Rev. A 62:022112 2000. [Google Scholar]
  59. Gomez E. 59.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 75:033418 2007. Aubin S et al. AIP Conf. Proc. 1425:530 (2013); Aubin S et al. Hyperfine Interact. 214:163 2013. Tandecki M et al. J. Instrum. 9:P10013 2014. [Google Scholar]
  60. Tsigutkin K. 60.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 81:032114 2010. Dounas-Frazer DR, Tsigutkin K, English D, Budker B Phys. Rev. A 84:023404 2011. [Google Scholar]
  61. Porsev SG, Kozlov MG, Rakhlina YG. 61.  Hyperfine Interact. 127:395 2000. [Google Scholar]
  62. DeMille D. 62.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 74:4165 1995. [Google Scholar]
  63. Nguyen AT, Budker D, DeMille D, Zolotorev M. 63.  Phys. Rev. A 56:3453 1997. [Google Scholar]
  64. Leefer N, Bougas L, Antypas D, Budker D. 64.  arXiv1412.1245 [physics.atom-ph] 2014.
  65. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV. 65.  Phys. Rev. A 81:052515 2010. [Google Scholar]
  66. Fortson N. 66.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 70:2383 1993. [Google Scholar]
  67. Pal R, Jiang D, Safronova MS, Safronova UI. 67.  Phys. Rev. A 79:062505 2009. [Google Scholar]
  68. Wansbeek LW. 68.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 78:050501 2008. [Google Scholar]
  69. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV, Ginges JSM. 69.  Phys. Rev. A 63:062101 2001. [Google Scholar]
  70. Roberts BM, Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV. 70.  Phys. Rev. A 88:012510 2013. Roberts BM, Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV Phys. Rev. A 89:012502 2014. [Google Scholar]
  71. Williams SR. 71.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 88:012515 2013. [Google Scholar]
  72. Versolato OO. 72.  et al. Can. J. Phys. 89:65 2011. Nuñez Portela M et al. Hyperfine Interact. 214:157 2013. Nuñez Portela M et al. Appl. Phys. B 114:173 2013. [Google Scholar]
  73. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV, Roberts BM. 73.  Phys. Rev. A 86:062512 2012. [Google Scholar]
  74. Dutta NN, Majumder S. 74.  Phys. Rev. A 90:012522 2014. [Google Scholar]
  75. Roberts BM, Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV. 75.  Phys. Rev. A 87:054502 2013. [Google Scholar]
  76. Roberts BM, Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV. 76.  Phys. Rev. A 88:042507 2013. [Google Scholar]
  77. Bougas L. 77.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108:210801 2012. [Google Scholar]
  78. Sofikitis D. 78.  et al. Nature 514:76 2014. [Google Scholar]
  79. Fortson EN, Pang Y, Wilets L. 79.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 65:2857 1990. [Google Scholar]
  80. Derevianko A, Porsev SG. 80.  Phys. Rev. A 65:052115 2002. [Google Scholar]
  81. Brown BA, Derevianko A, Flambaum VV. 81.  Phys. Rev. C 79:035501 2009. [Google Scholar]
  82. Sushkov OP, Flambaum VV, Khriplovich IB. 82.  Sov. Phys. JETP 60:873 1984. [Google Scholar]
  83. Flambaum VV, Khriplovich IB. 83.  Phys. Lett. A 110:121 1985. [Google Scholar]
  84. Khriplovich IB. 84.  Phys. Scr. T112:52 2004. [Google Scholar]
  85. Haxton WC, Liu CP, Ramsey-Musolf MJ. 85.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 86:5247 2001. Haxton WC, Liu CP, Ramsey-Musolf MJ Phys. Rev. C 65:045502 2002. [Google Scholar]
  86. Kraftmakher AY. 86.  Phys. Lett. A 132:167 1988. [Google Scholar]
  87. Johnson WR, Safronova MS, Safronova UI. 87.  Phys. Rev. A 67:062106 2003. [Google Scholar]
  88. Kozlov MG. 88.  Phys. Lett. A 130:426 1988. [Google Scholar]
  89. Dmitriev VF, Telitsin VB. 89.  Nucl. Phys. A 613:237 1997. [Google Scholar]
  90. Dmitriev VF, Telitsin VB. 90.  Nucl. Phys. A 674:168 2000. [Google Scholar]
