1932

Abstract

Social cognition is a topic of enormous interest and much research, but we are far from having an agreed taxonomy or factor structure of relevant processes. The aim of this review is to outline briefly what is known about the structure of social cognition and to suggest how further progress can be made to delineate the in(ter)dependence of core sociocognitive processes. We focus in particular on several processes that have been discussed and tested together in typical and atypical (notably autism spectrum disorder) groups: imitation, biological motion, empathy, and theory of mind. We consider the domain specificity/generality of core processes in social learning, reward, and attention, and we highlight the potential relevance of dual-process theories that distinguish systems for fast/automatic and slow/effortful processing. We conclude with methodological and conceptual suggestions for future progress in uncovering the structure of social cognition.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044046
2017-01-03
2024-06-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/psych/68/1/annurev-psych-010416-044046.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044046&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Anisfeld M. 1979. Interpreting “imitative” responses in early infancy. Science 205:4402214–15 [Google Scholar]
  2. Annaz D, Campbell R, Coleman M, Milne E, Swettenham J. 2012. Young children with autism spectrum disorder do not preferentially attend to biological motion. J. Autism Dev. Disord 42:3401–8 [Google Scholar]
  3. Annaz D, Remington A, Milne E, Coleman M, Campbell R. et al. 2010. Development of motion processing in children with autism. Dev. Sci. 13:6826–38 [Google Scholar]
  4. Apperly IA, Butterfill SA. 2009. Do humans have two systems to track beliefs and belief-like states?. Psychol. Rev. 116:4953–70Proposes two systems for belief tracking: one efficient but inflexible, the other flexible but cognitively demanding. [Google Scholar]
  5. Bal PM, Veltkamp M. 2013. How does fiction reading influence empathy? An experimental investigation on the role of emotional transportation. PLOS ONE 8:1e55341 [Google Scholar]
  6. Barkowitz P, Brigham JC. 1982. Recognition of faces: own-race bias, incentive, and time delay. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol 12:4255–68 [Google Scholar]
  7. Baron-Cohen S. 2009. Autism: the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1156:168–80 [Google Scholar]
  8. Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, Hill J, Raste Y, Plumb I. 2001. The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” Test revised version: a study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 42:2241–51 [Google Scholar]
  9. Behrens TEJ, Hunt LT, Rushworth MFS. 2009. The computation of social behavior. Science 324:59311160–64 [Google Scholar]
  10. Behrens TEJ, Hunt LT, Woolrich MW, Rushworth MFS. 2008. Associative learning of social value. Nature 456:7219245–49 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bird G, Press C, Richardson DC. 2011. The role of alexithymia in reduced eye-fixation in autism spectrum conditions. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 41:111556–64 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bird G, Silani G, Brindley R, White S, Frith U, Singer T. 2010. Empathic brain responses in insula are modulated by levels of alexithymia but not autism. Brain J. Neurol. 133:51515–25 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bird G, Viding E. 2014. The self to other model of empathy: providing a new framework for understanding empathy impairments in psychopathy, autism, and alexithymia. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 47:520–32Adopting a developmental framework, this article delineates a mechanistic (neuro)cognitive model of empathy. [Google Scholar]
  14. Blake R, Turner LM, Smoski MJ, Pozdol SL, Stone WL. 2003. Visual recognition of biological motion is impaired in children with autism. Psychol. Sci. 14:2151–57 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bonini L, Ferrari PF. 2011. Evolution of mirror systems: a simple mechanism for complex cognitive functions. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1225:166–75 [Google Scholar]
