The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms “intermittent fasting,” “fasting,” “time-restricted feeding,” and “food timing.” Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health. Intermittent fasting regimens are hypothesized to influence metabolic regulation via effects on () circadian biology, () the gut microbiome, and () modifiable lifestyle behaviors, such as sleep. If proven to be efficacious, these eating regimens offer promising nonpharmacological approaches to improving health at the population level, with multiple public health benefits.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Aksungar FB, Topkaya AE, Akyildiz M. 1.  2007. Interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and biochemical parameters during prolonged intermittent fasting. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 51:88–95 [Google Scholar]
  2. Antelmi E, Vinai P, Pizza F, Marcatelli M, Speciale M, Provini F. 2.  2014. Nocturnal eating is part of the clinical spectrum of restless legs syndrome and an underestimated risk factor for increased body mass index. Sleep Med 15:168–72 [Google Scholar]
  3. Antoni R, Johnston KL, Collins AL, Robertson MD. 3.  2016. Investigation into the acute effects of total and partial energy restriction on postprandial metabolism among overweight/obese participants. Br. J. Nutr. 115:951–59 [Google Scholar]
  4. Appleton KM, Baker S. 4.  2015. Distraction, not hunger, is associated with lower mood and lower perceived work performance on fast compared to non-fast days during intermittent fasting. J. Health Psychol. 20:702–11 [Google Scholar]
  5. Arum O, Saleh JK, Boparai RK, Kopchick JJ, Khardori RK, Bartke A. 5.  2014. Preservation of blood glucose homeostasis in slow-senescing somatotrophism-deficient mice subjected to intermittent fasting begun at middle or old age. Age 36:9651 [Google Scholar]
  6. Barnosky AR, Hoddy KK, Unterman TG, Varady KA. 6.  2014. Intermittent fasting versus daily calorie restriction for type 2 diabetes prevention: a review of human findings. Transl. Res. 164:302–11 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bass J, Takahashi JS. 7.  2010. Circadian integration of metabolism and energetics. Science 330:1349–54 [Google Scholar]
  8. Baumeier C, Kaiser D, Heeren J, Scheja L, John C. 8.  et al. 2015. Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting alter hepatic lipid droplet proteome and diacylglycerol species and prevent diabetes in NZO mice. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1851:566–76 [Google Scholar]
  9. Betts JA, Chowdhury EA, Gonzalez JT, Richardson JD, Tsintzas K, Thompson D. 9.  2016. Is breakfast the most important meal of the day?. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 75:464–74 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bhutani S, Klempel MC, Kroeger CM, Trepanowski JF, Varady KA. 10.  2013. Alternate day fasting and endurance exercise combine to reduce body weight and favorably alter plasma lipids in obese humans. Obesity 21:1370–79 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bo S, Musso G, Beccuti G, Fadda M, Fedele D. 11.  et al. 2014. Consuming more of daily caloric intake at dinner predisposes to obesity: a 6-year population-based prospective cohort study. PLOS ONE 9:e108467 [Google Scholar]
  12. Brongers HA. 12.  1977. Instruction and Interpretation: Studies in Hebrew Language, Palestinian Archaeology and Biblical Exegesis. Papers Read at the Joint British–Dutch Old Testament Conference Held at Louvain, 1976, from 30 August to 2 September Leiden: Brill [Google Scholar]
  13. Buxton OM, Marcelli E. 13.  2010. Short and long sleep are positively associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease among adults in the United States. Soc. Sci. Med. 71:1027–36 [Google Scholar]