  91. Haxton WC, Holstein BR. 91.  Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 71:185 2013. [Google Scholar]
  92. Khriplovich IB. 92.  Phys. Lett. A 197:316 1995. [Google Scholar]
  93. Roberts BM, Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV. 93.  Phys. Rev. A 89:042509 2014. [Google Scholar]
  94. Flambaum VV. 94.  Phys. Rev. A 60:2611 1999. [Google Scholar]
  95. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV, Ginges JSM. 95.  Phys. Rev. A 61:062509 2000. [Google Scholar]
  96. Labzowsky LN. 96.  Sov. Phys. JETP 48:434 1978. [Google Scholar]
  97. Kozlov MG, Labzowsky LN. 97.  J. Phys. B 28:1933 1995. [Google Scholar]
  98. Cahn SB. 98.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112:163002 2014. [Google Scholar]
  99. Isaev TA, Hoekstra S, Berger R. 99.  Phys. Rev. A 82:052521 2010. [Google Scholar]
  100. Borschevsky A. 100.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 86:050501 2012. [Google Scholar]
  101. Nayak M, Das BP. 101.  Phys. Rev. A 79:060502 2009. [Google Scholar]
  102. DeMille D. 102.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100:023003 2008. [Google Scholar]
  103. Dmitriev YY. 103.  et al. Phys. Lett. A 167:280 1992. [Google Scholar]
  104. Carr LD, DeMille D, Krems RV, Ye J. 104.  New J. Phys. 11:055049 2009. [Google Scholar]
  105. Shuman ES, Barry JF, DeMille D. 105.  Nature 467:820 2010. [Google Scholar]
  106. Barry JF. 106.  et al. Nature 512:286 2014. [Google Scholar]
  107. McCarron DJ, Norrgard EB, Steinecker MH, DeMille D. 107.  arXiv1412.8220 [physics.atom-ph] 2014.
  108. Zeppenfeld M. 108.  et al. Nature 491:570 2012. [Google Scholar]
  109. Khriplovich IB, Lamoreaux SK. 109.  CP Violation Without Strangeness Berlin: Springer 1997. [Google Scholar]
  110. Pospelov M, Ritz A. 110.  Ann. Phys. 318:119 2005. [Google Scholar]
  111. Engel J, Ramsey-Musolf MJ, van Kolck U. 111.  Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 71:21 2013. [Google Scholar]
  112. Chupp T, Ramsey-Musolf MJ. 112.  arXiv1407.1064 [hep-ph] 2014.
  113. Sandars PGH. 113.  Phys. Lett. 14:194 1965. Sandars PGH Phys. Lett. 22:290 1966. Sandars PGH Phys. Rev. Lett. 19:1396 1967. [Google Scholar]
  114. Schiff LI. 114.  Phys. Rev. 132:2194 1963. [Google Scholar]
  115. Flambaum VV, Kozlov A. 115.  Phys. Rev. A 85:022505 2012. [Google Scholar]
  116. Ensberg ES. 116.  Phys. Rev. 153:36 1967. [Google Scholar]
  117. Player MA, Sandars PGH. 117.  J. Phys. B 3:1620 1970. [Google Scholar]
  118. Hudson JJ. 118.  et al. Nature 473:493 2011. [Google Scholar]
  119. Eckel S. 119.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 87:052130 2013. [Google Scholar]
  120. 120. ACME Collab Science 343:269 2014. [Google Scholar]
  121. Griffith WC. 121.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102:101601 2009. [Google Scholar]
  122. Swallows MD. 122.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 87:012102 2013. [Google Scholar]
  123. Murthy SA, Krause D, Li ZL, Hunter LR. 123.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 63:965 1989. [Google Scholar]
  124. Regan BC, Commins ED, Schmidt CJ, DeMille D. 124.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 88:071805 2002. [Google Scholar]
  125. Rosenberry MA, Chupp TE. 125.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 86:22 2001. [Google Scholar]
  126. Cho D, Sangster K, Hinds EA. 126.  Phys. Rev. A 44:2783 1991. [Google Scholar]
  127. Romalis MV, Ledbetter MP. 127.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 87:067601 2001. [Google Scholar]
  128. Kara DM. 128.  et al. New J. Phys. 14:103051 2012. [Google Scholar]
