Emerging evidence has shown that social pain—the painful feelings that follow from social rejection, exclusion, or loss—relies on some of the same neural regions that process physical pain, highlighting a possible physical-social pain overlap. However, the hypothesis that physical pain and social pain rely on shared neural systems has been contested. This review begins by summarizing research supporting the physical-social pain overlap. Next, three criticisms of this overlap model are presented and addressed by synthesizing available research. These criticisms include the suggestions that () neural responses to social pain are indicative of conflict detection processes, rather than distress; () all negative affective processes, rather than social pain specifically, activate these pain-related neural regions; and () neural responses to social (and physical) pain reflect the processing of salience, rather than hurt. Implications of these findings for understanding social and physical pain are discussed, and key next steps are suggested.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Apkarian AV, Bushnell MC, Treede RD, Zubieta JK. 2005. Human brain mechanisms of pain perception and regulation in health and disease. Eur. J. Pain 9:463–84 [Google Scholar]
  2. Asmundson GJG, Norton GR, Jackobson SJ. 1996. Social, blood/injury, and agoraphobic fears in patients with physically unexplained chronic pain: Are they clinically significant?. Anxiety 2:28–33 [Google Scholar]
  3. Atlas LY, Bolger N, Lindquist MA, Wager TD. 2010. Brain mediators of predictive cue effects on perceived pain. J. Neurosci. 30:12964–77 [Google Scholar]
  4. Ballantine HT, Levy BS, Dagi TF, Giriunas IB. 1977. Cingulotomy for psychiatric illness: report of 13 years' experience. Neurosurgical Treatment in Psychiatry, Pain, and Epilepsy WH Sweet, S Obrador, JG Martin-Rodriguez 333–53 Baltimore, MD: Univ. Park Press [Google Scholar]
  5. Barr CS, Schwandt ML, Lindell SG, Higley JD, Maestripieri D. et al. 2008. Variation at the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) influences attachment behavior in infant primates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:5277–81 [Google Scholar]
  6. Beck AT, Laude R, Bohnert M. 1974. Ideational components of anxiety neurosis. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 31:319–25 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bernstein MJ, Claypool HM. 2012. Social exclusion and pain sensitivity: why exclusion sometimes hurts and sometimes numbs. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 38:185–96 [Google Scholar]
  8. Berthier M, Starkstein MD, Leiguarda R. 1988. Asymbolia for pain: a sensory-limbic disconnection syndrome. Ann. Neurol. 24:41–49 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bolling DZ, Pitskel NB, Deen B, Crowley MJ, McPartland JC. et al. 2011. Dissociable brain mechanisms for processing social exclusion and rule violation. NeuroImage 54:2462–71 [Google Scholar]
  10. Botvinick MM, Braver TS, Barch DM, Carter CS, Cohen JD. 2001. Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychol. Rev. 108:624–52 [Google Scholar]
  11. Botvinick MM, Cohen JD, Carter CS. 2004. Conflict monitoring and anterior cingulate cortex: an update. Trends Cogn. Sci. 8:539–46 [Google Scholar]
  12. Brown RJ, Schrag A, Trimble MR. 2005. Dissociation, childhood interpersonal trauma, and family functioning in patients with somatization disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 162:899–905 [Google Scholar]
  13. Buhle JT, Silvers JA, Wager TD, Lopez R, Onyemekwu C. et al. 2013. Cognitive reappraisal of emotion: a meta-analysis of human neuroimaging studies. Cereb. Cortex. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht154
  14. Burklund LJ, Eisenberger NI, Lieberman MD. 2007. Rejection sensitivity moderates dorsal anterior cingulate activity to disapproving facial expressions. Soc. Neurosci. 2:238–53 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bush G, Luu P, Posner MI. 2000. Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends Cogn. Sci. 4:215–22 [Google Scholar]
