1932

Abstract

The emergence of genome-wide analyses to interrogate cellular DNA, RNA, and protein content has revolutionized the study of control networks that mediate cellular homeostasis. mRNA translation represents the last step of genetic flow and primarily defines the proteome. Translational regulation is thus critical for gene expression, in particular under nutrient excess or deficiency. Until recently, it was unclear how the global effects of translational control are orchestrated by nutrient signaling pathways. An emerging concept of translational reprogramming addresses how to maintain the expression of specific proteins during nutrient stress by translation of selective mRNAs. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of translational control principles; nutrient-sensing mechanisms; and their dysregulation in human diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and aging. The mechanistic understanding of translational regulation in response to different nutrient conditions may help identify potential dietary and therapeutic targets to improve human health.

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2020-08-21
2024-06-23
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