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Abstract

The use of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in pharmaceutical research and development has to date focused on research: target identification; docking-, fragment-, and motif-based generation of compound libraries; modeling of synthesis feasibility; rank-ordering likely hits according to structural and chemometric similarity to compounds having known activity and affinity to the target(s); optimizing a smaller library for synthesis and high-throughput screening; and combining evidence from screening to support hit-to-lead decisions. Applying AI/ML methods to lead optimization and lead-to-candidate (L2C) decision-making has shown slower progress, especially regarding predicting absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicology properties. The present review surveys reasons why this is so, reports progress that has occurred in recent years, and summarizes some of the issues that remain. Effective AI/ML tools to derisk L2C and later phases of development are important to accelerate the pharmaceutical development process, ameliorate escalating development costs, and achieve greater success rates.

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2023-01-20
2024-04-15
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