  16. Cacioppo S, Frum C, Asp E, Weiss RM, Lewis JW. et al. 2013. A quantitative meta-analysis of functional imaging studies of social rejection. Sci. Rep. 3:2027 [Google Scholar]
  17. Carter CS, Braver TS, Barch DM, Botvinick MM, Noll D. et al. 1998. Anterior cingulate cortex, error detection, and the online monitoring of performance. Science 280:5364747–49 [Google Scholar]
  18. Carter CS, Macdonald AM, Botvinick M, Ross LL, Stenger VA. et al. 2000. Parsing executive processes: strategic versus evaluative functions of the anterior cingulate cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:41944–48 [Google Scholar]
  19. Chiu P, Deldin P. 2007. Neural evidence for enhanced error detection in major depressive disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 164:608–16 [Google Scholar]
  20. Choi JM, Padmala S, Spechler P, Pessoa L. 2014. Pervasive competition between threat and reward in the brain. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 9:737–50 [Google Scholar]
  21. Chou WY. 2006. Human opioid receptor A118G polymorphism affects intravenous patient-controlled analgesia morphine consumption after total abdominal hysterectomy. Anesthesiology 105:334–37 [Google Scholar]
  22. Ciechanowski PS, Walker EA, Katon WJ, Russo JE. 2002. Attachment theory: a model for health care utilization and somatization. Psychosom. Med. 64:660–67 [Google Scholar]
  23. Coan JA, Schaefer HS, Davidson RJ. 2006. Lending a hand: social regulation of the neural response to threat. Psychol. Sci. 17:1032–39 [Google Scholar]
  24. Cohen RA, Kaplan RF, Moser DJ, Jenkins MA, Wilkinson H. 1999. Impairments of attention after cingulotomy. Neurology 53:819–24 [Google Scholar]
  25. Cole MW, Yeung N, Freiwald WA, Botvinick M. 2009. Cingulate cortex: diverging data from humans and monkeys. Trends Neurosci. 32:11566–74 [Google Scholar]
  26. Cooper JC, Dunne S, Furey T, O'Doherty JP. 2014. The role of the posterior temporal and medial prefrontal cortices in mediating learning from romantic interest and rejection. Cereb. Cortex 242502–11
  27. Corkin S, Twitchell TE, Sullivan EV. 1979. Safety and efficacy of cingulotomy for pain and psychiatric disorders. Modern Concepts in Psychiatric Surgery HR Hitchcock, HT Ballantine, BA Meyerson 253–72 Amsterdam: Elsevier [Google Scholar]
  28. Craig AD. 2002. How do you feel? Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3:655–66 [Google Scholar]
  29. Craig AD. 2003. Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 13:4500–5 [Google Scholar]
  30. Critchley HD, Tang J, Glaser D, Butterworth B, Dolan RJ. 2005. Anterior cingulate activity during error and autonomic response. NeuroImage 27:885–95 [Google Scholar]
  31. Danziger N, Willer JC. 2005. Tension-type headache as the unique pain experience of a patient with congenital insensitivity to pain. Pain 117:478–83 [Google Scholar]
  32. DeWall CN, Baumeister RF. 2006. Alone but feeling no pain: effects of social exclusion on physical pain tolerance and pain threshold, affective forecasting, and interpersonal empathy. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 91:1–15 [Google Scholar]
  33. DeWall CN, MacDonald G, Webster GD, Masten CL, Baumeister RF. et al. 2010. Tylenol reduces social pain: behavioral and neural evidence. Psychol. Sci. 21:931–37 [Google Scholar]
  34. DeWall CN, Masten CL, Powell C, Combs D, Schurtz DR. et al. 2012. Do neural responses to rejection depend on attachment style? An fMRI study. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 7:2184–92 [Google Scholar]
  35. Ehnvall A, Mitchell PB, Hadzi-Palovic D, Malhi GS, Parker G. 2009. Pain during depression and relationship to rejection sensitivity. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 119:375–82 [Google Scholar]
  36. Eisenberger NI. 2012. The pain of social disconnection: examining the shared neural underpinnings of physical and social pain. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 13:6421–34 [Google Scholar]
