A few decades ago, we knew next to nothing about the behavior of our closest animal relative, the chimpanzee, but long-term field studies have since revealed an undreamed-of richness in the diversity of their cultural traditions across Africa. These discoveries have been complemented by a substantial suite of experimental studies, now bridging to the wild through field experiments. These field and experimental studies, particularly those in which direct chimpanzee–child comparisons have been made, delineate a growing set of commonalities between the phenomena of social learning and culture in the lives of chimpanzees and humans. These commonalities in social learning inform our understanding of the evolutionary roots of the cultural propensities the species share. At the same time, such comparisons throw into clearer relief the unique features of the distinctive human capacity for cumulative cultural evolution, and new research has begun to probe the key psychological attributes that may explain it.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Aplin LM, Farine DR, Morand-Ferron J, Cockburn A, Thornton A, Sheldon BC. 2015a. Experimentally induced innovations lead to persistent culture via conformity in wild birds. Nature 518:538–41 [Google Scholar]
  2. Aplin LM, Farine DR, Morand-Ferron J, Cockburn A, Thornton A, Sheldon BC. 2015b. Counting conformity: evaluating the units of measurement in frequency-dependent social learning. Anim. Behav. 110:e5–8 [Google Scholar]
  3. Asch SE. 1956. Studies of independence and conformity: 1. A minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychol. Monogr. 70:1–70 [Google Scholar]
  4. Atkinson Q. 2011. Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa. Science 332:346–49 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bellagamba F, Tomasello M. 1999. Re-enacting intended acts: comparing 12- and 18-month-olds. Infant Behav. Dev. 22:277–82 [Google Scholar]
  6. Berl R, Hewlett B. 2015. Cultural variation in the use of overimitation by the Aka and Ngandu of the Congo Basin. PLOS ONE 10:e0120180 [Google Scholar]
  7. Biro D, Inoue-Nakamura N, Tonooka R, Yamakoshi G, Sousa C, Matsuzawa T. 2003. Cultural innovation and transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees: evidence from field experiments. Anim. Cogn. 6:213–23 [Google Scholar]
  8. Boesch C. 2012. Wild Cultures Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  9. Boesch C, Tomasello M. 1998. Chimpanzee and human cultures. Curr. Anthropol. 39:591–614 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bonnie KE, Horner V, Whiten A, de Waal FBM. 2007. Spread of arbitrary customs among chimpanzees: a controlled experiment. Proc. R. Soc. B 274:367–72 [Google Scholar]
  11. Boyd R, Richerson PJ. 1985. Culture and the Evolutionary Process Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  12. Buttelmann D, Carpenter M, Call J, Tomasello M. 2007. Enculturated chimpanzees imitate rationally. Dev. Sci. 10:31–38 [Google Scholar]
  13. Buttelmann D, Carpenter M, Call J, Tomasello M. 2008. Rational tool use and tool choice in human infants and great apes. Child Dev 79:609–26 [Google Scholar]
  14. Caldwell CA, Millen AE. 2009. Social learning mechanisms and cumulative cultural evolution: Is imitation necessary. Psychol. Sci. 20:1478–83 [Google Scholar]
  15. Call J. 2001. Body imitation in an enculturated orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). Cybern. Syst. 32:97–119 [Google Scholar]
  16. Call J, Carpenter M, Tomasello M. 2005. Copying results and copying actions in the process of social learning: chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens). Anim. Cogn. 8:151–63 [Google Scholar]
  17. Call J, Tomasello M. 1994. The social learning of tool use by orangutans. Hum. Evol. 9:297–313 [Google Scholar]
  18. Call J, Tomasello M. 1995. The use of social information in the problem-solving of orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens). J. Comp. Psychol. 109:308–20 [Google Scholar]
  19. Carpenter M, Akhtar N, Tomasello M. 1998. Fourteen- through 18-month-old infants differentially imitate intentional and accidental actions. Infant Behav. Dev. 21:315–30 [Google Scholar]
  20. Carpenter M, Tomasello M, Savage-Rumbaugh S. 1995. Joint attention and imitative learning in children, chimpanzees and enculturated chimpanzees. Soc. Dev. 4:217–37 [Google Scholar]
  21. Claidière N, Whiten A. 2012. Integrating the study of conformity and culture in humans and non-human animals. Psychol. Bull. 138:126–45 [Google Scholar]
