As dietary guidance for populations shifts from preventing deficiency disorders to chronic disease risk reduction, the biology supporting such guidance becomes more complex due to the multifactorial risk profile of disease and inherent population heterogeneity in the diet–disease relationship. Diet is a primary driver of chronic disease risk, and population-based guidance should account for individual responses. Cascading effects on evidentiary standards for population-based guidance are not straightforward. Precision remains a consideration for dietary guidance to prevent deficiency through the identification of population subgroups with unique nutritional needs. Reducing chronic disease through diet requires greater precision in () establishing essential nutrient needs throughout the life cycle in both health and disease; () considering effects of nutrients and other food substances on metabolic, immunological, inflammatory, and other physiological responses supporting healthy aging; and () considering healthy eating behaviors. Herein we provide a template for guiding population-based eating recommendations for reducing chronic diseases in heterogenous populations.


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