  16. Boogert NJ, Giraldeau L-A, Lefebvre L. 2008. Song complexity correlates with learning ability in zebra finch males. Anim. Behav. 76:51735–41 [Google Scholar]
  17. Boorman ED, O'Doherty JP, Adolphs R, Rangel A. 2013. The behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying the tracking of expertise. Neuron 80:61558–71 [Google Scholar]
  18. Bormann D, Greitemeyer T. 2015. Immersed in virtual worlds and minds: effects of in-game storytelling on immersion, need satisfaction, and affective theory of mind. Soc. Psychol. Personal. Sci. 6:6646–52 [Google Scholar]
  19. Brass M, Derrfuss J, von Cramon DY. 2005. The inhibition of imitative and overlearned responses: a functional double dissociation. Neuropsychologia 43:189–98 [Google Scholar]
  20. Brewer R, Marsh A, Catmur C, Cardinale E, Stoycos S. et al. 2015. The impact of autism spectrum disorder and alexithymia on judgments of moral acceptability. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 124:3589–95 [Google Scholar]
  21. Butterfill SA, Apperly IA. 2013. How to construct a minimal theory of mind. Mind Lang 28:5606–37 [Google Scholar]
  22. Cage E, Pellicano E, Shah P, Bird G. 2013. Reputation management: evidence for ability but reduced propensity in autism. Autism Res 6:5433–42 [Google Scholar]
  23. Calder AJ. 1996. Facial emotion recognition after bilateral amygdala damage: differentially severe impairment of fear. Cogn. J. Neuropsychol. 13:5699–745 [Google Scholar]
  24. Carruthers P. 2009. How we know our own minds: the relationship between mindreading and metacognition. Behav. Brain Sci. 32:2121–38 [Google Scholar]
  25. Catmur C, Santiesteban I, Conway JR, Heyes C, Bird G. 2016. Avatars and arrows in the brain. NeuroImage 132:8–10 [Google Scholar]
  26. Catmur C, Walsh V, Heyes C. 2009. Associative sequence learning: the role of experience in the development of imitation and the mirror system. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 364:15282369–80 [Google Scholar]
  27. Chance J, Goldstein AG, McBride L. 1975. Differential experience and recognition memory for faces. J. Soc. Psychol. 97:2243–53 [Google Scholar]
  28. Chawarska K, Ye S, Shic F, Chen L. 2016. Multilevel differences in spontaneous social attention in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder. Child Dev 87:2543–57 [Google Scholar]
  29. Chevallier C, Kohls G, Troiani V, Brodkin ES, Schultz RT. 2012. The social motivation theory of autism. Trends Cogn. Sci. 16:4231–39 [Google Scholar]
  30. Chiroro P, Valentine T. 1995. An investigation of the contact hypothesis of the own-race bias in face recognition. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. A 48:4879–94 [Google Scholar]
  31. Colombi C, Liebal K, Tomasello M, Young G, Warneken F, Rogers SJ. 2009. Examining correlates of cooperation in autism imitation, joint attention, and understanding intentions. Autism 13:2143–63 [Google Scholar]
  32. Cook J, Bird G. 2012. Atypical social modulation of imitation in autism spectrum conditions. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 42:61045–51 [Google Scholar]
  33. Cook J, Saygin A, Swain R, Blakemore S. 2009. Reduced sensitivity to minimum-jerk biological motion in autism spectrum conditions. Neuropsychologia 47:143275–78 [Google Scholar]
  34. Cook J, Swapp D, Pan X, Bianchi-Berthouze N, Blakemore S-J. 2014a. Atypical interference effect of action observation in autism spectrum conditions. Psychol. Med. 44:4731–40 [Google Scholar]
  35. Cook JL, den Ouden HEM, Heyes CM, Cools R. 2014b. The social dominance paradox. Curr. Biol. 24:232812–16 [Google Scholar]
  36. Cook R, Bird G. 2013. Do mirror neurons really mirror and do they really code for action goals?. Cortex 49:102944–45 [Google Scholar]
  37. Cook R, Bird G, Catmur C, Press C, Heyes C. 2014. Mirror neurons: from origin to function. Behav. Brain Sci. 37:2177–92 [Google Scholar]