  14. Cahill LE, Chiuve SE, Mekary RA, Jensen MK, Flint AJ. 14.  et al. 2013. Prospective study of breakfast eating and incident coronary heart disease in a cohort of male US health professionals. Circulation 128:337–43 [Google Scholar]
  15. Carlson O, Martin B, Stote KS, Golden E, Maudsley S. 15.  et al. 2007. Impact of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction on glucose regulation in healthy, normal-weight middle-aged men and women. Metabolism 56:1729–34 [Google Scholar]
  16. Casazza K, Brown A, Astrup A, Bertz F, Baum C. 16.  et al. 2015. Weighing the evidence of common beliefs in obesity research. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 55:2014–53 [Google Scholar]
  17. Chaix A, Zarrinpar A, Miu P, Panda S. 17.  2014. Time-restricted feeding is a preventative and therapeutic intervention against diverse nutritional challenges. Cell Metab 20:991–1005 [Google Scholar]
  18. Challet E. 18.  2013. Circadian clocks, food intake, and metabolism. Prog. Mol. Biol. Transl. Sci. 119:105–35 [Google Scholar]
  19. Chausse B, Solon C, Caldeira da Silva CC, Masselli Dos Reis IG, Manchado-Gobatto FB. 19.  et al. 2014. Intermittent fasting induces hypothalamic modifications resulting in low feeding efficiency, low body mass and overeating. Endocrinology 155:2456–66 [Google Scholar]
  20. Chausse B, Vieira-Lara MA, Sanchez AB, Medeiros MH, Kowaltowski AJ. 20.  2015. Intermittent fasting results in tissue-specific changes in bioenergetics and redox state. PLOS ONE 10:e0120413 [Google Scholar]
  21. Chowdhury EA, Richardson JD, Holman GD, Tsintzas K, Thompson D, Betts JA. 21.  2016. The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in obese adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 103:747–56 [Google Scholar]
  22. Chowdhury EA, Richardson JD, Tsintzas K, Thompson D, Betts JA. 22.  2016. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults. Int. J. Obes. 40:305–11 [Google Scholar]
  23. Chung H, Chou W, Sears DD, Patterson RE, Webster NJG, Ellies LG. 23.  2016. Time-restricted feeding improves insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity. Metabolism 65:1743–54 [Google Scholar]
  24. Crispim CA, Waterhouse J, Damaso AR, Zimberg IZ, Padilha HG. 24.  et al. 2011. Hormonal appetite control is altered by shift work: a preliminary study. Metabolism 60:1726–35 [Google Scholar]
  25. Dhurandhar EJ, Dawson J, Alcorn A, Larsen LH, Thomas EA. 25.  et al. 2014. The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss: a randomized controlled trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 100:507–13 [Google Scholar]
  26. Eckel-Mahan KL, Patel VR, de Mateo S, Orozco-Solis R, Ceglia NJ. 26.  et al. 2013. Reprogramming of the circadian clock by nutritional challenge. Cell 155:1464–78 [Google Scholar]
  27. Ekmekcioglu C, Touitou Y. 27.  2011. Chronobiological aspects of food intake and metabolism and their relevance on energy balance and weight regulation. Obes. Rev. 12:14–25 [Google Scholar]
  28. Eshghinia S, Mohammadzadeh F. 28.  2013. The effects of modified alternate-day fasting diet on weight loss and CAD risk factors in overweight and obese women. J. Diabetes Metab. Disord. 12:4 [Google Scholar]
  29. Fann DY, Santro T, Manzanero S, Widiapradja A, Cheng YL. 29.  et al. 2014. Intermittent fasting attenuates inflammasome activity in ischemic stroke. Exp. Neurol. 257:114–19 [Google Scholar]
  30. Faris MA, Kacimi S, Al-Kurd RA, Fararjeh MA, Bustanji YK. 30.  et al. 2012. Intermittent fasting during Ramadan attenuates proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells in healthy subjects. Nutr. Res. 32:947–55 [Google Scholar]