  129. Tarbutt MR, Sauer BE, Hudson JJ, Hinds EA. 129.  New J. Phys. 15:053034 2013. [Google Scholar]
  130. Hunter LR. 130.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 85:012511 2012. [Google Scholar]
  131. Petrov AN. 131.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 89:062505 2014. [Google Scholar]
  132. Loh H. 132.  et al. Science 342:1220 2013. [Google Scholar]
  133. Kirilov E. 133.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 88:013844 2013. [Google Scholar]
  134. Vutha AC. 134.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 84:034502 2011. [Google Scholar]
  135. Asahi K. 135.  et al. Phys. Part. Nucl. 45:199 2014. [Google Scholar]
  136. Inoue T. 136.  et al. Hyperfine Interact. 231:157 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10751-014-1100-1 2014. [Google Scholar]
  137. Santra B. 137.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 90:040501 2014. [Google Scholar]
  138. Holt RJ. 138.  et al. Nucl. Phys. A 844:53c 2010. [Google Scholar]
  139. Parker RH. 139.  et al. Phys. Rev. C 86:065503 2012. [Google Scholar]
  140. Tardiff ER. 140.  et al. Hyperfine Interact. 225:197 2013. [Google Scholar]
  141. Gaffney LP. 141.  et al. Nature 497:199 2013. [Google Scholar]
  142. Jungmann KP. 142.  Hyperfine Interact. 227:5 2014. [Google Scholar]
  143. Wundt BJ, Munger CT, Jentschura UD. 143.  Phys. Rev. X 2:041009 2012. [Google Scholar]
  144. Ludlow JA, Sushkov OP. 144.  J. Phys. B 46:085001 2013. [Google Scholar]
  145. Budker D. 145.  Nat. Mater. 9:608 2010. [Google Scholar]
  146. Budker D, Lamoreaux SK, Sushkov AO, Sushkov OP. 146.  Phys. Rev. A 73:022107 2006. [Google Scholar]
  147. Eckel S, Sushkov AO, Lamoreaux SK. 147.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 109:193003 2012. [Google Scholar]
  148. Flambaum VV. 148.  Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 24:199 1976. [Google Scholar]
  149. Skripnikov LV, Petrov AN, Titov AV. 149.  J. Chem. Phys. 139:221103 2013. [Google Scholar]
  150. Fleig T, Nayak MK. 150.  J. Mol. Spectrosc. 300:16 2014. [Google Scholar]
  151. Liu ZW, Kelly HP. 151.  Phys. Rev. A 45:4210 1992. [Google Scholar]
  152. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV. 152.  Phys. Rev. A 80:062509 2009. [Google Scholar]
  153. Porsev SG, Safronova MS, Kozlov MG. 153.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 108:173001 2012. [Google Scholar]
  154. Nataraj HS, Sahoo BK, Das BP, Mukherjee D. 154.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 106:200403 2011. [Google Scholar]
  155. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV, Porsev SG. 155.  Phys. Rev. A 80:032120 2009. [Google Scholar]
  156. Martensson-Pendrill AM. 156.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 54:1153 1985. [Google Scholar]
  157. Flambaum VV, Ginges JSM. 157.  Phys. Rev. A 65:032113 2002. [Google Scholar]
  158. Auerbach N, Flambaum VV, Spevak V. 158.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 76:4316 1996. [Google Scholar]
  159. Sen'kov RA, Auerbach N, Flambaum VV, Zelevinsky VG. 159.  Phys. Rev. A 77:014101 2008. [Google Scholar]
  160. Flambaum VV, Kozlov A. 160.  Phys. Rev. C 85:068502 2012. [Google Scholar]
  161. Flambaum VV, Khriplovich IB, Sushkov OP. 161.  Phys. Lett. B 162:213 1985. Flambaum VV, Khriplovich IB, Sushkov OP Nucl. Phys. A 449:750 1986. [Google Scholar]
  162. Dzuba VA, Flambaum VV, Ginges JSM, Kozlov MG. 162.  Phys. Rev. A 66:012111 2002. [Google Scholar]
  163. Latha KVP, Angom D, Das BP, Mukherjee D. 163.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 103:083001 2009. [Google Scholar]
  164. Singh Y, Sahoo BK, Das BP. 164.  Phys. Rev. A 89:030502 2014. [Google Scholar]
