1932

Abstract

Over the past decade, the disparity between the value of the cosmic expansion rate determined directly from measurements of distance and redshift and that determined instead from the standard Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model, calibrated by measurements from the early Universe, has grown to a level of significance requiring a solution. Proposed systematic errors are not supported by the breadth of available data (and unknown errors are untestable by lack of definition). Simple theoretical explanations for this Hubble tension that are consistent with the majority of the data have been surprisingly hard to come by, but in recent years, attention has focused increasingly on models that alter the early or pre-recombination physics of ΛCDM as the most feasible. Here, we describe the nature of this tension and emphasize recent developments on the observational side. We then explain why early-Universe solutions are currently favored and the constraints that any such model must satisfy. We discuss one workable example, early dark energy, and describe how it can be tested with future measurements. Given an assortment of more extended recent reviews on specific aspects of the problem, the discussion is intended to be fairly general and understandable to a broad audience.

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2023-09-25
2024-04-19
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