  31. Ford ES, Li C, Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Perry GS, Croft JB. 31.  2014. Sleep duration and body mass index and waist circumference among U.S. adults. Obesity 22:598–607 [Google Scholar]
  32. Frape DL, Williams NR, Scriven AJ, Palmer CR, O'Sullivan K, Fletcher RJ. 32.  1997. Diurnal trends in responses of blood plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide following high- and low-fat meals and their relation to fat metabolism in healthy middle-aged volunteers. Br. J. Nutr. 77:523–35 [Google Scholar]
  33. Fraser GE, Shavlik DJ. 33.  2001. Ten years of life: Is it a matter of choice?. Arch. Intern. Med. 161:1645–52 [Google Scholar]
  34. Freedman LS, Commins JM, Moler JE, Arab L, Baer DJ. 34.  et al. 2014. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for energy and protein intake. Am. J. Epidemiol. 180:172–88 [Google Scholar]
  35. Froy O, Miskin R. 35.  2010. Effect of feeding regimens on circadian rhythms: implications for aging and longevity. Aging 2:7–27 [Google Scholar]
  36. Gallicchio L, Kalesan B. 36.  2009. Sleep duration and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Sleep Res. 18:148–58 [Google Scholar]
  37. Gamble KL, Berry R, Frank SJ, Young ME. 37.  2014. Circadian clock control of endocrine factors. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 10:466–75 [Google Scholar]
  38. Gibbs M, Harrington D, Starkey S, Williams P, Hampton S. 38.  2014. Diurnal postprandial responses to low and high glycaemic index mixed meals. Clin. Nutr. 33:889–94 [Google Scholar]
  39. Gill S, Panda S. 39.  2015. A smartphone app reveals erratic diurnal eating patterns in humans that can be modulated for health benefits. Cell Metab 22:789–98 [Google Scholar]
  40. Gotthardt JD, Verpeut JL, Yeomans BL, Yang JA, Yasrebi A. 40.  et al. 2016. Intermittent fasting promotes fat loss with lean mass retention, increased hypothalamic norepinephrine content, and increased neuropeptide Y gene expression in diet-induced obese male mice. Endocrinology 157:679–91 [Google Scholar]
  41. Grandner MA, Hale L, Moore M, Patel NP. 41.  2010. Mortality associated with short sleep duration: the evidence, the possible mechanisms, and the future. Sleep Med. Rev 14191–203 [Google Scholar]
  42. Grundy A, Richardson H, Burstyn I, Lohrisch C, SenGupta SK. 42.  et al. 2013. Increased risk of breast cancer associated with long-term shift work in Canada. Occup. Environ. Med. 70:831–38 [Google Scholar]
  43. Halberg N, Henriksen M, Soderhamn N, Stallknecht B, Ploug T. 43.  et al. 2005. Effect of intermittent fasting and refeeding on insulin action in healthy men. J. Appl. Physiol. 99:2128–36 [Google Scholar]
  44. Harvie MN, Howell T. 44.  2016. Could intermittent energy restriction and intermittent fasting reduce rates of cancer in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects? A summary of evidence. Adv. Nutr. 7:690–705 [Google Scholar]
  45. Harvie MN, Pegington M, Mattson MP, Frystyk J, Dillon B. 45.  et al. 2011. The effects of intermittent or continuous energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers: a randomized trial in young overweight women. Int. J. Obes. 35:714–27 [Google Scholar]
  46. Harvie MN, Wright C, Pegington M, McMullan D, Mitchell E. 46.  et al. 2013. The effect of intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction v. daily energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers in overweight women. Br. J. Nutr. 110:1534–47 [Google Scholar]
  47. Hatori M, Vollmers C, Zarrinpar A, DiTacchio L, Bushong EA. 47.  et al. 2012. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet. Cell Metab 15:848–60 [Google Scholar]
  48. Headland M, Clifton PM, Carter S, Keogh JB. 48.  2016. Weight-loss outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intermittent energy restriction trials lasting a minimum of 6 months. Nutrients 8:354 [Google Scholar]
