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Abstract

Here we discuss approaches to K-Ras inhibition and drug resistance scenarios. A breakthrough offered a covalent drug against K-RasG12C. Subsequent innovations harnessed same-allele drug combinations, as well as cotargeting K-RasG12C with a companion drug to upstream regulators or downstream kinases. However, primary, adaptive, and acquired resistance inevitably emerge. The preexisting mutation load can explain how even exceedingly rare mutations with unobservable effects can promote drug resistance, seeding growth of insensitive cell clones, and proliferation. Statistics confirm the expectation that most resistance-related mutations are in , pointing to the high probability of cooperative, same-allele effects. In addition to targeted Ras inhibitors and drug combinations, bifunctional molecules and innovative tri-complex inhibitors to target Ras mutants are also under development. Since the identities and potential contributions of preexisting and evolving mutations are unknown, selecting a pharmacologic combination is taxing. Collectively, our broad review outlines considerations and provides new insights into pharmacology and resistance.

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2024-01-23
2024-06-18
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