  37. Eisenberger NI, Gable SL, Lieberman MD. 2007a. fMRI responses relate to differences in real-world social experience. Emotion 7:745–54 [Google Scholar]
  38. Eisenberger NI, Inagaki TK, Mashal NM, Irwin MR. 2010. Inflammation and social experience: an inflammatory challenge induces feelings of social disconnection in addition to depressed mood. Brain Behav. Immun. 24:558–63 [Google Scholar]
  39. Eisenberger NI, Inagaki TK, Muscatell KA, Haltom KEB, Leary MR. 2011a. The neural sociometer: brain mechanisms underlying state self-esteem. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 23:3448–55 [Google Scholar]
  40. Eisenberger NI, Inagaki TK, Rameson L, Mashal NM, Irwin MR. 2009. An fMRI study of cytokine-induced depressed mood and social pain: the role of sex differences. NeuroImage 47:881–90 [Google Scholar]
  41. Eisenberger NI, Jarcho JM, Lieberman MD, Naliboff BD. 2006. An experimental study of shared sensitivity to physical pain and social rejection. Pain 126:132–38 [Google Scholar]
  42. Eisenberger NI, Lieberman MD. 2004. Why rejection hurts: the neurocognitive overlap between physical and social pain. Trends Cogn. Sci. 8:294–300 [Google Scholar]
  43. Eisenberger NI, Lieberman MD, Williams KD. 2003. Does rejection hurt: an fMRI study of social exclusion. Science 302:290–92 [Google Scholar]
  44. Eisenberger NI, Master SL, Inagaki TI, Taylor SE, Shirinyan D. et al. 2011b. Attachment figures activate a safety signal-related neural region and reduce pain experience. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:11721–26 [Google Scholar]
  45. Eisenberger NI, Way BM, Taylor SE, Welch WT, Lieberman MD. 2007b. Understanding genetic risk for aggression: clues from the brain's response to social exclusion. Biol. Psychiatry 61:1100–8 [Google Scholar]
  46. Emeric EE, Brown JW, Leslie M, Pouget P, Stuphorn V. et al. 2008. Performance monitoring local field potentials in the medial frontal cortex of primates: anterior cingulate cortex. J. Neurophysiol. 99:2759–72 [Google Scholar]
  47. Etkin A, Egner T, Kalisch R. 2011. Emotional processing in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. Trends Cogn. Sci. 15:285–93 [Google Scholar]
  48. Fellows LK, Farah MJ. 2005. Is anterior cingulate cortex necessary for cognitive control?. Brain 128:4788–96 [Google Scholar]
  49. Fisher HE, Brown LL, Aron A, Strong G, Mashek D. 2010. Reward, addiction, and emotion regulation systems associated with rejection in love. J. Neurophysiol. 104:51–60 [Google Scholar]
  50. Fitzgerald KD, Welsh RC, Gehring WJ, Abelson JL, Himle JA. et al. 2005. Error-related hyperactivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 57:287–94 [Google Scholar]
  51. Foltz EL, White LE. 1962. Pain “relief” by frontal cingulumotomy. J. Neurosurg. 19:89–100 [Google Scholar]
  52. Fusar-Poli P, Placentino A, Carletti F, Landi P, Allen P. et al. 2009. Functional atlas of emotional faces processing: a voxel-based meta-analysis of 105 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 34:6418–32 [Google Scholar]
  53. Greenspan JD, Winifield JA. 1992. Reversible and tactile deficits associated with a cerebral tumor compressing the posterior insula and parietal operculum. Pain 50:29–39 [Google Scholar]
  54. Gudmundsdottir M. 2009. Embodied grief: bereaved parents' narratives of their suffering body. Omega (Westport) 59:253–69 [Google Scholar]
  55. Gündel H, O'Connor MF, Littrell L, Fort C, Richard L. 2003. Functional neuroanatomy of grief: an fMRI study. Am. J. Psychiatry 160:1946–53 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hadland KA, Rushworth MFS, Gaffan D, Passingham RE. 2003. The effect of cingulate lesions on social behaviour and emotion. Neuropsychologia 41:919–31 [Google Scholar]
  57. Hajcak G, Foti D. 2008. Errors are aversive: defensive motivation and the error-related negativity. Psychol. Sci. 19:103–8 [Google Scholar]
  58. Hajcak G, McDonald N, Simons RF. 2003. To err is autonomic: error-related brain potentials, ANS activity, and post-error compensatory behavior. Psychophysiology 40:895–903 [Google Scholar]