  49. Heilbronn LK, Smith SR, Martin CK, Anton SD, Ravussin E. 49.  2005. Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 81:69–73 [Google Scholar]
  50. Herieka M, Erridge C. 50.  2014. High-fat meal induced postprandial inflammation. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 58:136–46 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hoddy KK, Gibbons C, Kroeger CM, Trepanowski JF, Barnosky A. 51.  et al. 2016. Changes in hunger and fullness in relation to gut peptides before and after 8 weeks of alternate day fasting. Clin. Nutr. 35:1380–85 [Google Scholar]
  52. Horne BD, May HT, Anderson JL, Kfoury AG, Bailey BM. 52.  et al. 2008. Usefulness of routine periodic fasting to lower risk of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Am. J. Cardiol. 102:814–19 [Google Scholar]
  53. Horne BD, Muhlestein JB, Anderson JL. 53.  2015. Health effects of intermittent fasting: hormesis or harm? A systematic review. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 102:464–70 [Google Scholar]
  54. Horne BD, Muhlestein JB, Lappe DL, May HT, Carlquist JF. 54.  et al. 2013. Randomized cross-over trial of short-term water-only fasting: metabolic and cardiovascular consequences. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 23:1050–57 [Google Scholar]
  55. Jakubowicz D, Barnea M, Wainstein J, Froy O. 55.  2013. High caloric intake at breakfast versus dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity 21:2504–12 [Google Scholar]
  56. Jane L, Atkinson G, Jaime V, Hamilton S, Waller G, Harrison S. 56.  2015. Intermittent fasting interventions for the treatment of overweight and obesity in adults aged 18 years and over: a systematic review protocol. JBI Database Syst. Rev. Implement. Rep. 13:60–68 [Google Scholar]
  57. Johnson JB, Summer W, Cutler RG, Martin B, Hyun DH. 57.  et al. 2007. Alternate day calorie restriction improves clinical findings and reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight adults with moderate asthma. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 42:665–74 [Google Scholar]
  58. Johnstone A. 58.  2015. Fasting for weight loss: an effective strategy or latest dieting trend?. Int. J. Obes. 39:727–33 [Google Scholar]
  59. Joslin PM, Bell RK, Swoap SJ. 59.  2017. Obese mice on a high-fat alternate-day fasting regimen lose weight and improve glucose tolerance. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12546 [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  60. Kelly CJ. 60.  2007. A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 86:1254–55 [Google Scholar]
  61. Kelly CJ, Colgan SP, Frank DN. 61.  2012. Of microbes and meals: the health consequences of dietary endotoxemia. Nutr. Clin. Pract. 27:215–25 [Google Scholar]
  62. Kul S, Savaş E, Öztürk ZA, Karadağ G. 62.  2014. Does Ramadan fasting alter body weight and blood lipids and fasting blood glucose in a healthy population? A meta-analysis. J. Relig. Health 53:929–42 [Google Scholar]
  63. Lara-Padilla E, Godinez-Victoria M, Drago-Serrano ME, Reyna-Garfias H, Arciniega-Martinez IM. 63.  et al. 2015. Intermittent fasting modulates IgA levels in the small intestine under intense stress: a mouse model. J. Neuroimmunol. 285:22–30 [Google Scholar]
  64. Laugerette F, Alligier M, Bastard JP, Drai J, Chanseaume E. 64.  et al. 2014. Overfeeding increases postprandial endotoxemia in men: inflammatory outcome may depend on LPS transporters LBP and sCD14. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 58:1513–18 [Google Scholar]
  65. LeCheminant JD, Christenson E, Bailey BW, Tucker LA. 65.  2013. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study. Br. J. Nutr. 110:2108–13 [Google Scholar]