  38. Dawson G. 1991. A psychobiological perspective on the early socioemotional development of children with autism. Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology 3 S Toth, D Cicchetti 207–34 Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  39. Dawson G. 2008. Early behavioral intervention, brain plasticity, and the prevention of autism spectrum disorder. Dev. Psychopathol. 20:3775–803 [Google Scholar]
  40. Dawson G, Meltzoff AN, Osterling J, Rinaldi J, Brown E. 1998. Children with autism fail to orient to naturally occurring social stimuli. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 28:6479–85Early paper showing reduced orienting to attention-grabbing stimuli (particularly social stimuli) in children with autism. [Google Scholar]
  41. Dayan E, Casile A, Levit-Binnun N, Giese MA, Hendler T, Flash T. 2007. Neural representations of kinematic laws of motion: evidence for action-perception coupling. PNAS 104:5120582–87 [Google Scholar]
  42. de Guzman M, Bird G, Banissy MJ, Catmur C. 2016. Self-other control processes in social cognition: from imitation to empathy. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 371:168620150079 [Google Scholar]
  43. de Vignemont F, Singer T. 2006. The empathic brain: how, when and why?. Trends Cogn. Sci. 10:10435–41 [Google Scholar]
  44. Diaconescu AO, Mathys C, Weber LAE, Daunizeau J, Kasper L. et al. 2014. Inferring on the intentions of others by hierarchical Bayesian learning. PLOS Comput. Biol 10:9e1003810 [Google Scholar]
  45. di Martino BD, Harrison NA, Knafo S, Bird G, Dolan RJ. 2008. Explaining enhanced logical consistency during decision making in autism. J. Neurosci. 28:4210746–50 [Google Scholar]
  46. Pellegrino G, Fadiga L, Fogassi L, Gallese V, Rizzolatti G. di 1992. Understanding motor events: a neurophysiological study. Exp. Brain Res. 91:1176–80 [Google Scholar]
  47. Duchaine B, Yovel G. 2015. A revised neural framework for face processing. Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. 1:1393–416 [Google Scholar]
  48. Eckerman CO, Whitehead H. 1999. How toddler peers generate coordinated action: a cross-cultural exploration. Early Educ. Dev. 10:3241–66 [Google Scholar]
  49. Elliott ES, Wills EJ, Goldstein AG. 2013. The effects of discrimination training on the recognition of white and oriental faces. Bull. Psychon. Soc. 2:271–73 [Google Scholar]
  50. Elsabbagh M, Johnson MH. 2016. Autism and the social brain: the first-year puzzle. Biol. Psychiatry 80294–99 [Google Scholar]
  51. Evans JSBT. 2008. Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 59:1255–78 [Google Scholar]
  52. Fiorito G, Scotto P. 1992. Observational learning in Octopus vulgaris. Science 256:5056545–47 [Google Scholar]
  53. Fiske ST, Taylor SE. 2013. Social Cognition: From Brains to Culture London: Sage [Google Scholar]
  54. Fletcher-Watson S, Findlay JM, Leekam SR, Benson V. 2008. Rapid detection of person information in a naturalistic scene. Perception 37:4571–83 [Google Scholar]
  55. Frith U, Frith C. 2010. The social brain: allowing humans to boldly go where no other species has been. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 365:1537165–76 [Google Scholar]
  56. Gallese V, Sinigaglia C. 2011. What is so special about embodied simulation?. Trends Cogn. Sci. 15:11512–19 [Google Scholar]
  57. Goren CC, Sarty M, Wu PYK. 1975. Visual following and pattern discrimination of face-like stimuli by newborn infants. Pediatrics 56:4544–49 [Google Scholar]
  58. Green MF, Horan WP, Lee J. 2015. Social cognition in schizophrenia. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 16:10620–31 [Google Scholar]
  59. Greene JD, Nystrom LE, Engell AD, Darley JM, Cohen JD. 2004. The neural bases of cognitive conflict and control in moral judgment. Neuron 44:2389–400 [Google Scholar]
  60. Greene JD, Sommerville RB, Nystrom LE, Darley JM, Cohen JD. 2001. An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment. Science 293:55372105–8 [Google Scholar]
  61. Grill-Spector K, Henson R, Martin A. 2006. Repetition and the brain: neural models of stimulus-specific effects. Trends Cogn. Sci. 10:114–23 [Google Scholar]
  62. Guillon Q, Hadjikhani N, Baduel S, Rogé B. 2014. Visual social attention in autism spectrum disorder: insights from eye tracking studies. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 42:279–97 [Google Scholar]
