1932

Abstract

Ultra-high-energy (UHE, >0.1 PeV) γ-ray astronomy is rapidly evolving into an expanding branch of γ-ray astronomy with the surprising discovery of 12 PeVatrons and the detection of a handful of photons above 1 PeV. Nearly all known celestial object types that have emissions in the TeV band are found also to emit UHE photons. UHE γ-rays have a well-defined horizon inside our Galaxy due to the absorption of infrared and cosmic microwave backgrounds in the Universe. In the last 30 years, traditional cosmic ray (CR) measurement techniques have enabled the detection of UHE γ-rays and opened the last observation window. For leptonic sources, UHE radiation is in the deep Klein–Nishina regime, which is largely suppressed. Therefore, UHE γ-ray detection will be helpful in locating and identifying hadronic radiation sources, tracing the historic pursuit for the origin of CRs around the knee of the spectrum. The Crab Nebula is the focus of attention with measured photon emissions up to 1 PeV. In the absence of hadronic processes, these emissions may indicate the existence of an extreme accelerator of +. Use of CR extensive air shower detection techniques broadens the field of view of the source observations, enabling measurement of UHE radiation surrounding the sources. These observations can probe the particle propagation inside and outside the accelerators and the subsequent injection/escape into the interstellar medium.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-112822-025357
2023-09-25
2024-04-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/nucl/73/1/annurev-nucl-112822-025357.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-112822-025357&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Hinton JA, Hofmann W. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 47:523 2009.)
  2. 2.
    Weekes TC et al. Astrophys. J. 342:379 1989.)
  3. 3.
    Funk S. Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 65:245 2015.)
  4. 4.
    Samorski M, Stamm W. Astrophys. J. Lett. 268:L17 1983.)
  5. 5.
    Cao Z. Universe 7:339 2021.)
  6. 6.
    Cao Z. Nat. Astron. 5:849 2021.)
  7. 7.
    Cao Z et al. Nature 594:33 2021.)
  8. 8.
    Moskalenko IV, Porter TA, Strong AW. Astrophys. J. Lett. 640:L155 2006.)
  9. 9.
    Popescu CC et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 470:2539 2017.)
  10. 10.
    Franceschini A, Rodighiero G, Vaccari M. Astron. Astrophys. 487:837 2008.)
  11. 11.
    Gould RJ, Schréder G. Phys. Rev. Lett. 16:252 1966.)
  12. 12.
    Bartoli B et al. Phys. Rev. D 92:092005 2015.)
  13. 13.
    Blasi P. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 21:70 2013.)
  14. 14.
    Kelner SR, Aharonian FA, Bugayov VV. Phys. Rev. D 74:034018 2006.)
  15. 15.
    Giuliani A et al. Astron. Astrophys. 516:L11 2010.)
  16. 16.
    Ackermann M et al. Science 339:807 2013.)
  17. 17.
    Acero F et al. Astron. Astrophys. 516:A62 2010.)
  18. 18.
    Aharonian F et al. Astron. Astrophys. 464:235 2007.)
  19. 19.
    Archambault S et al. Astrophys. J. 836:23 2017.)
  20. 20.
    Ahnen ML et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 472:2956 2017.)
  21. 21.
    Abramowski A et al. (HESS Collab.) Astrophys. J. Lett. 794:L1 2014.)
  22. 22.
    Abu-Zayyad T et al. Astrophys. J. 557:686 2001.)
  23. 23.
    Berezinsky V, Gazizov A, Grigorieva S. Phys. Rev. D 74:043005 2006.)
  24. 24.
    Grenier IA, Black JH, Strong AW. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 53:199 2015.)
  25. 25.
    Bartoli B et al. Phys. Rev. D 84:022003 2011.)
  26. 26.
    Yodh GB. Space Sci. Rev. 75:199 1996.)
  27. 27.
    Abeysekara AU et al. Astropart. Phys. 50:26 2013.)
  28. 28.
    LHAASO Collab Chin. Phys. C 34:249 2010.)
  29. 29.