  22. Claidière N, Whiten A, Mareno MC, Messer EJE, Brosnan SF. et al. 2015. Selective and contagious prosocial resource donation in capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees and humans. Sci. Rep. 5:7631 [Google Scholar]
  23. Corriveau KH, Harris PL. 2010. Preschoolers (sometimes) defer to the majority in making simple perceptual judgments. Dev. Psychol. 46:437–45 [Google Scholar]
  24. Currie TE, Mace R. 2011. Mode and tempo in the evolution of socio-political organization: reconciling “Darwinian” and “Spencerian” evolutionary approaches in anthropology. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366:1108–17 [Google Scholar]
  25. Custance DM, Whiten A, Bard KA. 1995. Can young chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) imitate arbitrary actions? Hayes and Hayes 1952 revisited. Behaviour 132837–59 [Google Scholar]
  26. Dawkins R. 2005. The Ancestor's Tale London: Weidenfield & Nicolson
  27. Dean LG, Kendal RL, Schapiro SJ, Thierry B, Laland KN. 2012. Identification of social and cognitive processes underlying human cumulative culture. Science 335:1114–18 [Google Scholar]
  28. Flynn EG, Whiten A. 2012. Experimental “microcultures” in young children: identifying biographic, cognitive and social predictors of information transmission. Child Dev 83:911–25 [Google Scholar]
  29. Fuhrmann D, Ravignani A, Marshall-Pescini S, Whiten A. 2014. Synchrony and motor mimicking in chimpanzee observational learning. Sci. Rep. 4:5283 [Google Scholar]
  30. Galef BG Jr. 1990. Traditions in animals: field observations and laboratory analyses. Interpretation and Explanation in the Study of Behaviour: Interpretation, Intentionality and Communication 1 Comparative Perspectives M Bekoff, D Jamieson 74–95 Boulder, CO: Westview [Google Scholar]
  31. Galef BG Jr., Whiten A. 2017. The comparative psychology of social learning. APA Handbook of Comparative Psychology J Call Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc. In press [Google Scholar]
  32. Gergely G, Bekkering H, Kiraly I. 2002. Rational imitation in preverbal infants. Nature 415:755 [Google Scholar]
  33. Goodall J. 1986. The Chimpanzees of Gombe Cambridge, MA: Belknap
  34. Gruber T, Muller MN, Reynolds V, Wrangham R, Zuberbuhler K. 2011. Community-specific evaluation of tool affordances in wild chimpanzees. Sci. Rep. 1:128 [Google Scholar]
  35. Gruber T, Muller MN, Strimling P, Wrangham R, Zuberbuhler K. 2009. Wild chimpanzees rely on cultural knowledge to solve an experimental honey acquisition task. Curr. Biol. 19:1846–52 [Google Scholar]
  36. Hara Y, Imanishi T, Satta Y. 2012. Reconstructing the demographic history of the human lineage using whole-genome sequences from human and three great apes. Genome Biol. Evol. 4:1133–45 [Google Scholar]
  37. Harmand S, Lewis JE, Feibel CS, Lepre CJ, Prat S. et al. 2015. 3.3-Million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya. Nature 521:310–15 [Google Scholar]
  38. Harris PL. 2012. Trusting What You're Told: How Children Learn From Others Cambridge, MA: Havard Univ. Press
  39. Haun DB, Rekers Y, Tomasello M. 2012. Majority-biased transmission in chimpanzees and human children, but not orangutans. Curr. Biol. 22:727–31 [Google Scholar]
  40. Haun DBM, Rekers Y, Tomasello M. 2014. Children conform to the behavior of peers; other great apes stick with what they know. Psychol. Sci. 25:2160–67 [Google Scholar]
  41. Hayes KJ, Hayes C. 1952. Imitation in a home-reared chimpanzee. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 45:450–59 [Google Scholar]
  42. Henrich J. 2015. The Secret of Our Success: How Culture Is Driving Human Evolution, Domesticating Our Species and Making Us Smarter Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  43. Henrich J, Gil-White FJ. 2001. The evolution of prestige: freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission. Evol. Hum. Behav. 22:165–96 [Google Scholar]
  44. Herrmann E, Call J, Hernandez-Loreda MV, Hare B, Tomasello M. 2007. Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Science 317:1360–66 [Google Scholar]
  45. Hewlett BS, Fouts HN, Boyette AH, Hewlett BL. 2011. Social learning among Congo Basin hunter-gatherers. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366:1168–78 [Google Scholar]
  46. Hobaiter C, Poiso T, Zuberbühler K, Hoppit W, Gruber T. 2014. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social learning of tool use in wild chimpanzees. PLOS Biol 12:e1001960 [Google Scholar]