  59. Herman BH, Panksepp J. 1978. Effects of morphine and naxolone on separation distress and approach and approach attachment: evidence for opiate medication of social affect. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 9:213–20 [Google Scholar]
  60. Higham JP, Barr CS, Hoffman CL, Mandalaywala TM, Parker KJ. et al. 2011. Mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) variation, oxytocin levels and maternal attachment in free-ranging rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta. Behav. Neurosci. 125:2131–36 [Google Scholar]
  61. Hofbauer RK, Rainville P, Duncan GH, Bushnell MC. 2001. Cortical representations of the sensory dimension of pain. J. Neurophysiol. 86:402–11 [Google Scholar]
  62. Iannetti GD, Mouraux A. 2010. From the neuromatrix to the pain matrix (and back). Exp. Brain Res. 205:11–12 [Google Scholar]
  63. Iannetti GD, Salomons TV, Moayedi M, Mouraux A, Davis KD. 2013. Beyond metaphor: contrasting mechanisms of social and physical pain. Trends Cogn. Sci. 17:8371–78 [Google Scholar]
  64. Ito S, Stuphorn V, Brown JW, Schall JD. 2003. Performance monitoring by the anterior cingulate cortex during saccade countermanding. Science 302:5642120–22 [Google Scholar]
  65. Janer KW, Pardo JV. 1991. Deficits in selective attention following bilateral anterior cingulotomy. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 3:3231–41 [Google Scholar]
  66. Jaremka LM, Gabriel S, Carvallo M. 2011. What makes us the best also makes us feel the worst: the emotional impact of independent and interdependent experiences. Self Identity 10:44–63 [Google Scholar]
  67. Johansen JP, Fields HL. 2004. Glutamatergic activation of anterior cingulate cortex produces an aversive teaching signal. Nat. Neurosci. 7:4398–403 [Google Scholar]
  68. Johansen JP, Fields HL, Manning BH. 2001. The affective component of pain in rodents: direct evidence for a contribution of the anterior cingulate cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:8077–82 [Google Scholar]
  69. Kalin NH, Shelton SE, Barksdale CM. 1988. Opiate modulation of separation-induced distress in non-human primates. Brain Res. 440:285–92 [Google Scholar]
  70. Kawamoto T, Onoda K, Nakashima KI, Nittono H, Yamaguchi S. et al. 2012. Is dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to social exclusion due to expectancy violation? An fMRI study. Front. Evol. Neurosci. 4:11 [Google Scholar]
  71. Kersting A, Ohrmann P, Pedersen A, Kroker K, Samberg D. et al. 2009. Neural activation underlying acute grief in women after their loss of an unborn child. Am. J. Psychiatry 166:1402–10 [Google Scholar]
  72. Kober H, Barrett LF, Joseph J, Bliss-Moreau E, Lindquist K. et al. 2008. Functional grouping and cortical–subcortical interactions in emotion: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. NeuroImage 42:2998–1031 [Google Scholar]
  73. Kross E, Berman MG, Mischel W, Smith EE, Wager TD. 2011. Social rejection shares somatosensory representations with physical pain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:6270–75 [Google Scholar]
  74. Kross E, Egner T, Ochsner K, Hirsch J, Downey G. 2007. Neural dynamics of rejection sensitivity. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 19:6945–56 [Google Scholar]
  75. Kulik JA, Mahler HI. 1989. Social support and recovery from surgery. Health Psychol. 8:221–38 [Google Scholar]
  76. Landa A, Peterson BS, Fallon BA. 2012. Somatoform pain: a developmental theory and translational research review. Psychosom. Med. 74:7717–27 [Google Scholar]
  77. Leary MR, Springer C. 2001. Hurt feelings: the neglected emotion. Behaving Badly: Aversive Behaviors in Interpersonal Relationships RM Kowalski 151–75 Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc. [Google Scholar]
  78. Levine FM, Krass SM, Padawer WJ. 1993. Failure hurts: the effects of stress due to difficult tasks and failure feedback on pain report. Pain 54:335–40 [Google Scholar]