    Cao Z et al., eds. arXiv:1905.02773 [astro-ph.HE] 2019.)
  30. 30.
    Krimm HA et al. AIP Conf. Proc. 220:122 1991.)
  31. 31.
    Amenomori M et al. AIP Conf. Proc. 220:257 1991.)
  32. 32.
    Amenomori M et al. Astrophys. J. 813:98 2015.)
  33. 33.
    Cao Z et al. (LHAASO Collab.) Science 373:425 2021.)
  34. 34.
    Sako TK et al. Astropart. Phys. 32:177 2009.)
  35. 35.
    Bartoli B et al. Astrophys. J. 779:27 2013.)
  36. 36.
    DeYoung T. (HAWC Collab.) Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 692:72 2012.)
  37. 37.
    Cao Z et al. Chin. Astron. Astrophys. 43:457 2019.)
  38. 38.
    Bernlöhr K et al. Astropart. Phys. 43:171 2013.)
  39. 39.
    de Angelis A, Mansutti O, Persic M. Nuovo Cim. Riv. Ser. 31:187 2008.)
  40. 40.
    Tescaro D. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 766:65 2014.)
  41. 41.
    Ajello M et al. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 256:12 2021.)
  42. 42.
    Albert A et al. (HAWC Collab.) Astrophys. J. 905:76 2020.)
  43. 43.
    Aharonian F et al. Chin. Phys. C 45:025002 2021.)
  44. 44.
    Pintore F et al. J. High Energy Astrophys. 26:83 2020.)
  45. 45.
    Hinton J. (SWGO Collab.) Proc. Sci. ICRC2021:023 2022.)
  46. 46.
    Abramowski A et al. (HESS Collab.) Nature 531:476 2016.)
  47. 47.
    Amenomori M et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 123:051101 2019.)
  48. 48.
    Abeysekara AU et al. (HAWC Collab.) Phys. Rev. Lett. 124::021102 ( 2020.)
  49. 49.
    Adams CB et al. Astrophys. J. 913:115 2021.)
  50. 50.
    Aharonian F et al. Nature 439:695 2006.)
  51. 51.
    Acciari VA et al. (MAGIC Collab.) Astron. Astrophys. 642:A190 2020.)
  52. 52.
    Acciari VA et al. (MAGIC Collab.) Astron. Astrophys. 635:A158 2020.)
  53. 53.
    Gaensler BM, Slane PO. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 44:17 2006.)
  54. 54.
    de Oña Wilhelmi E, López-Coto R, Amato E, Aharonian F. Astrophys. J. Lett. 930:L2 2022.)
  55. 55.
    Burgess DA et al. Astrophys. J. 930:148 2022.)
  56. 56.
    Albert A et al. Astrophys. J. 928:116 2022.)
  57. 57.
    De Sarkar A et al. Astron. Astrophys. 668:A23 2022.)
  58. 58.
    Liang XH et al. Universe 8:547 2022.)
  59. 59.
    Fang J, Wen L, Yu H, Chen S. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 498:4901 2020.)
  60. 60.
    Aharonian F, Yang R, de Oña Wilhelmi E. Nat. Astron. 3:561 2019.)
  61. 61.
    Abeysekara AU et al. Nat. Astron. 5:465 2021.)
  62. 62.
    Cristofari P. Universe 7:324 2021.)
  63. 63.
    Bodaghee A et al. Astrophys. J. 775:98 2013.)
  64. 64.
    Abeysekara AU et al. Nature 562:82 2018.)
  65. 65.
    Ng CY, Romani RW. Astrophys. J. 601:479 2004.)
  66. 66.
    Baars JWM, Hartsuijker AP. Astron. Astrophys. 17:172 1972.)
  67. 67.
    Bandiera R, Neri R, Cesaroni R. Astron. Astrophys. 386:1044 2002.)
  68. 68.
    Veron-Cetty MP, Woltjer L Astron. Astrophys. 270:370 1993.)
  69. 69.
    Kuiper L et al. Astron. Astrophys. 378:918 2001.)
  70. 70.