  47. Hoehl S, Zettersten M, Schleihauf H, Gratz S, Pauen S. 2014. The role of social interaction and pedagogical cues for eliciting and reducing overimitation in preschoolers. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 122:122–33 [Google Scholar]
  48. Hopper LM, Flynn EG, Wood LAN, Whiten A. 2010. Observational learning of tool use in children: investigating cultural spread through diffusion chains and learning mechanisms through ghost displays. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 106:82–97 [Google Scholar]
  49. Hopper LM, Lambeth SP, Schapiro SJ, Whiten A. 2008. Observational learning in chimpanzees and children studied through “ghost” conditions. Proc. R. Soc. B 275:835–40 [Google Scholar]
  50. Hopper LM, Lambeth SP, Schapiro SJ, Whiten A. 2015. The importance of witnessed agency in chimpanzee social learning of tool use. Behav. Process. 112:120–29 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hopper LM, Spiteri A, Lambeth SP, Schapiro SJ, Horner V, Whiten A. 2007. Experimental studies of traditions and underlying transmission processes in chimpanzees. Anim. Behav. 73:1021–32 [Google Scholar]
  52. Hoppitt WJE, Brown GE, Kendal R, Rendell L, Thornton A. et al. 2008. Lessons from animal teaching. Trends Ecol. Evol. 23:486–93 [Google Scholar]
  53. Hoppitt WJE, Laland KN. 2013. Social Learning: An Introduction to Mechanisms, Methods and Models Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  54. Horner V, Proctor D, Bonnie KE, Whiten A, de Waal FBM. 2010. Prestige affects cultural learning in chimpanzees. PLOS ONE 5:e10625 [Google Scholar]
  55. Horner V, Whiten A. 2005. Causal knowledge and imitation/emulation switching in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens). Anim. Cogn. 8:164–81 [Google Scholar]
  56. Horner V, Whiten A. 2007. Learning from others’ mistakes? Limits on understanding of a trap-tube task by young chimpanzees and children. J. Comp. Psychol. 121:12–21 [Google Scholar]
  57. Horner V, Whiten A, Flynn E, de Waal FBM. 2006. Faithful replication of foraging techniques along cultural transmission chains by chimpanzees and children. PNAS 103:13878–83 [Google Scholar]
  58. Hrubesch C., Preuschoft S, van Schaik C. 2008. Skill mastery inhibits adoption of observed alternative solutions among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Anim. Cogn. 12:209–16 [Google Scholar]
  59. Jordan P. 2015. Technology as Human Social Tradition: Cultural Transmission Among Hunter-Gatherers Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
  60. Kamilar JM, Atkinson QD. 2014. Cultural assemblages show nested structure in humans and chimpanzees but not orangutans. PNAS 111:111–15 [Google Scholar]
  61. Kendal RM, Hopper LM, Whiten A, Brosnan SF, Lambeth SP. et al. 2015. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals: implications for cultural diversity. Evol. Hum. Behav. 36:65–72 [Google Scholar]
  62. Kenward B, Karlsson M, Persson J. 2011. Over-imitation is better explained by norm learning than by distorted causal learning. Proc. R. Soc. B 278:1239–46 [Google Scholar]
  63. Keupp S, Behne T, Rakoczy H. 2013. Why do children overimitate? Normativity is crucial. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 116:392–406 [Google Scholar]
  64. Kline MA. 2015. How to learn about teaching: an evolutionary framework for the study of teaching behaviour in humans and other animals. Behav. Brain Sci. 38:e31 [Google Scholar]
  65. Kline MA, Boyd R, Henrich J. 2013. Teaching and life history of cultural transmission in Fijian villages. Hum. Nat. 24:351–74 [Google Scholar]
  66. Krützen M, Willems EP, van Schaik CP. 2011. Culture and geographic variation in orangutan behavior. Curr. Biol. 21:1808–12 [Google Scholar]
  67. Langergraber KE, Boesch C, Inoue E, Inoue-Murayama M, Mitani JC. et al. 2011. Genetic and “cultural” similarity in chimpanzees. Proc. R. Soc. B 277:408–16 [Google Scholar]
  68. Levine RA. 1984. Properties of culture: an ethnographic view. Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, Self and Emotion RA Schweder, RA Levine 67–87 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  69. Luncz LV, Boesch C. 2014. Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behaviour despite frequent immigration of adult females. Am. J. Primatol. 76:649–57 [Google Scholar]
  70. Luncz LV, Wittig RM, Boesch C. 2015. Primate archaeology reveals cultural transmission patterns in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 370:20140348 [Google Scholar]
  71. