1932

Abstract

In 1768, 250 years ago, the University of Edinburgh appointed Francis Home to the first chair of materia medica, the accumulated knowledge of materials used in healing. Francis Home and his colleagues were determined to improve the quality of medical training in Edinburgh by introducing a final examination and compiling a catalog of medicines validated by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. The catalog, known as the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, was a great success, partly due to the orderly nature of its contents, its routine editing to eliminate worthless entries, and the introduction of new treatments whose preparation was precisely documented. In a relatively short time, the worth of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia was recognized throughout Europe, America, and the British Empire. Today, the British and European Pharmacopoeias are catalogs of publicly available, legally enforceable standards for active pharmaceutical ingredients and finished dosage forms of pharmaceutical products and medical devices. Home and the many luminaries who succeeded him would surely take pleasure and pride in the fact that the mantra of today's medicines regulators worldwide is little different from that of these early visionaries: “To take better advantage of the best possible science in the service of the public health and our health-care systems” (1, p. 492).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010617-052901
2018-01-06
2024-06-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/pharmtox/58/1/annurev-pharmtox-010617-052901.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010617-052901&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Lumpkin MM, Eichler HG, Breckenridge A, Hamburg MA, Lönngren T, Woods K. 1.  2012. Advancing the science of medicines regulation: the role of the 21st-century medicines regulator. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 92:486–93 [Google Scholar]
  2. Sizer J. 2.  1987. An analysis of trends impacting upon the UGC and British universities: 1961–May 1979.. Financ. Account. Manag. 3:9–28 [Google Scholar]
  3. Gaddum JH. 3.  1954. The science of pharmacology. Nature 173:14–15 [Google Scholar]
  4. Girdwood RH. 4.  1976. Edinburgh in the history of medicine. Medical Education and Medical Care: A Scottish-American Symposium G McLachlan 25–42 Edinburgh, UK: Nuffield Prov. Hosp. Trust [Google Scholar]
  5. Guthrie D. 5.  1945. A History of Medicine London: Thomas Nelson [Google Scholar]
  6. Bower A. 6.  1817. The History of the University of Edinburgh; Chiefly Compiled from Original Papers and Records, Never Before Published Edinburgh, UK: Oliphant Waugh Innes [Google Scholar]
  7. Bynum WF. 7.  2004. Cullen, William (1710–1790). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography D Cannadine Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press Online [Google Scholar]
  8. Crellin JK. 8.  1971. William Cullen: his calibre as a teacher, and an unpublished introduction to his A Treatise of the Materia Medica, London, 1773.. Med. Hist. 15:79–87 [Google Scholar]
  9. Milne I. 9.  2004. Francis Home (1719–1813). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography D Cannadine Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press Online [Google Scholar]
  10. Passmore R. 10.  2001. Fellows of Edinburgh's College of Physicians During the Scottish Enlightenment Edinburgh, UK: Royal Coll. Physicians Edinb. [Google Scholar]
  11. Anderson S. 11.  2016. Pharmacopoeias of Great Britain Int. Soc. Hist. Pharm. http://www.histpharm.org/ISHPWG%20UK.pdf [Google Scholar]
  12. Cowen DL. 12.  1957. The Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia. Med. Hist. 1:123–39 [Google Scholar]
  13. Withers CWJ. 13.  2006. Sibbald, Sir Robert (1641–1722). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography HCG Matthew, B Harrison Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press Online [Google Scholar]
  14. Browne J. 14.  2004. Balfour, Sir Andrew, first baronet (1630–1694). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography HCG Matthew, H Brian Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press Online [Google Scholar]
  15. Blair JSG. 15.  2004. Pringle, Sir John, first baronet (1707–1782). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography D Cannadine Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press Online [Google Scholar]
  16. Irving J. 16.  1845. A concise view of the progress of military medical literature in this country; being a chronological arrangement of authors, with critical remarks on their works. 1752. Observations on the diseases of the army in camp and in garrison. By Sir John Pringle, Bart. Edinb. Med. Surg. J. 63:279–89 [Google Scholar]
  17. Enders JF. 17.  1964. Francis Home and his experimental approach to medicine. Bull. Hist Med. 38:101–12 [Google Scholar]
  18. Gaddum JH. 18.  1962. Phamacologists of Edinburgh. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2:1–10 [Google Scholar]
  19. Home WE. 19.  1928. Francis Home (1719–1813), first professor of Materia Medica in Edinburgh. Proc. R. Soc. Med. 21:1013–5 [Google Scholar]
  20. Hume EE. 20.  1942. Francis Home, M.D.: The Scottish military surgeon who first discovered diphtheria. Am. J. Dis. Child. 63:140–53 [Google Scholar]
  21. Irving J. 21.  1845. A concise view of the progress of military medical literature in this country; being a chronological arrangement of authors, with critical remarks on their works. 1759. Medical facts and experiments. By Francis Home, M.D. Edinb. Med. Surg. J. 63:290–92 [Google Scholar]
  22. Plotkin SA. 22.  1967. Vaccination against measles in the 18th century. Clin. Pediatr. 6:312–15 [Google Scholar]
  23. Home F. 23.  1759. Medical Facts and Experiments London: A. Millar Strand, A. Kincaid J. Bell Edinb. [Google Scholar]
  24. Home F. 24.  1770. Methodus Materiae Medicae Edinburgh, UK: Bell Creech [Google Scholar]
  25. Cowen DL. 25.  1982. The influence of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia and the Edinburgh Dispensatories. Pharm. Hist. (Lond.) 12:2–4 [Google Scholar]
  26. Tirumalai G, Long A. 26.  2013. United States Pharmacopeial Convention: Respecting the Past, Moving Confidently into the Future Int. Soc. Hist. Pharm. http://www.histpharm.org/ISHPWG%20USA.pdf [Google Scholar]
  27. Christison R. 27.  1842. A Dispensatory, Or Commentary on the Pharmacopoeias of Great Britain Edinburgh, UK: Adam Charles Black [Google Scholar]
  28. Cartwright AC. 28.  2015. The British Pharmacopoeia, 1864 to 2014: Medicines, International Standards and the State Surrey, UK: Ashgate [Google Scholar]
  29. Taussig H. 29.  1962. A study of the German outbreak of Phocomelia: the thalidomide syndrome. JAMA 180:1106–14 [Google Scholar]
  30. Dunlop DM. 30.  1971. The Work of the Medicines Commission. J. R. Soc. Promot. Health 91:141–43 [Google Scholar]
  31. 31. Med. Healthc. Prod. Regul. Agency (MHRA). 2012. The Human Medicines Regulations 2012 – Description of Each Part London: MHRA http://www.mhra.gov.uk/home/groups/comms-ic/documents/websiteresources/con179735.pdf [Google Scholar]
  32. 32. Counc. Eur. 2017. The European Pharmacopoeia Commission Strasbourg, Fr.: Counc. Eur https://www.edqm.eu/en/european-pharmacopoeia-commission [Google Scholar]
  33. Galsworthy M, McKee M. 33.  2017. A plan for U.K. science after the European Union referendum. Science 355:31–32 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010617-052901
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010617-052901
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error