    Arakawa M, Hayashida M, Khangulyan D, Uchiyama Y. Astrophys. J. 897:33 2020.)
  71. 71.
    Abeysekara AU et al. Astrophys. J. 881:134 2019.)
  72. 72.
    Nie L, Liu Y, Jiang Z, Geng X. Astrophys. J. 924:42 2022.)
  73. 73.
    Pétri J, Lyubarsky Y. Astron. Astrophys. 473:683 2007.)
  74. 74.
    Amato E, Olmi B. Universe 7:448 2021.)
  75. 75.
    Du S et al. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts Abstr. SM34B-05 Washington, DC: Am. Geophys. Union 2021.)
  76. 76.
    French O, Guo F, Zhang Q, Uzdensky DA. Astrophys. J. 948:19 2023.)
  77. 77.
    Cheng KS et al. J. Phys. G 16:1115 1990.)
  78. 78.
    Atoyan AM, Aharonian FA. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 278:525 1996.)
  79. 79.
    Amato E, Guetta D, Blasi P. Astron. Astrophys. 402:827 2003.)
  80. 80.
    Horns D et al. Astron. Astrophys. 451:L51 2006.)
  81. 81.
    Zhang L, Yang XC. Astrophys. J. Lett. 699:L153 2009.)
  82. 82.
    Di Palma I, Guetta D, Amato E. Astrophys. J. 836:159 2017.)
  83. 83.
    Zhang X, Chen Y, Huang J, Chen D. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 497:3477 2020.)
  84. 84.
    Peng QY, Bao BW, Lu FW, Zhang L. Astrophys. J. 926:7 2022.)
  85. 85.
    Liu RY, Wang XY. Astrophys. J. 922:221 2021.)
  86. 86.
    Giuliani A, Cardillo M, Tavani M et al. Astrophys. J. Lett. 742:L30 2011.)
  87. 87.
    Ackermann M et al. Science 334:1103 2011.)
  88. 88.
    Abramowski A et al. Astron. Astrophys. 537:A114 2012.)
  89. 89.
    Yang R-z, de Oña Wilhelmi E, Aharonian F Astron. Astrophys. 611:A77 2018.)
  90. 90.
    Abramowski A et al. (HESS Collab.) Astron. Astrophys. 525:A46 2011.)
  91. 91.
    Cesarsky CJ, Montmerle T. Space Sci. Rev. 36:173 1983.)
  92. 92.
    Yang R, Aharonian F, Evoli C. Phys. Rev. D 93:123007 2016.)
  93. 93.
    Sun XN et al. Astron. Astrophys. 639:A80 2020.)
  94. 94.
    Yang RZ, Wang Y. Astron. Astrophys. 640:A60 2020.)
  95. 95.
    Aharonian F et al. Astron. Astrophys. 393:L37 2002.)
  96. 96.
    Bartoli B et al. (ARGO-YBJ Collab.) Astrophys. J. 790:152 2014.)
  97. 97.
    Amenomori M et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 127:031102 2021.)
  98. 98.
    Amenomori M et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 126:141101 2021.)
  99. 99.
    Li C. (LHAASO Collab.) Proc. Sci. ICRC2021:843 2022.)
  100. 100.
    Dzhappuev DD et al. Astrophys. J. Lett. 916:L22 2021.)
  101. 101.
    IceCube Collab GCN Circular 28927, NASA Washington, DC: 2020.)
  102. 102.
    Pineault S, Joncas G. Astron. J. 120:3218 2000.)
  103. 103.
    Kothes R, Uyaniker B, Pineault S. Astrophys. J. 560:236 2001.)
  104. 104.
    Halpern JP, Gotthelf EV, Leighly KM, Helfand DJ. Astrophys. J. 547:323 2001.)
  105. 105.
    Amenomori M et al. (Tibet ASγ Collab.) Nat. Astron. 5:460 2021.)
  106. 106.
    Albert A et al. Astrophys. J. Lett. 896:L29 2020.)
  107. 107.