  63. Hamilton AF. 2013. Reflecting on the mirror neuron system in autism: a systematic review of current theories. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 3:91–105 [Google Scholar]
  64. Hamilton AF, Brindley RM, Frith U. 2007. Imitation and action understanding in autistic spectrum disorders: How valid is the hypothesis of a deficit in the mirror neuron system?. Neuropsychologia 45:81859–68 [Google Scholar]
  65. Happé F, Frith U. 1996. Theory of mind and social impairment in children with conduct disorder. Br. J. Dev. Psychol. 14:4385–98 [Google Scholar]
  66. Happé F, Frith U. 2014. Annual research review: towards a developmental neuroscience of atypical social cognition. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 55:6553–77Uses dissociable deficits revealed by developmental disorders to outline a putative network of sociocognitive abilities. [Google Scholar]
  67. Happé FGE. 1994. An advanced test of theory of mind: understanding of story characters’ thoughts and feelings by able autistic, mentally handicapped, and normal children and adults. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 24:2129–54 [Google Scholar]
  68. Heiser M, Iacoboni M, Maeda F, Marcus J, Mazziotta JC. 2003. The essential role of Broca's area in imitation. Eur. J. Neurosci. 17:51123–28 [Google Scholar]
  69. Heyes C. 2012a. What's social about social learning?. J. Comp. Psychol. 126:2193–202Argues that social learning relies on the mechanisms that support individual/asocial learning. [Google Scholar]
  70. Heyes C. 2012b. Grist and mills: on the cultural origins of cultural learning. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 367:15992181–91 [Google Scholar]
  71. Heyes C. 2014a. False belief in infancy: a fresh look. Dev. Sci. 17:5647–59Argues that social learning relies on the mechanisms that support individual/asocial learning. [Google Scholar]
  72. Heyes C. 2014b. Submentalizing: I am not really reading your mind. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 92131–43Argues that domain-general cognitive mechanisms (e.g., attentional orienting) can provide an efficient alternative to mentalizing. [Google Scholar]
  73. Heyes C, Bird G. 2007. “Mirroring,” association and the correspondence problem. Sensorimotor Foundations of Higher Cognition Y Rossetti, P Haggard, M Kawato 461–79 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  74. Heyes C, Pearce JM. 2015. Not-so-social learning strategies. Proc. R. Soc. B 282:20141709 [Google Scholar]
  75. Heyes CM, Frith CD. 2014. The cultural evolution of mind reading. Science 344:61901243091 [Google Scholar]
  76. Hobson P. 1989. Beyond cognition: a theory of autism. Autism: Nature, Diagnosis, and Treatment G. Dawson 22–48 New York: Guilford [Google Scholar]
  77. Hogeveen J, Obhi SS, Banissy MJ, Santiesteban I, Press C. et al. 2015. Task-dependent and distinct roles of the temporoparietal junction and inferior frontal cortex in the control of imitation. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 10:71003–9 [Google Scholar]
  78. Johnson MH. 2005. Subcortical face processing. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 6:10766–74 [Google Scholar]
  79. Jones AP, Happé FGE, Gilbert F, Burnett S, Viding E. 2010. Feeling, caring, knowing: different types of empathy deficit in boys with psychopathic tendencies and autism spectrum disorder. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 51:111188–97 [Google Scholar]
  80. Jones SS. 2009. The development of imitation in infancy. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 364:15282325–35 [Google Scholar]
  81. Kahneman D, Frederick S. 2002. Representativeness revisited: attribute substitution in intuitive judgment. Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment T Gilovich, D Griffin, D Kahneman 49–81 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  82. Kaiser M, Delmolino L, Tanaka J, Shiffrar M. 2010. Comparison of visual sensitivity to human and object motion in autism spectrum disorder. Autism Res 3:4191–95 [Google Scholar]
