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Abstract

The intestinal barrier is essential in early life to prevent infection, inflammation, and food allergies. It consists of microbiota, a mucus layer, an epithelial layer, and the immune system. Microbial metabolites, the mucus, antimicrobial peptides, and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) protect the intestinal mucosa against infection. The complex interplay between these functionalities of the intestinal barrier is crucial in early life by supporting homeostasis, development of the intestinal immune system, and long-term gut health. Exclusive breastfeeding is highly recommended during the first 6 months. When breastfeeding is not possible, milk-based infant formulas are a safe alternative. Breast milk contains many bioactive components that help to establish the intestinal microbiota and influence the development of the intestinal epithelium and the immune system. Importantly, breastfeeding lowers the risk for intestinal and respiratory tract infections. Here we review all aspects of intestinal barrier function and the nutritional components that impact its functionality in early life, such asmicronutrients, bioactive milk proteins, milk lipids, and human milk oligosaccharides. These components are present in breast milk and can be added to milk-based infant formulas to support gut health and immunity.

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2022-08-22
2024-04-14
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