    Acciari VA et al. (MAGIC Collab.) Proc. Sci. ICRC2021:796 2022.)
  108. 108.
    Abdo AA et al. Astrophys. J. Lett. 664:L91 2007.)
  109. 109.
    Acciari VA et al. Astrophys. J. Lett. 703:L6 2009.)
  110. 110.
    Xin Y et al. Astrophys. J. 885:162 2019.)
  111. 111.
    Fang K et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 129:071101 2022.)
  112. 112.
    Bao Y, Chen Y. Astrophys. J. 919:32 2021.)
  113. 113.
    Ge C et al. Innovation 2:100118 2021.)
  114. 114.
    Fujita Y, Bamba A, Nobukawa KK, Matsumoto H. Astrophys. J. 912:133 2021.)
  115. 115.
    Zirakashvili VN, Aharonian F. Astron. Astrophys. 465:695 2007.)
  116. 116.
    Abe H et al. (MAGIC Collab.) Astron. Astrophys. 671:A12 2023.)
  117. 117.
    Liu RY, Yan H. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 494:2618 2020.)
  118. 118.
    Giacinti G et al. Astron. Astrophys. 636:A113 2020.)
  119. 119.
    Liu RY. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 37:2230011 2022.)
  120. 120.
    López-Coto R et al. Nat. Astron. 6:199 2022.)
  121. 121.
    Fang K. Front. Astron. Space Sci. 9:1022100 2022.)
  122. 122.
    Abeysekara AU et al. Science 358:911 2017.)
  123. 123.
    Amato E, Blasi P. Adv. Space Res. 62:2731 2018.)
  124. 124.
    Linden T et al. Phys. Rev. D 96:103016 2017.)
  125. 125.
    Sudoh T, Linden T, Beacom JF. Phys. Rev. D 100:043016 2019.)
  126. 126.
    Aharonian F et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 126:241103 2021.)
  127. 127.
    Saz Parkinson PM et al. Astrophys. J. 725:571 2010.)
  128. 128.
    López-Coto R, Giacinti G Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 479:4526 2018.)
  129. 129.
    Evoli C, Linden T, Morlino G. Phys. Rev. D 98:063017 2018.)
  130. 130.
    Mukhopadhyay P, Linden T. Phys. Rev. D 105:123008 2022.)
  131. 131.
    Liu RY, Yan H, Zhang H. Phys. Rev. Lett. 123:221103 2019.)
  132. 132.
    Fang K, Bi X-J, Yin P-F. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 488:4074 2019.)
  133. 133.
    Yan K, Liu RY, Chen SZ, Wang XY. Astrophys. J. 935:65 2022.)
  134. 134.
    De La Torre Luque P, Fornieri O, Linden T. Phys. Rev. D 106:123033 2022.)
  135. 135.
    Xi SQ et al. Astrophys. J. 878:104 2019.)
  136. 136.
    Di Mauro M, Manconi S, Donato F. Phys. Rev. D 100:123015 2019.)
  137. 137.
    Liu RY, Ge C, Sun XN, Wang XY. Astrophys. J. 875:149 2019.)
  138. 138.
    Ackermann M et al. Astrophys. J. 750:3 2012.)
  139. 139.
    Abdo AA et al. Astrophys. J. 688:1078 2008.)
  140. 140.
    Bartoli B et al. Astrophys. J. 806:20 2015.)
  141. 141.
    Abramowski A et al. Phys. Rev. D 90:122007 2014.)
  142. 142.
    Yang R. Sci. Sin. Phys. Mech. Astron. 52:229501 2022.)
  143. 143.
    Cao Z et al. (LHAASO Collab.) arXiv:2305.05372 [astro-ph.HE] 2023.)
  144. 144.
    Cao Z et al. (LHAASO Collab.) arXiv:2305.17030 [astro-ph.HE] 2023.)
  145. 145.
    Cao Z et al. (LHAASO Collab.) Phys. Rev. Lett. 129:261103 2022.)
  146. 146.
    Cao Z et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 128:051102 2022.)
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-112822-025357
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nucl-112822-025357
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error