1932

Abstract

It is speculated that genetic variants are associated with differential responses to nutrients (known as gene–diet interactions) and that these variations may be linked to different cancer risks. In this review, we critically evaluate the evidence across 314 meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials of dietary risk factors and the five most common cancers (breast, lung, prostate, colorectal, and stomach). We also critically evaluate the evidence across 13 meta-analyses of observational studies of gene–diet interactions for the same cancers. Convincing evidence for association was found only for the intake of alcohol and whole grains in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Three nutrient associations had highly suggestive evidence and another 15 associations had suggestive evidence. Among the examined gene–diet interactions, only one had moderately strong evidence.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071715-051004
2017-08-21
2024-06-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/nutr/37/1/annurev-nutr-071715-051004.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071715-051004&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Alexander DD, Cushing CA, Lowe KA, Sceurman B, Roberts MA. 1.  2009. Meta-analysis of animal fat or animal protein intake and colorectal cancer. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89:1402–9 [Google Scholar]
  2. Alexander DD, Morimoto LM, Mink PJ, Cushing CA. 2.  2010. A review and meta-analysis of red and processed meat consumption and breast cancer. Nutr. Res. Rev. 23:349–65 [Google Scholar]
  3. Alexander DD, Morimoto LM, Mink PJ, Lowe KA. 3.  2010. Summary and meta-analysis of prospective studies of animal fat intake and breast cancer. Nutr. Res. Rev. 23:169–79 [Google Scholar]
  4. Algotar AM, Stratton MS, Ahmann FR, Ranger-Moore J, Nagle RB. 4.  et al. 2013. Phase 3 clinical trial investigating the effect of selenium supplementation in men at high-risk for prostate cancer. Prostate 73:328–35 [Google Scholar]
  5. Altman DG, Bland JM. 5.  2011. How to obtain the confidence interval from a P value. BMJ 343:d2090 [Google Scholar]
  6. Aune D, Chan DS, Lau R, Vieira R, Greenwood DC. 6.  et al. 2011. Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ 343:d6617 [Google Scholar]
  7. Aune D, Chan DS, Lau R, Vieira R, Greenwood DC. 7.  et al. 2012. Carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Cancer Causes Control 23:521–35 [Google Scholar]
  8. Aune D, Lau R, Chan DS, Vieira R, Greenwood DC. 8.  et al. 2011. Nonlinear reduction in risk for colorectal cancer by fruit and vegetable intake based on meta-analysis of prospective studies. Gastroenterology 141:106–18 [Google Scholar]
  9. Aune D, Lau R, Chan DS, Vieira R, Greenwood DC. 9.  et al. 2012. Dairy products and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Ann. Oncol. 23:37–45 [Google Scholar]
  10. Aune D, Navarro Rosenblatt DA, Chan DS, Vieira AR, Vieira R. 10.  et al. 2015. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 101:87–117 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bae JM, Lee EJ, Guyatt G. 11.  2008. Citrus fruit intake and stomach cancer risk: a quantitative systematic review. Gastric Cancer 11:23–32 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bagnardi V, Rota M, Botteri E, Tramacere I, Islami F. 12.  et al. 2015. Alcohol consumption and site-specific cancer risk: a comprehensive dose-response meta-analysis. Br. J. Cancer 112:580–93 [Google Scholar]
  13. Barrdahl M, Canzian F, Joshi AD, Travis RC, Chang-Claude J. 13.  et al. 2014. Post-GWAS gene-environment interplay in breast cancer: results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium and a meta-analysis on 79,000 women. Hum. Mol. Genet. 23:5260–70 [Google Scholar]
  14. Beck T, Hastings RK, Gollapudi S, Free RC, Brookes AJ. 14.  2014. GWAS central: a comprehensive resource for the comparison and interrogation of genome-wide association studies. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 22:949–52 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bellou V, Belbasis L, Tzoulaki I, Evangelou E, Ioannidis JP. 15.  2016. Environmental risk factors and Parkinson's disease: an umbrella review of meta-analyses. Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 23:1–9 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bingham S, Riboli E. 16.  2004. Diet and cancer–the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Nat. Rev. Cancer 4:206–15 [Google Scholar]
