1932

Abstract

Historically, pancreatic islet beta cells have been viewed as principal regulators of glycemia, with type 2 diabetes (T2D) resulting when insulin secretion fails to compensate for peripheral tissue insulin resistance. However, glycemia is also regulated by insulin-independent mechanisms that are dysregulated in T2D. Based on evidence supporting its role both in adaptive coupling of insulin secretion to changes in insulin sensitivity and in the regulation of insulin-independent glucose disposal, the central nervous system (CNS) has emerged as a fundamental player in glucose homeostasis. Here, we review and expand upon an integrative model wherein the CNS, together with the islet, establishes and maintains the defended level of glycemia. We discuss the implications of this model for understanding both normal glucose homeostasis and T2D pathogenesis and highlight centrally targeted therapeutic approaches with the potential to restore normoglycemia to patients with T2D.

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2022-01-06
2024-04-13
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