  165. Kudashov AD. 165.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 87:020102 2013. [Google Scholar]
  166. Dekens W. 166.  et al. J. High Energy Phys. 2014:69 2014. [Google Scholar]
  167. Dmitriev VF, Sen'kov RA. 167.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 91:212303 2003. [Google Scholar]
  168. Crewther RJ, Di Vecchia P, Veneziano G, Witten E. 168.  Phys. Lett. B 88:123 1979. [Google Scholar]
  169. Kawarabayashi K, Ohta N. 169.  Nucl. Phys. B 175:477 1980. Kawarabayashi K, Ohta N Prog. Theor. Phys. 66:1789 1981. [Google Scholar]
  170. Haxton WC, Henley EM. 170.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 51:1937 1983. [Google Scholar]
  171. Pospelov M. 171.  Phys. Lett. B 530:123 2002. [Google Scholar]
  172. Pospelov M, Ritz A. 172.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 83:2526 1999. [Google Scholar]
  173. Flambaum VV. 173.  Phys. Lett. B 320:211 1994. [Google Scholar]
  174. Flambaum VV, DeMille D, Kozlov MG. 174.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 113:103003 2014. [Google Scholar]
  175. Meyer E, Bohn JL, Deskevich M. 175.  Phys. Rev. A 73:062108 2006. [Google Scholar]
  176. Hutzler NR. 176.  et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13:18976 2011. [Google Scholar]
  177. Barry JF, Shuman ES, DeMille D. 177.  Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13:18936 2011. [Google Scholar]
  178. Ban S, Dobaczewski J, Engel J, Shukla A. 178.  Phys. Rev. C 82:015501 2010. [Google Scholar]
  179. Dmitriev VF, Flambaum VV. 179.  Phys. Rev. C 71:068501 2005. [Google Scholar]
  180. Dmitriev VF, Sen'kov RA, Auerbach N. 180.  Phys. Rev. C 71:035501 2005. [Google Scholar]
  181. Dmitriev VF, Telitsin VB, Flambaum VV, Dzuba VA. 181.  Phys. Rev. C 54:3305 1996. [Google Scholar]
  182. Kudashov AD. 182.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 90:052513 2014. [Google Scholar]
  183. Skripnikov LV. 183.  et al. Phys. Rev. A 90:064501 2014. [Google Scholar]
  184. Skripnikov LV, Petrov AN, Titov AV, Flambaum VV. 184.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 113:263006 2014. [Google Scholar]
  185. Weinberg S. 185.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 37:657 1976. [Google Scholar]
  186. Bertone G, Hooper D, Silk J. 186.  Phys. Rep. 405:279 2005. [Google Scholar]
  187. Riess AG. 187.  et al. Astron. J. 116:1009 1998. [Google Scholar]
  188. Peccei RD, Quinn HR. 188.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 38:1440 1977. [Google Scholar]
  189. Stadnik YV, Flambaum VV. 189.  Mod. Phys. Lett. A 29:1440007 2014. [Google Scholar]
  190. Stadnik YV, Flambaum VV. 190.  Phys. Rev. D 89:043522 2014. [Google Scholar]
  191. Roberts BM. 191.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113:081601 2014. Roberts BM et al. Phys. Rev. D 90:096005 2014. [Google Scholar]
  192. Sikivie P. 192.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 113:201301 2014. [Google Scholar]
  193. Graham PW, Rajendran S. 193.  Phys. Rev. D 88:035023 2013. [Google Scholar]
  194. Budker D. 194.  et al. Phys. Rev. X 4:021030 2014. [Google Scholar]
  195. Graham PW, Rajendran S. 195.  Phys. Rev. D 84:055013 2011. [Google Scholar]
  196. Pospelov M. 196.  et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110:021803 2013. [Google Scholar]
  197. Stadnik YV, Flambaum VV. 197.  Phys. Rev. Lett. 113:151301 2014. [Google Scholar]
  198. Derevianko A, Pospelov M. 198.  Nat. Phys. 10:933 2014. [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-102014-022331
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-102014-022331
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error