1932

Abstract

Neonicotinoids have been used to protect crops and animals from insect pests since the 1990s, but there are concerns regarding their adverse effects on nontarget organisms, notably on bees. Enhanced resistance to neonicotinoids in pests is becoming well documented. We address the current understanding of neonicotinoid target site interactions, selectivity, and metabolism not only in pests but also in beneficial insects such as bees. The findings are relevant to the management of both neonicotinoids and the new generation of pesticides targeting insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

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2020-01-06
2024-04-20
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