  83. Karmiloff-Smith A. 1996. Beyond Modularity: A Developmental Perspective on Cognitive Science Cambridge, MA: MIT PressArgues that the modular organization of the mind develops from the process of modularization. [Google Scholar]
  84. Kidd DC, Castano E. 2013. Reading literary fiction improves theory of mind. Science 342:6156377–80 [Google Scholar]
  85. Kikuchi Y, Senju A, Tojo Y, Osanai H, Hasegawa T. 2009. Faces do not capture special attention in children with autism spectrum disorder: a change blindness study. Child Dev 80:51421–33 [Google Scholar]
  86. Klin A, Jones W. 2008. Altered face scanning and impaired recognition of biological motion in a 15-month-old infant with autism. Dev. Sci. 11:140–46 [Google Scholar]
  87. Klin A, Jones W, Schultz R, Volkmar F. 2003. The enactive mind, or from actions to cognition: lessons from autism. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 358:1430345–60 [Google Scholar]
  88. Klin A, Jones W, Schultz S, Volkmar F, Cohen D. 2002. Visual fixation patterns during viewing of naturalistic social situations as predictors of social competence in individuals with autism. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 59:9809–16 [Google Scholar]
  89. Klin A, Lin D, Gorrindo P, Ramsay G, Jones W. 2009. Two-year-olds with autism orient to non-social contingencies rather than biological motion. Nature 459:7244257–61 [Google Scholar]
  90. Klin A, Shultz S, Jones W. 2015. Social visual engagement in infants and toddlers with autism: early developmental transitions and a model of pathogenesis. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 50:189–203 [Google Scholar]
  91. Klopfer PH. 1961. Observational learning in birds: the establishment of behavioral modes. Behaviour 17:171–80 [Google Scholar]
  92. Knutson B, Bossaerts P. 2007. Neural antecedents of financial decisions. J. Neurosci. 27:318174–77 [Google Scholar]
  93. Koldewyn K, Whitney D, Rivera SM. 2010. The psychophysics of visual motion and global form processing in autism. Brain J. Neurol. 133:Part 2599–610 [Google Scholar]
  94. Kovács ÁM, Téglás E, Endress AD. 2010. The social sense: susceptibility to others’ beliefs in human infants and adults. Science 330:60121830–34 [Google Scholar]
  95. Lefebvre L, Giraldeau L. 1996. Is social learning an adaptive specialization?. Social Learning and the Roots of Culture CM Heyes, BG Galef 107–52 San Diego: Academic [Google Scholar]
  96. Leighton J, Bird G, Charman T, Heyes C. 2008. Weak imitative performance is not due to a functional “mirroring” deficit in adults with autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychologia 46:41041–49 [Google Scholar]
  97. Lewis MD, Todd. 2005. Getting emotional: a neural perspective on emotion, intention, and consciousness. J. Conscious. Stud. 12:8–9210–35 [Google Scholar]
  98. Lockwood PL, Bird G, Bridge M, Viding E. 2013. Dissecting empathy: high levels of psychopathic and autistic traits are characterized by difficulties in different social information processing domains. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7:760 [Google Scholar]
  99. McEwen F, Happé F, Bolton P, Rijsdijk F, Ronald A. et al. 2007. Origins of individual differences in imitation: links with language, pretend play, and socially insightful behavior in two-year-old twins. Child Dev 78:2474–92 [Google Scholar]
  100. Meltzoff AN, Moore MK. 1977. Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science 198:431275–78 [Google Scholar]
  101. Miller LE, Saygin AP. 2013. Individual differences in the perception of biological motion: links to social cognition and motor imagery. Cognition 128:2140–48 [Google Scholar]
  102. Morton J, Frith U. 1995. Causal modelling: a structural approach to developmental psychopathology. Developmental Psychopathology D Cicchetti, D Cohen 357–90 New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  103. Morton J, Johnson MH. 1991. CONSPEC and CONLERN: a two-process theory of infant face recognition. Psychol. Rev. 98:2164–81 [Google Scholar]
  104. Murphy P, Brady N, Fitzgerald M, Troje N. 2009. No evidence for impaired perception of biological motion in adults with autistic spectrum disorders. Neuropsychologia 47:143225–35 [Google Scholar]
