1932

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates that obesity alone, independent of comorbidities, is a significant risk factor for severe outcomes from infection. This susceptibility mirrors a similar pattern with influenza infection; that is, obesity is a unique risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is critical to understand how obesity contributes to a reduced ability to respond to respiratory viral infections. Herein, we discuss human and animal studies with influenza infection and vaccination that show obesity impairs immunity. We cover several key mechanisms for the dysfunction. These mechanisms include systemic and cellular level changes that dysregulate immune cell metabolism and function in addition to how obesity promotes deficiencies in metabolites that control the resolution of inflammation and infection. Finally, we discuss major gaps in knowledge, particularly as they pertain to diet and mechanisms, which will drive future efforts to improve outcomes in response to respiratory viral infections in an increasingly obese population.

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2022-08-22
2024-04-20
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