  17. Blein S, Berndt S, Joshi AD, Campa D, Ziegler RG. 17.  et al. 2014. Factors associated with oxidative stress and cancer risk in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. Free Radic. Res. 48:380–86 [Google Scholar]
  18. Boffetta P, Winn DM, Ioannidis JP, Thomas DC, Little J. 18.  et al. 2012. Recommendations and proposed guidelines for assessing the cumulative evidence on joint effects of genes and environments on cancer occurrence in humans. Int. J. Epidemiol. 41:686–704 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bristow SM, Bolland MJ, MacLennan GS, Avenell A, Grey A. 19.  et al. 2013. Calcium supplements and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br. J. Nutr. 110:1384–93 [Google Scholar]
  20. Camp KM, Trujillo E. 20.  2014. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutritional genomics. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 114:299–312 [Google Scholar]
  21. Campa D, Kaaks R, Le Marchand L, Haiman CA, Travis RC. 21.  et al. 2011. Interactions between genetic variants and breast cancer risk factors in the breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 103:1252–63 [Google Scholar]
  22. Carroll C, Cooper K, Papaioannou D, Hind D, Pilgrim H, Tappenden P. 22.  2010. Supplemental calcium in the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin. Ther. 32:789–803 [Google Scholar]
  23. Chan AL, Leung HW, Wang SF. 23.  2011. Multivitamin supplement use and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Ann. Pharmacother. 45:476–84 [Google Scholar]
  24. Chan DS, Lau R, Aune D, Vieira R, Greenwood DC. 24.  et al. 2011. Red and processed meat and colorectal cancer incidence: meta-analysis of prospective studies. PLOS ONE 6:e20456 [Google Scholar]
  25. Chan JM, Gann PH, Giovannucci EL. 25.  2005. Role of diet in prostate cancer development and progression. J. Clin. Oncol. 23:8152–60 [Google Scholar]
  26. Chen J, Song Y, Zhang L. 26.  2013. Lycopene/tomato consumption and the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo) 59:213–23 [Google Scholar]
  27. Chen P, Hu P, Xie D, Qin Y, Wang F, Wang H. 27.  2010. Meta-analysis of vitamin D, calcium and the prevention of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 121:469–77 [Google Scholar]
  28. Chen P, Li C, Li X, Li J, Chu R, Wang H. 28.  2014. Higher dietary folate intake reduces the breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br. J. Cancer 110:2327–38 [Google Scholar]
  29. Cho E, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, Albanes D, Beeson WL. 29.  et al. 2006. Intakes of vitamins A, C and E and folate and multivitamins and lung cancer: a pooled analysis of 8 prospective studies. Int. J. Cancer 118:970–78 [Google Scholar]
  30. Cho E, Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Beeson WL, van den Brandt PA. 30.  et al. 2004. Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 96:1015–22 [Google Scholar]
  31. Cho YA, Kim J, Woo HD, Kang M. 31.  2013. Dietary cadmium intake and the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. PLOS ONE 8:e75087 [Google Scholar]
  32. Choi Y, Giovannucci E, Lee JE. 32.  2012. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to risk of diabetes-related cancers: a meta-analysis. Br. J. Nutr. 108:1934–47 [Google Scholar]
  33. Crowe FL, Appleby PN, Travis RC, Barnett M, Brasky TM. 33.  et al. 2014. Circulating fatty acids and prostate cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of prospective studies. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 106:9dju240 [Google Scholar]
  34. Ding W, Zhou DL, Jiang X, Lu LS. 34.  2013. Methionine synthase A2756G polymorphism and risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer: evidence based on 27 studies. PLOS ONE 8:e60508 [Google Scholar]
  35. Dong JY, Qin LQ. 35.  2011. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 126:287–94 [Google Scholar]