  66. Longo VD, Mattson MP. 66.  2014. Fasting: molecular mechanisms and clinical applications. Cell Metab 19:181–92 [Google Scholar]
  67. Longo VD, Panda S. 67.  2016. Fasting, circadian rhythms, and time-restricted feeding in healthy lifespan. Cell Metab 23:1048–59 [Google Scholar]
  68. Lv M, Zhu X, Wang H, Wang F, Guan W. 68.  2014. Roles of caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE 9:e115147 [Google Scholar]
  69. Marinac CR, Natarajan L, Sears DD, Gallo LC, Hartman SJ. 69.  et al. 2015. Prolonged nightly fasting and breast cancer risk: findings from NHANES (2009–2010). Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 24:783–89 [Google Scholar]
  70. Marinac CR, Nelson SH, Breen CI, Hartman SJ, Natarajan L. 70.  et al. 2016. Prolonged nightly fasting and breast cancer prognosis. JAMA Oncol 2:1049–55 [Google Scholar]
  71. Marinac CR, Sears DD, Natarajan L, Gallo LC, Breen CI, Patterson RE. 71.  2015. Frequency and circadian timing of eating may influence biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance associated with breast cancer risk. PLOS ONE 10:e0136240 [Google Scholar]
  72. Mattson MP. 72.  2014. Challenging oneself intermittently to improve health. Dose Response 12:600–18 [Google Scholar]
  73. Moreira AP, Texeira TF, Ferreira AB, Peluzio MCG, Alfenas RCG. 73.  2012. Influence of a high-fat diet on gut microbiota, intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxaemia. Br. J. Nutr. 108:801–9 [Google Scholar]
  74. Morgan L, Hampton S, Gibbs M, Arendt J. 74.  2003. Circadian aspects of postprandial metabolism. Chronobiol. Int. 20:795–808 [Google Scholar]
  75. Mosley M, Spencer M. 75.  2013. The FastDiet: Lose Weight, Stay Healthy, and Live Longer with the Simple Secret of Intermittent Fasting New York: Atria [Google Scholar]
  76. Nair PM, Khawale PG. 76.  2016. Role of therapeutic fasting in women's health: an overview. J. Mid-life Health 7:61–64 [Google Scholar]
  77. Panda S, Hogenesch JB, Kay SA. 77.  2002. Circadian rhythms from flies to human. Nature 417:329–35 [Google Scholar]
  78. Patel SR, Hu FB. 78.  2008. Short sleep duration and weight gain: a systematic review. Obesity 16:643–53 [Google Scholar]
  79. Patterson RE, Laughlin GA, Sears DD, LaCroix AZ, Marinac CR. 79.  et al. 2015. Intermittent fasting and human metabolic health. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 115:1203–12 [Google Scholar]
  80. Pierce JP, Natarajan L, Caan BJ, Parker BA, Greenberg ER. 80.  et al. 2007. Influence of a diet very high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat on prognosis following treatment for breast cancer: the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) randomized trial. JAMA 298:289–98 [Google Scholar]
  81. Polonsky KS, Given BD, Van Cauter E. 81.  1988. Twenty-four-hour profiles and pulsatile patterns of insulin secretion in normal and obese subjects. J. Clin. Investig. 81:442–48 [Google Scholar]
  82. Qin LQ, Li J, Wang Y, Wang J, Xu JY, Kaneko T. 82.  2003. The effects of nocturnal life on endocrine circadian patterns in healthy adults. Life Sci 73:2467–75 [Google Scholar]
  83. Ridaura VK, Faith JJ, Rey FE, Cheng J, Duncan AE. 83.  et al. 2013. Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice. Science 341:1241214 [Google Scholar]
  84. Rothschild J, Hoddy KK, Jambazian P, Varady KA. 84.  2014. Time-restricted feeding and risk of metabolic disease: a review of human and animal studies. Nutr. Rev. 72:308–18 [Google Scholar]
  85. Saad A, Dalla Man C, Nandy DK, Levine JA, Bharucha AE. 85.  et al. 2012. Diurnal pattern to insulin secretion and insulin action in healthy individuals. Diabetes 61:2691–700 [Google Scholar]
  86. Sadeghirad B, Motaghipisheh S, Kolahdooz F, Zahedi MJ, Haghdoost AA. 86.  2014. Islamic fasting and weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health Nutr 17:396–406 [Google Scholar]
