Biobanking involves the collection, processing, storage, and distribution of biological specimens and the policies and procedures necessary to accomplish those aims successfully. Although biobanking may also involve collections for environmental studies or museum archives, most efforts to standardize biobanking practices have been directed toward human biomedical research. Initially focused primarily on collecting samples for diagnostic purposes in pathology settings, biobanks have evolved into complex organizations engaged in advancing personalized (or precision) medicine and translational research. This evolution has involved the development of biobanking best practices and the transformation of a field driven by empirical approaches into the emerging area of biospecimen science. It has become increasingly important to develop evidence-based practices for collecting biospecimens and data that can be shared with confidence with international collaborators. Aside from these technical approaches, other factors play crucial roles, such as ethical and regulatory issues, business planning and sustainability, and approaches to data collection and sharing.


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