  36. Dong JY, Zhang L, He K, Qin LQ. 36.  2011. Dairy consumption and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 127:23–31 [Google Scholar]
  37. Du M, Zhang X, Hoffmeister M, Schoen RE, Baron JA. 37.  et al. 2014. No evidence of gene-calcium interactions from genome-wide analysis of colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 23:2971–76 [Google Scholar]
  38. Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. 38.  1997. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 315:629–34 [Google Scholar]
  39. Eliassen AH, Hendrickson SJ, Brinton LA, Buring JE, Campos H. 39.  et al. 2012. Circulating carotenoids and risk of breast cancer: pooled analysis of eight prospective studies. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 104:1905–16 [Google Scholar]
  40. Fang X, Wei J, He X, An P, Wang H. 40.  et al. 2015. Landscape of dietary factors associated with risk of gastric cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur. J. Cancer 51:2820–32 [Google Scholar]
  41. Fedirko V, Tramacere I, Bagnardi V, Rota M, Scotti L. 41.  et al. 2011. Alcohol drinking and colorectal cancer risk: an overall and dose-response meta-analysis of published studies. Ann. Oncol. 22:1958–72 [Google Scholar]
  42. Figueiredo JC, Hsu L, Hutter CM, Lin Y, Campbell PT. 42.  et al. 2014. Genome-wide diet-gene interaction analyses for risk of colorectal cancer. PLOS Genet 10:e1004228 [Google Scholar]
  43. Figueiredo JC, Lewinger JP, Song C, Campbell PT, Conti DV. 43.  et al. 2011. Genotype-environment interactions in microsatellite stable/microsatellite instability-low colorectal cancer: results from a genome-wide association study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 20:758–66 [Google Scholar]
  44. Fonseca-Nunes A, Jakszyn P, Agudo A. 44.  2014. Iron and cancer risk—a systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 23:12–31 [Google Scholar]
  45. Fulan H, Changxing J, Baina WY, Wencui Z, Chunqing L. 45.  et al. 2011. Retinol, vitamins A, C, and E and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. Cancer Causes Control 22:1383–96 [Google Scholar]
  46. Gallicchio L, Boyd K, Matanoski G, Tao XG, Chen L. 46.  et al. 2008. Carotenoids and the risk of developing lung cancer: a systematic review. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 88:372–83 [Google Scholar]
  47. Giovannucci E. 47.  2004. Alcohol, one-carbon metabolism, and colorectal cancer: recent insights from molecular studies. J. Nutr. 134:2475S–81S [Google Scholar]
  48. Han J, Jiang Y, Liu X, Meng Q, Xi Q. 48.  et al. 2015. Dietary fat intake and risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. PLOS ONE 10:e0138580 [Google Scholar]
  49. Heine-Broring RC, Winkels RM, Renkema JM, Kragt L, van Orten-Luiten AC. 49.  et al. 2015. Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies. Int. J. Cancer 136:2388–401 [Google Scholar]
  50. Higdon JV, Delage B, Williams DE, Dashwood RH. 50.  2007. Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis. Pharmacol Res 55:224–36 [Google Scholar]
  51. Holst B, Williamson G. 51.  2004. A critical review of the bioavailability of glucosinolates and related compounds. Nat. Prod. Rep. 21:425–47 [Google Scholar]
  52. Hosoya T, Maillard I, Engel JD. 52.  2010. From the cradle to the grave: activities of GATA-3 throughout T-cell development and differentiation. Immunol. Rev. 238:110–25 [Google Scholar]
  53. Hu F, Wang Yi B, Zhang W, Liang J, Lin C. 53.  et al. 2012. Carotenoids and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 131:239–53 [Google Scholar]
  54. Hu JY, Hu YW, Zhou JJ, Zhang MW, Li D, Zheng S. 54.  2014. Consumption of garlic and risk of colorectal cancer: an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies. World J. Gastroenterol. 20:15413–22 [Google Scholar]
  55. Huncharek M, Muscat J, Kupelnick B. 55.  2009. Colorectal cancer risk and dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy products: a meta-analysis of 26,335 cases from 60 observational studies. Nutr. Cancer 61:47–69 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hutter CM, Chang-Claude J, Slattery ML, Pflugeisen BM, Lin Y. 56.  et al. 2012. Characterization of gene-environment interactions for colorectal cancer susceptibility loci. Cancer Res 72:2036–44 [Google Scholar]