  79. Luu P, Collins P, Tucker D. 2000. Mood, personality, and self-monitoring: negative affect and emotionality in relation to frontal lobe mechanisms of error monitoring. J. Exp. Psychol.: Gen. 129:43–60 [Google Scholar]
  80. MacDonald AW, Cohen JD, Stenger VA, Carter CS. 2000. Dissociating the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in cognitive control. Science 288:54721835–38 [Google Scholar]
  81. MacDonald G, Leary MR. 2005. Why does social exclusion hurt? The relationship between social and physical pain. Psychol. Rev. 131:202–23 [Google Scholar]
  82. MacLean PD, Newman JD. 1988. Role of midline frontolimbic cortex in production of the isolation call of squirrel monkeys. Brain Res. 450:111–23 [Google Scholar]
  83. Mansouri FA, Buckley MJ, Tanaka K. 2007. Mnemonic function of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in conflict-induced behavioral adjustment. Science 318:5852987–90 [Google Scholar]
  84. Masten CL, Telzer EH, Fuligni A, Lieberman MD, Eisenberger NI. 2012. Time spent with friends in adolescence relates to less neural sensitivity to later peer rejection. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 7:106–14 [Google Scholar]
  85. Master SL, Eisenberger NI, Taylor SE, Naliboff BD, Shirinyan D. et al. 2009. A picture's worth: Partner photographs reduce experimentally induced pain. Psychol. Sci. 20:1316–18 [Google Scholar]
  86. McGuire JT, Botvinick MM. 2010. Prefrontal cortex, cognitive control, and the registration of decision costs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107:177922–26 [Google Scholar]
  87. Mechias ML, Etkin A, Kalisch R. 2010. A meta-analysis of instructed fear studies: implications for conscious appraisal of threat. NeuroImage 49:21760–68 [Google Scholar]
  88. Moles A, Kieffer BL, D'Amato FR. 2004. Deficit in attachment behavior in mice lacking the mu-opioid receptor gene. Science 304:1983–86 [Google Scholar]
  89. Mouraux A, Diukova A, Lee MC, Wise RG, Iannetti GD. 2011. A multisensory investigation of the functional significance of the “pain matrix.”. NeuroImage 54:32237–49 [Google Scholar]
  90. Murphy FC, Nimmo-Smith I, Lawrence AD. 2003. Functional neuroanatomy of emotions: a meta-analysis. Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 3:3207–33 [Google Scholar]
  91. Murphy MR, MacLean PD, Hamilton SC. 1981. Species-typical behavior of hamsters deprived from birth of the neocortex. Science 213:459–61 [Google Scholar]
  92. Nakamura K, Roesch MR, Olson CR. 2005. Neuronal activity in macaque SEF and ACC during performance of tasks involving conflict. J. Neurophysiol. 93:2884–908 [Google Scholar]
  93. Noonan MP, Sallet J, Rudebeck PH, Buckley MJ, Rushworth MF. 2010. Does the medial orbitofrontal cortex have a role in social valuation?. Eur. J. Neurosci. 31:122341–51 [Google Scholar]
  94. O'Connor MF, Wellisch DK, Stanton A, Eisenberger NI, Irwin MR, Lieberman MD. 2008. Craving love? Enduring grief activates brain's reward center. NeuroImage 42:969–72 [Google Scholar]
  95. Oka S, Chapman CR, Kim B, Shimizu O, Noma N. et al. 2010. Predictability of painful stimulation modulates subjective and physiological responses. J. Pain 11:3239–46 [Google Scholar]
  96. Olvet D, Hajcak G. 2008. The error-related negativity (ERN) and psychopathology: toward an endophenotype. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 28:1343–54 [Google Scholar]
  97. Onoda K, Okamoto Y, Nakashima K, Nittoni H, Yoshimura S. et al. 2010. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationships between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 5:383–91 [Google Scholar]
  98. Panksepp J. 1998. Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  99. Panksepp J, Herman B, Conner R, Bishop P, Scott JP. 1978. The biology of social attachments: Opiates alleviate separation distress. Biol. Psychiatry 13:607–18 [Google Scholar]
  100. Papez J. 1937. A proposed mechanism of emotion. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 38:725 [Google Scholar]