  87. Sanders SW, Moore JG. 87.  1992. Gastrointestinal chronopharmacology: physiology, pharmacology and therapeutic implications. Pharmacol. Ther. 54:1–15 [Google Scholar]
  88. Savvidis C, Koutsilieris M. 88.  2012. Circadian rhythm disruption in cancer biology. Mol. Med. 18:1249–60 [Google Scholar]
  89. Scheer FA, Hilton MF, Mantzoros CS, Shea SA. 89.  2009. Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment. PNAS 106:4453–58 [Google Scholar]
  90. Schiavo-Cardozo D, Lima MM, Pareja JC, Geloneze B. 90.  2013. Appetite-regulating hormones from the upper gut: disrupted control of xenin and ghrelin in night workers. Clin. Endocrinol. 79:807–11 [Google Scholar]
  91. Seimon RV, Roekenes JA, Zibellini J, Zhu B, Gibson AA. 91.  et al. 2015. Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 418:Pt. 2153–72 [Google Scholar]
  92. Seimon RV, Shi YC, Slack K, Lee K, Fernando HA. 92.  et al. 2016. Intermittent moderate energy restriction improves weight loss efficiency in diet-induced obese mice. PLOS ONE 11:e0145157 [Google Scholar]
  93. Sensi S, Pace Palitti V, Guagnano MT. 93.  1993. Chronobiology in endocrinology. Ann. Ist. Super. Sanita 29:613–31 [Google Scholar]
  94. Shen J, Obin MS, Zhao L. 94.  2013. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance. Mol. Asp. Med. 34:39–58 [Google Scholar]
  95. Shen R, Wang B, Giribaldi MG, Ayres J, Thomas JB, Montminy M. 95.  2016. Neuronal energy-sensing pathway promotes energy balance by modulating disease tolerance. PNAS 113:E3307–14 [Google Scholar]
  96. Spiegel K, Knutson K, Leproult R, Tasali E, Van Cauter E. 96.  2005. Sleep loss: a novel risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. J. Appl. Physiol. 99:2008–19 [Google Scholar]
  97. Stevens RG, Blask DE, Brainard GC, Hansen J, Lockley SW. 97.  et al. 2007. Meeting report: the role of environmental lighting and circadian disruption in cancer and other diseases. Environ. Health Perspect. 115:1357–62 [Google Scholar]
  98. Stevens RG, Rea MS. 98.  2001. Light in the built environment: potential role of circadian disruption in endocrine disruption and breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 12:279–87 [Google Scholar]
  99. Stote KS, Baer DJ, Spears K, Paul DR, Harris GK. 99.  et al. 2007. A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 85:981–88 [Google Scholar]
  100. Straif K, Baan R, Grosse Y, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F. 100.  et al. 2007. Carcinogenicity of shift-work, painting, and fire-fighting. Lancet Oncol 8:1065–66 [Google Scholar]
  101. Thaiss CA, Zeevi D, Levy M, Zilberman-Schapira G, Suez J. 101.  et al. 2014. Transkingdom control of microbiota diurnal oscillations promotes metabolic homeostasis. Cell 159:514–29 [Google Scholar]
  102. Tilg H, Kaser A. 102.  2011. Gut microbiome, obesity, and metabolic dysfunction. J. Clin. Investig. 121:2126–32 [Google Scholar]
  103. Tinsley GM, Forsse JS, Butler NK, Paoli A, Bane AA. 103.  et al. 2017. Time-restricted feeding in young men performing resistance training: a randomized controlled trial. Eur. J. Sport Sci. 17:200–7 [Google Scholar]
  104. Tinsley GM, La Bounty PM. 104.  2015. Effects of intermittent fasting on body composition and clinical health markers in humans. Nutr. Rev. 73:661–74 [Google Scholar]
  105. Turnbaugh PJ, Ley RE, Mahowald MA, Magrini V, Mardis ER, Gordon JI. 105.  2006. An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature 444:1027–31 [Google Scholar]
  106. Vander Wal JS. 106.  2012. Night eating syndrome: a critical review of the literature. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 32:49–59 [Google Scholar]
  107. Varady KA. 107.  2011. Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: Which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss?. Obes. Rev. 12:e593–601 [Google Scholar]