  57. Ioannidis JP. 57.  2013. Implausible results in human nutrition research. BMJ 347:f6698 [Google Scholar]
  58. Ioannidis JP. 58.  2016. We need more randomized trials in nutrition—preferably large, long-term, and with negative results. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 103:1385–86 [Google Scholar]
  59. Ioannidis JP, Boffetta P, Little J, O'Brien TR, Uitterlinden AG. 59.  et al. 2008. Assessment of cumulative evidence on genetic associations: interim guidelines. Int. J. Epidemiol. 37:120–32 [Google Scholar]
  60. Ioannidis JP, Patsopoulos NA, Evangelou E. 60.  2007. Uncertainty in heterogeneity estimates in meta-analyses. BMJ 335:914–16 [Google Scholar]
  61. Ioannidis JP, Trikalinos TA. 61.  2007. An exploratory test for an excess of significant findings. Clin. Trials 4:245–53 [Google Scholar]
  62. Ioannidis JP, Trikalinos TA, Khoury MJ. 62.  2006. Implications of small effect sizes of individual genetic variants on the design and interpretation of genetic association studies of complex diseases. Am. J. Epidemiol. 164:609–14 [Google Scholar]
  63. Je Y, Liu W, Giovannucci E. 63.  2009. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int. J. Cancer 124:1662–68 [Google Scholar]
  64. Jiang W, Wu Y, Jiang X. 64.  2013. Coffee and caffeine intake and breast cancer risk: an updated dose-response meta-analysis of 37 published studies. Gynecol. Oncol. 129:620–29 [Google Scholar]
  65. Jung S, Spiegelman D, Baglietto L, Bernstein L, Boggs DA. 65.  et al. 2013. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 105:219–36 [Google Scholar]
  66. Jung S, Wang M, Anderson K, Baglietto L, Bergkvist L. 66.  et al. 2016. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor status: in a pooled analysis of 20 studies. Int. J. Epidemiol. 45:3916–28 [Google Scholar]
  67. Kantor ED, Hutter CM, Minnier J, Berndt SI, Brenner H. 67.  et al. 2014. Gene-environment interaction involving recently identified colorectal cancer susceptibility loci. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 23:1824–33 [Google Scholar]
  68. Keum N, Aune D, Greenwood DC, Ju W, Giovannucci EL. 68.  2014. Calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Int. J. Cancer 135:1940–48 [Google Scholar]
  69. Keum N, Lee DH, Marchand N, Oh H, Liu H. 69.  et al. 2015. Egg intake and cancers of the breast, ovary and prostate: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Br. J. Nutr. 114:1099–107 [Google Scholar]
  70. Kim J, Kang M, Lee JS, Inoue M, Sasazuki S, Tsugane S. 70.  2011. Fermented and non-fermented soy food consumption and gastric cancer in Japanese and Korean populations: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Sci 102:231–44 [Google Scholar]
  71. Kim Y, Je Y. 71.  2014. Vitamin D intake, blood. 25: (. OH )D levels, and breast cancer risk or mortality: a meta-analysis. Br. J. Cancer 110:2772–84 [Google Scholar]
  72. Lee JE, Li H, Chan AT, Hollis BW, Lee IM. 72.  et al. 2011. Circulating levels of vitamin D and colon and rectal cancer: the Physicians’ Health Study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila) 4:735–43 [Google Scholar]
  73. Li P, Zhang H, Chen J, Shi Y, Cai J. 73.  et al. 2014. Association between dietary antioxidant vitamins intake/blood level and risk of gastric cancer. Int. J. Cancer 135:1444–53 [Google Scholar]
  74. Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, Lucia MS, Thompson IM. 74.  et al. 2009. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA 301:39–51 [Google Scholar]
  75. Liu G, Sun G, Wang Y, Wang D, Hu W, Zhang J. 75.  2012. Association between manganese superoxide dismutase gene polymorphism and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 17,842 subjects. Mol. Med. Rep 6797–804 [Google Scholar]
  76. Liu L, Zhuang W, Wang RQ, Mukherjee R, Xiao SM. 76.  et al. 2011. Is dietary fat associated with the risk of colorectal cancer? A meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies. Eur. J. Nutr. 50:173–84 [Google Scholar]
  77. Liu M, Cui LH, Ma AG, Li N, Piao JM. 77.  2014. Lack of effects of dietary folate intake on risk of breast cancer: an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 15:2323–28 [Google Scholar]