  105. Onishi KH, Baillargeon R. 2005. Do 15-month-old infants understand false beliefs?. Science 308:5719255–58 [Google Scholar]
  106. Pelphrey K, Mitchell T, McKeown M, Goldstein J, Allison T, McCarthy G. 2003. Brain activity evoked by the perception of human walking: controlling for meaningful coherent motion. J. Neurosci. 23:176819–25 [Google Scholar]
  107. Peters J, Büchel C. 2010. Neural representations of subjective reward value. Behav. Brain Res. 213:2135–41 [Google Scholar]
  108. Phillips J, Ong DC, Surtees ADR, Xin Y, Williams S. et al. 2015. A second look at automatic theory of mind: reconsidering Kovács, Téglás, and Endress (2010). Psychol. Sci. 26:91353–67 [Google Scholar]
  109. Press C, Richardson D, Bird G. 2010. Intact imitation of emotional facial actions in autism spectrum conditions. Neuropsychologia 48:113291–97 [Google Scholar]
  110. Purcell DG, Stewart AL. 1988. The face-detection effect: configuration enhances detection. Percept. Psychophys. 43:4355–66 [Google Scholar]
  111. Quirin M, Meyer F, Heise N, Kuhl J, Küstermann E. et al. 2013. Neural correlates of social motivation: an fMRI study on power versus affiliation. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 88:3289–95 [Google Scholar]
  112. Ray E, Heyes C. 2011. Imitation in infancy: the wealth of the stimulus. Dev. Sci. 14:192–105 [Google Scholar]
  113. Reader SM, Hager Y, Laland KN. 2011. The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366:15671017–27 [Google Scholar]
  114. Reader SM, Laland KN. 2002. Social intelligence, innovation, and enhanced brain size in primates. PNAS 99:74436–41 [Google Scholar]
  115. Rizzolatti G, Craighero L. 2004. The mirror-neuron system. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27:169–92 [Google Scholar]
  116. Rizzolatti G, Fadiga L, Gallese V, Fogassi L. 1996. Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions. Cogn. Brain Res. 3:2131–41 [Google Scholar]
  117. Rizzolatti G, Sinigaglia C. 2010. The functional role of the parieto-frontal mirror circuit: interpretations and misinterpretations. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 11:4264–74 [Google Scholar]
  118. Rogers S, Pennington B. 1991. A theoretical approach to the deficits in infantile autism. Dev. Psychopathol. 3:2137–62 [Google Scholar]
  119. Salva OR, Farroni T, Regolin L, Vallortigara G, Johnson MH. 2011. The evolution of social orienting: evidence from chicks (Gallus gallus) and human newborns. PLOS ONE 6:4e18802 [Google Scholar]
  120. Samson D, Apperly IA, Braithwaite JJ, Andrews BJ, Bodley Scott SE. 2010. Seeing it their way: Evidence for rapid and involuntary computation of what other people see. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 36:51255–66 [Google Scholar]
  121. Santiesteban I, Banissy MJ, Catmur C, Bird G. 2012a. Enhancing social ability by stimulating right temporoparietal junction. Curr. Biol. 22:232274–77 [Google Scholar]
  122. Santiesteban I, Banissy MJ, Catmur C, Bird G. 2015. Functional lateralization of temporoparietal junction—imitation inhibition, visual perspective-taking and theory of mind. Eur. J. Neurosci. 42:82527–33 [Google Scholar]
  123. Santiesteban I, Catmur C, Hopkins SC, Bird G, Heyes C. 2014. Avatars and arrows: implicit mentalizing or domain-general processing?. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 40:3929–37 [Google Scholar]
  124. Santiesteban I, White S, Cook J, Gilbert SJ, Heyes C, Bird G. 2012b. Training social cognition: from imitation to theory of mind. Cognition 122:2228–35Training the inhibition of imitation improved perspective-taking abilities arguably via training of self-other control. [Google Scholar]
  125. Saxe R, Moran JM, Scholz J, Gabrieli J. 2006. Overlapping and non-overlapping brain regions for theory of mind and self reflection in individual subjects. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci 1:3229–34 [Google Scholar]
  126. Saygin A, Cook J, Blakemore S. 2010. Unaffected perceptual thresholds for biological and non-biological form-from-motion perception in autism spectrum conditions. PLOS ONE 5:10e13491 [Google Scholar]