  101. Phan KL, Wager T, Taylor SF, Liberzon I. 2002. Functional neuroanatomy of emotion: a meta-analysis of emotion activation studies in PET and fMRI. NeuroImage 16:2331–48 [Google Scholar]
  102. Ploner M, Freund HJ, Schnitzler A. 1999. Pain affect without pain sensation in a patient with a postcentral lesion. Pain 81:211–14 [Google Scholar]
  103. Poldrack RA. 2006. Can cognitive processes be inferred from neuroimaging data?. Trends Cogn. Sci. 10:259–63 [Google Scholar]
  104. Price DD, Barrell JJ, Gracely RH. 1980. A psychophysical analysis of experiential factors that selectively influence the affective dimension of pain. Pain 8:2137–49 [Google Scholar]
  105. Price DD, Harkins SW, Baker C. 1987. Sensory-affective relationships among different types of clinical and experimental pain. Pain 28:3297–307 [Google Scholar]
  106. Rainville P, Duncan GH, Price DD, Carrier B, Bushnell MD. 1997. Pain affect encoded in human anterior cingulate but not somatosensory cortex. Science 277:968–71 [Google Scholar]
  107. Robinson BW. 1967. Neurological aspects of evoked vocalizations. Social Communication Among Primates SA Altmann 135–47 Chicago, IL: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  108. Rudebeck PH, Buckley MJ, Walton ME, Rushworth MFS. 2006. A role for the macaque anterior cingulate gyrus in social valuation. Science 313:57911310–12 [Google Scholar]
  109. Rudebeck PH, Walton ME, Millette BH, Shirley E, Rushworth MF. et al. 2007. Distinct contributions of frontal areas to emotion and social behaviour in the rat. Eur. J. Neurosci. 26:82315–26 [Google Scholar]
  110. Sabatinelli D, Fortune EE, Li Q, Siddiqui A, Krafft C. et al. 2011. Emotional perception: meta-analyses of face and natural scene processing. NeuroImage 54:32524–33 [Google Scholar]
  111. Sawamoto N, Honda M, Okada T, Hanakawa T, Kanda M. et al. 2000. Expectation of pain enhances responses to nonpainful somatosensory stimulation in the anterior cingulate cortex and parietal operculum/posterior insula: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J. Neurosci. 20:197438–45 [Google Scholar]
  112. Shackman AJ, Salomons TV, Slagter HA, Fox AS, Winter JJ. et al. 2011. The integration of negative affect, pain, and cognitive control in the cingulate cortex. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 12:154–67 [Google Scholar]
  113. Sia AT, Lim Y, Lim EC, Goh RW, Law HY. et al. 2008. A118G single nucleotide polymorphism of human mu-opioid receptor gene influences pain perception and patient-controlled intravenous morphine consumption after intrathecal morphine for postcesarean analgesia. Anesthesiology 109:520–26 [Google Scholar]
  114. Singer T, Seymour B, O'Doherty J, Kaube H, Dolan RJ. et al. 2004. Empathy for pain involves the affective but not sensory components of pain. Science 303:56611157–62 [Google Scholar]
  115. Slotnick BM, Nigrosh BJ. 1975. Maternal behavior of mice with cingulated cortical, amygdala, or septal lesions. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 88:118–27 [Google Scholar]
  116. Smith W. 1945. The functional significance of the rostral cingular cortex as revealed by its responses to electrical excitation. J. Neurophysiol. 8:241–55 [Google Scholar]
  117. Somerville LH, Heatherton TF, Kelley WM. 2006. Anterior cingulate cortex responds differentially to expectancy violation and social rejection. Nat. Neurosci. 9:1007–8 [Google Scholar]
  118. Spunt RP, Lieberman MD, Cohen JR, Eisenberger NI. 2012. The phenomenology of error processing: The dorsal anterior cingulate response to stop-signal errors tracks reports of negative affect. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 24:1753–56 [Google Scholar]
  119. Stamm J. 1955. The function of the medial cortex in maternal behavior of rats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 48:347–56 [Google Scholar]
  120. Stuss DT, Floden D, Alexander MP, Levine B, Katz D. 2001. Stroop performance in focal lesion patients: dissociation of processes and frontal lobe lesion location. Neuropsychologia 39:771–86 [Google Scholar]