  78. Liu Y, Qin H, Zhang Y, Shi T, Liu B. 78.  et al. 2011. P53 codon 72 polymorphism and colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Hepatogastroenterology 58:1926–29 [Google Scholar]
  79. Mao Q, Gao L, Wang H, Wang Q, Zhang T. 79.  2015. The alcohol dehydrogenase 1C(rs698) genotype and breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Asia Pac. J. Public Health 27:Np36–46 [Google Scholar]
  80. Marshall JR, Tangen CM, Sakr WA, Wood DP Jr., Berry DL. 80.  et al. 2011. Phase III trial of selenium to prevent prostate cancer in men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: SWOG S9917. Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila) 4:1761–69 [Google Scholar]
  81. Matullo G, Berwick M, Vineis P. 81.  2005. Gene-environment interactions: How many false positives?. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 97:550–51 [Google Scholar]
  82. Meng H, Hu W, Chen Z, Shen Y. 82.  2014. Fruit and vegetable intake and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Oncol. 10:133–40 [Google Scholar]
  83. Moore JH. 83.  2003. The ubiquitous nature of epistasis in determining susceptibility to common human diseases. Hum. Hered. 56:73–82 [Google Scholar]
  84. Mutch DM, Wahli W, Williamson G. 84.  2005. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics: the emerging faces of nutrition. FASEB J 19:1602–16 [Google Scholar]
  85. Myung SK, Bae WK, Oh SM, Kim Y, Ju W. 85.  et al. 2009. Green tea consumption and risk of stomach cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Int. J. Cancer 124:670–77 [Google Scholar]
  86. Nickels S, Truong T, Hein R, Stevens K, Buck K. 86.  et al. 2013. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors. PLOS Genet 9:e1003284 [Google Scholar]
  87. Pabalan N, Jarjanazi H, Sung L, Li H, Ozcelik H. 87.  2012. Menopausal status modifies breast cancer risk associated with the myeloperoxidase (MPO) G463A polymorphism in Caucasian women: a meta-analysis. PLOS ONE 7:e32389 [Google Scholar]
  88. Pelucchi C, Bosetti C, Galeone C, La Vecchia C. 88.  2015. Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis. Int. J. Cancer 136:2912–22 [Google Scholar]
  89. Qin X, Cui Y, Shen L, Sun N, Zhang Y. 89.  et al. 2013. Folic acid supplementation and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int. J. Cancer 133:1033–41 [Google Scholar]
  90. Ralston RA, Truby H, Palermo CE, Walker KZ. 90.  2014. Colorectal cancer and nonfermented milk, solid cheese, and fermented milk consumption: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 54:1167–79 [Google Scholar]
  91. Schoenfeld JD, Ioannidis JP. 91.  2013. Is everything we eat associated with cancer? A systematic cookbook review. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 97:127–34 [Google Scholar]
  92. Seitz HK, Becker P. 92.  2007. Alcohol metabolism and cancer risk. Alcohol Res. Health 30:38–41, 44–77 [Google Scholar]
  93. Siegert S, Hampe J, Schafmayer C, von Schonfels W, Egberts JH. 93.  et al. 2013. Genome-wide investigation of gene-environment interactions in colorectal cancer. Hum. Genet. 132:219–31 [Google Scholar]
  94. Slavin J. 94.  2003. Why whole grains are protective: biological mechanisms. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 62:129–34 [Google Scholar]
  95. Smith GD, Ebrahim S. 95.  2003. ‘Mendelian randomization’: Can genetic epidemiology contribute to understanding environmental determinants of disease?. Int. J. Epidemiol. 32:1–22 [Google Scholar]
  96. Sun Y, Lin LJ, Sang LX, Dai C, Jiang M, Zheng CQ. 96.  2014. Dairy product consumption and gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis. World J. Gastroenterol. 20:15879–98 [Google Scholar]
  97. Tanvetyanon T, Bepler G. 97.  2008. Beta-carotene in multivitamins and the possible risk of lung cancer among smokers versus former smokers: a meta-analysis and evaluation of national brands. Cancer 113:150–57 [Google Scholar]
  98. Thomas D. 98.  2010. Gene–environment-wide association studies: emerging approaches. Nat. Rev. Genet. 11:259–72 [Google Scholar]