  127. Schultz W. 2000. Multiple reward signals in the brain. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 1:3199–207 [Google Scholar]
  128. Schwenck C, Mergenthaler J, Keller K, Zech J, Salehi S. et al. 2012. Empathy in children with autism and conduct disorder: group-specific profiles and developmental aspects. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 53:6651–59 [Google Scholar]
  129. Senju A, Southgate V, White S, Frith U. 2009. Mindblind eyes: an absence of spontaneous theory of mind in Asperger syndrome. Science 325:5942883–85 [Google Scholar]
  130. Sescousse G, Caldú X, Segura B, Dreher J-C. 2013. Processing of primary and secondary rewards: a quantitative meta-analysis and review of human functional neuroimaging studies. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 37:4681–96 [Google Scholar]
  131. Sevdalis V, Keller PE. 2011. Perceiving performer identity and intended expression intensity in point-light displays of dance. Psychol. Res. 75:5423–34 [Google Scholar]
  132. Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL. 2015. Social cognition. Anim. Behav. 103:191–202 [Google Scholar]
  133. Shah P, Gaule A, Bird G, Cook R. 2013. Robust orienting to protofacial stimuli in autism. Curr. Biol. 23:24R1087–88 [Google Scholar]
  134. Simion F, Valenza E, Macchi Cassia V, Turati C, Umiltà C. 2002. Newborns’ preference for up-down asymmetrical configurations. Dev. Sci. 5:4427–34 [Google Scholar]
  135. Singer T, Lamm C. 2009. The social neuroscience of empathy. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1156:181–96 [Google Scholar]
  136. Sowden S, Catmur C. 2015. The role of the right temporoparietal junction in the control of imitation. Cereb. Cortex 25:41107–13 [Google Scholar]
  137. Sowden S, Koehne S, Catmur C, Dziobek I, Bird G. 2016. Intact automatic imitation and typical spatial compatibility in autism spectrum disorder: challenging the broken mirror theory. Autism Res 9:2292–300 [Google Scholar]
  138. Spengler S, Bird G, Brass M. 2010. Hyperimitation of actions is related to reduced understanding of others’ minds in autism spectrum conditions. Biol. Psychiatry 68:121148–55 [Google Scholar]
  139. Stanovich KE. 1999. Who Is Rational? Studies of Individual Differences in Reasoning Hove, UK: Psychol. Press [Google Scholar]
  140. Taumoepeau M, Ruffman T. 2006. Mother and infant talk about mental states relates to desire language and emotion understanding. Child Dev. 77:2465–81 [Google Scholar]
  141. Taumoepeau M, Ruffman T. 2008. Stepping stones to others’ minds: Maternal talk relates to child mental state language and emotion understanding at 15, 24, and 33 months. Child Dev. 79:2284–302 [Google Scholar]
  142. Templeton JJ, Kamil AC, Balda RP. 1999. Sociality and social learning in two species of corvids: the pinyon jay (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus) and the Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana). J. Comp. Psychol. 113:4450–55 [Google Scholar]
  143. Tomalski P, Csibra G, Johnson MH. 2009. Rapid orienting toward face-like stimuli with gaze-relevant contrast information. Perception 38:4569–78 [Google Scholar]
  144. Tranel D, Damasio H, Damasio AR. 1995. Double dissociation between overt and covert face recognition. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 7:4425–32 [Google Scholar]
  145. Van Etten HM, Carver LJ. 2015. Does impaired social motivation drive imitation deficits in children with autism spectrum disorder?. Rev. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 2:3310–19 [Google Scholar]
  146. Van Overwalle F, Baetens K. 2009. Understanding others’ actions and goals by mirror and mentalizing systems: a meta-analysis. NeuroImage 48:3564–84 [Google Scholar]
  147. White S, Hill E, Happé F, Frith U. 2009. Revisiting the strange stories: revealing mentalizing impairments in autism. Child Dev 80:41097–117 [Google Scholar]
  148. Wilkinson A, Kuenstner K, Mueller J, Huber L. 2010. Social learning in a non-social reptile (Geochelone carbonaria). Biol. Lett. 6:5614–16 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044046
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044046
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error