  121. Swick D, Jovanovic J. 2002. Anterior cingulate cortex and the Stroop task: neuropsychological evidence for topographic specificity. Neuropsychologia 40:1240–53 [Google Scholar]
  122. Swick D, Turken U. 2002. Dissociation between conflict detection and error monitoring in the human anterior cingulate cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:2516354–59 [Google Scholar]
  123. Takahashi H, Kato M, Matsuura M, Mobbs D, Suhara T. et al. 2009. When your gain is my pain and your pain is my gain: neural correlates of envy and schadenfreude. Science 323:937–39 [Google Scholar]
  124. Tölle TR, Kaufmann T, Siessmeier T, Lautenbacher S, Berthele A. et al. 1999. Region-specific encoding of sensory and affective components of pain in the human brain: a positron emission tomography correlation analysis. Ann. Neurol. 45:140–47 [Google Scholar]
  125. Tow PM, Whitty CWM. 1953. Personality changes after operations on the cingulate gyrus in man. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 16:186–93 [Google Scholar]
  126. Treede RD. 2006. Chapter 1. Pain and hyperalgesia: definitions and theories. Handb. Clin. Neurol. 81:3–10 [Google Scholar]
  127. Treede RD, Kenshalo DR, Gracely RH, Jones AKP. 1999. The cortical representation of pain. Pain 79:105–11 [Google Scholar]
  128. van den Hout JHC, Vlaeyen JWS, Peters ML, Engelhard IM, van den Hout MA. 2000. Does failure hurt? The effects of failure feedback on pain report, tolerance and pain avoidance. Eur. J. Pain 4:335–46 [Google Scholar]
  129. Vendrell P, Junqué C, Pujol J, Jurado M, Molet J. et al. 1995. The role of prefrontal regions in the Stroop task. Neuropsychologia 33:3341–52 [Google Scholar]
  130. Vytal K, Hamann S. 2010. Neuroimaging support for discrete neural correlates of basic emotions: a voxel-based meta-analysis. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 22:122864–85 [Google Scholar]
  131. Wager TD, Phan KL, Liberzon I, Taylor SF. 2003. Valence, gender, and lateralization of functional brain anatomy in emotion: a meta-analysis of findings from neuroimaging. NeuroImage 19:3513–31 [Google Scholar]
  132. Wager TD, van Ast VA, Hughes BL, Davidson ML, Lindquist MA. et al. 2009. Brain mediators of cardiovascular responses to social threat, part II: prefrontal-subcortical pathways and relationship with anxiety. NeuroImage 47:3836–51 [Google Scholar]
  133. Waldinger RJ, Schulz MS, Barsky AJ, Ahern DK. 2006. Mapping the road from childhood trauma to adult somatization: the role of attachment. Psychosom. Med. 68:129–35 [Google Scholar]
  134. Ward AA. 1948. The cingulate gyrus: area 24. J. Neurophysiol. 11:13–24 [Google Scholar]
  135. Way BM, Taylor SE, Eisenberger NI. 2009. Variation in the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) is associated with dispositional and neural sensitivity to social rejection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106:15079–84 [Google Scholar]
  136. Weinberg A, Olvet DM, Hajcak G. 2010. Increased error-related brain activity in generalized anxiety disorder. Biol. Psychol. 85:472–80 [Google Scholar]
  137. Whitty CWM, Duffield JE, Tow PM, Cairns H. 1952. Anterior cingulectomy in the treatment of mental disease. Lancet 259:6706475–81 [Google Scholar]
  138. Yarkoni T, Poldrack RA, Nichols TE, Van Essen DC, Wager TD. 2011. Large-scale automated synthesis of human functional neuroimaging data. Nat. Methods 8:8665–70 [Google Scholar]
  139. Yeung N, Botvinick MM, Cohen JD. 2004. The neural basis of error detection: conflict monitoring and the error-related negativity. Psychol. Rev. 111:4931–59 [Google Scholar]
  140. Younger J, Aron A, Parke S, Chatterjee N, Mackey S. 2010. Viewing pictures of a romantic partner reduces experimental pain: involvement of neural reward systems. PLOS ONE 5:1–7 [Google Scholar]
  141. Zaza C, Baine N. 2002. Cancer pain and psychosocial factors: a critical review of the literature. J. Pain Symptom Manag. 24:526–42 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error