  99. Tian SB, Yu JC, Kang WM, Ma ZQ, Ye X, Cao ZJ. 99.  2014. Association between dairy intake and gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. PLOS ONE 9:e101728 [Google Scholar]
  100. Tse G, Eslick GD. 100.  2014. Cruciferous vegetables and risk of colorectal neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr. Cancer 66:128–39 [Google Scholar]
  101. Tse G, Eslick GD. 101.  2014. Egg consumption and risk of GI neoplasms: dose-response meta-analysis and systematic review. Eur. J. Nutr. 53:1581–90 [Google Scholar]
  102. Turati F, Guercio V, Pelucchi C, La Vecchia C, Galeone C. 102.  2014. Colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps in relation to allium vegetables intake: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 58:1907–14 [Google Scholar]
  103. Turner LB. 103.  2011. A meta-analysis of fat intake, reproduction, and breast cancer risk: an evolutionary perspective. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 23:601–8 [Google Scholar]
  104. Vieira AR, Abar L, Vingeliene S, Chan DS, Aune D. 104.  et al. 2016. Fruits, vegetables and lung cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann. Oncol. 27:81–96 [Google Scholar]
  105. Vinceti M, Dennert G, Crespi CM, Zwahlen M, Brinkman M. 105.  et al. 2014. Selenium for preventing cancer. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 3:CD005195 [Google Scholar]
  106. Vineis P, Manuguerra M, Kavvoura FK, Guarrera S, Allione A. 106.  et al. 2009. A field synopsis on low-penetrance variants in DNA repair genes and cancer susceptibility. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101:24–36 [Google Scholar]
  107. Vollset SE, Clarke R, Lewington S, Ebbing M, Halsey J. 107.  et al. 2013. Effects of folic acid supplementation on overall and site-specific cancer incidence during the randomised trials: meta-analyses of data on 50,000 individuals. Lancet 381:1029–36 [Google Scholar]
  108. Wang L, Zhang X, Liu J, Shen L, Li Z. 108.  2014. Tea consumption and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies. Nutrition 30:1122–27 [Google Scholar]
  109. Wang Q, Chen Y, Wang X, Gong G, Li G, Li C. 109.  2014. Consumption of fruit, but not vegetables, may reduce risk of gastric cancer: results from a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur. J. Cancer 50:1498–509 [Google Scholar]
  110. Wang ZH, Gao QY, Fang JY. 110.  2012. Green tea and incidence of colorectal cancer: evidence from prospective cohort studies. Nutr. Cancer 64:1143–52 [Google Scholar]
  111. Welter D, MacArthur J, Morales J, Burdett T, Hall P. 111.  et al. 2014. The NHGRI GWAS Catalog, a curated resource of SNP-trait associations. Nucleic Acids Res 42:D1001–6 [Google Scholar]
  112. Willett W. 112.  1998. Nutritional Epidemiology New York: Oxford Univ. Press514 [Google Scholar]
  113. Woo HD, Kim J. 113.  2013. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of stomach and colorectal cancer. World J. Gastroenterol. 19:1011–19 [Google Scholar]
  114. 114. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. 2007. Food, Nutrition, and Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective Washington, DC: AICR http://www.aicr.org/assets/docs/pdf/reports/Second_Expert_Report.pdf [Google Scholar]
  115. 115. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. 2010. Continuous Update Project Report. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Breast Cancer. Washington, DC: AICR http://www.wcrf.org/sites/default/files/Breast-Cancer-2010-Report.pdf [Google Scholar]
  116. 116. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. 2011. Continuous Update Project Report. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer. Washington, DC: AICR http://www.wcrf.org/sites/default/files/Colorectal-Cancer-2011-Report.pdf [Google Scholar]
  117. 117. World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research. 2014. Continuous Update Project Report: Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Prostate Cancer Washington, DC: AICR http://www.wcrf.org/sites/default/files/Prostate-Cancer-2014-Report.pdf [Google Scholar]
  118. 118. World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research. 2016. Continuous Update Project Report: Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Stomach Cancer Washington, DC: AICR http://wcrf.org/sites/default/files/Stomach-Cancer-2016-Report.pdf [Google Scholar]