  108. Varady KA. 108.  2016. Impact of intermittent fasting on glucose homeostasis. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 19:300–2 [Google Scholar]
  109. Varady KA, Bhutani S, Church EC, Klempel MC. 109.  2009. Short-term modified alternate-day fasting: a novel dietary strategy for weight loss and cardioprotection in obese adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 90:1138–43 [Google Scholar]
  110. Varady KA, Bhutani S, Klempel MC, Kroeger CM, Trepanowski JF. 110.  et al. 2013. Alternate day fasting for weight loss in normal weight and overweight subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr. J. 12:146 [Google Scholar]
  111. Varady KA, Hellerstein MK. 111.  2007. Alternate-day fasting and chronic disease prevention: a review of human and animal trials. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 86:7–13 [Google Scholar]
  112. Varady KA, Hudak CS, Hellerstein MK. 112.  2009. Modified alternate-day fasting and cardioprotection: relation to adipose tissue dynamics and dietary fat intake. Metabolism 58:803–11 [Google Scholar]
  113. Varady KA, Roohk DJ, Hellerstein MK. 113.  2007. Dose effects of modified alternate-day fasting regimens on in vivo cell proliferation and plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in mice. J. Appl. Physiol. 103:547–51 [Google Scholar]
  114. Varady KA, Roohk DJ, Loe YC, McEvoy-Hein BK, Hellerstein MK. 114.  2007. Effects of modified alternate-day fasting regimens on adipocyte size, triglyceride metabolism, and plasma adiponectin levels in mice. J. Lipid Res. 48:2212–19 [Google Scholar]
  115. Varady KA, Roohk DJ, McEvoy-Hein BK, Gaylinn BD, Thorner MO, Hellerstein MK. 115.  2008. Modified alternate-day fasting regimens reduce cell proliferation rates to a similar extent as daily calorie restriction in mice. FASEB J 22:2090–96 [Google Scholar]
  116. Wegman MP, Guo MH, Bennion DM, Shankar MN, Chrzanowski SM. 116.  et al. 2015. Practicality of intermittent fasting in humans and its effect on oxidative stress and genes related to aging and metabolism. Rejuvenation Res 18:162–72 [Google Scholar]
  117. Williams KV, Mullen ML, Kelley DE, Wing RR. 117.  1998. The effect of short periods of caloric restriction on weight loss and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 21:2–8 [Google Scholar]
  118. Wirth MD, Burch J, Shivappa N, Steck SE, Hurley TG. 118.  et al. 2014. Dietary inflammatory index scores differ by shift work status: NHANES 2005 to 2010. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 56:145–48 [Google Scholar]
  119. Xu Z, Knight R. 119.  2015. Dietary effects on human gut microbiome diversity. Br. J. Nutr. 113:Suppl.S1–5 [Google Scholar]
  120. Yamaguchi M, Uemura H, Katsuura-Kamano S, Nakamoto M, Hiyoshi M. 120.  et al. 2013. Relationship of dietary factors and habits with sleep–wake regularity. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 22:457–65 [Google Scholar]
  121. Yang W, Cao M, Mao X, Wei X, Li X. 121.  et al. 2016. Alternate-day fasting protects the livers of mice against high-fat diet–induced inflammation associated with the suppression of Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB signaling. Nutr. Res. 36:586–93 [Google Scholar]
  122. Yeoh EC, Zainudin SB, Loh WN, Chua CL, Fun S. 122.  et al. 2015. Fasting during Ramadan and associated changes in glycaemia, caloric intake and body composition with gender differences in Singapore. Ann. Acad. Med. Singap 44202–6 [Google Scholar]
  123. Zarrinpar A, Chaix A, Yooseph S, Panda S. 123.  2014. Diet and feeding pattern affect the diurnal dynamics of the gut microbiome. Cell Metab 20:1006–17 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error