  119. Wu AH, Butler LM. 119.  2011. Green tea and breast cancer. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 55:921–30 [Google Scholar]
  120. Wu QJ, Yang Y, Wang J, Han LH, Xiang YB. 120.  2013. Cruciferous vegetable consumption and gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Cancer Sci 104:1067–73 [Google Scholar]
  121. Wu W, Kang S, Zhang D. 121.  2013. Association of vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine with risk of breast cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis. Br. J. Cancer 109:1926–44 [Google Scholar]
  122. Xia H, Ma S, Wang S, Sun G. 122.  2015. Meta-analysis of saturated fatty acid intake and breast cancer risk. Medicine (Baltimore) 94:e2391 [Google Scholar]
  123. Xie F, Wang D, Huang Z, Guo Y. 123.  2014. Coffee consumption and risk of gastric cancer: a large updated meta-analysis of prospective studies. Nutrients 6:3734–46 [Google Scholar]
  124. Xu X, Cheng Y, Li S, Zhu Y, Xu X. 124.  et al. 2014. Dietary carrot consumption and the risk of prostate cancer. Eur. J. Nutr. 53:1615–23 [Google Scholar]
  125. Yan L, Spitznagel EL, Bosland MC. 125.  2010. Soy consumption and colorectal cancer risk in humans: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 19:148–58 [Google Scholar]
  126. Yang T, Yang X, Wang X, Wang Y, Song Z. 126.  2013. The role of tomato products and lycopene in the prevention of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Med. Hypotheses 80383–88 [Google Scholar]
  127. Yang WS, Wong MY, Vogtmann E, Tang RQ, Xie L. 127.  et al. 2012. Meat consumption and risk of lung cancer: evidence from observational studies. Ann. Oncol. 23:3163–70 [Google Scholar]
  128. Yu XF, Zou J, Dong J. 128.  2014. Fish consumption and risk of gastrointestinal cancers: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. World J. Gastroenterol. 20:15398–412 [Google Scholar]
  129. Zhang X, Albanes D, Beeson WL, van den Brandt PA, Buring JE. 129.  et al. 2010. Risk of colon cancer and coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake: pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 102:771–83 [Google Scholar]
  130. Zhang Z, Xu G, Ma M, Yang J, Liu X. 130.  2013. Dietary fiber intake reduces risk for gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 145:113–20.e3 [Google Scholar]
  131. Zheng JS, Hu XJ, Zhao YM, Yang J, Li D. 131.  2013. Intake of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis of data from 21 independent prospective cohort studies. BMJ 346:f3706 [Google Scholar]
  132. Zhernakova A, Kurilshikov A, Bonder MJ, Tigchelaar EF, Schirmer M. 132.  et al. 2016. Population-based metagenomics analysis reveals markers for gut microbiome composition and diversity. Science 352:565–69 [Google Scholar]
  133. Zhou XF, Ding ZS, Liu NB. 133.  2013. Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: evidence from 132,192 subjects. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 14:4131–34 [Google Scholar]
  134. Zhou Y, Zhuang W, Hu W, Liu GJ, Wu TX, Wu XT. 134.  2011. Consumption of large amounts of Allium vegetables reduces risk for gastric cancer in a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 141:80–89 [Google Scholar]
  135. Zhou ZY, Wan XY, Cao JW. 135.  2013. Dietary methionine intake and risk of incident colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of 8 prospective studies involving 431,029 participants. PLOS ONE 8:e83588 [Google Scholar]
  136. Zhu B, Zou L, Qi L, Zhong R, Miao X. 136.  2014. Allium vegetables and garlic supplements do not reduce risk of colorectal cancer, based on meta-analysis of prospective studies. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 12:1991–2001.e1–4 [Google Scholar]
  137. Zhu H, Yang X, Zhang C, Zhu C, Tao G. 137.  et al. 2013. Red and processed meat intake is associated with higher gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies. PLOS ONE 8:e70955 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071715-051004
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071715-051004
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error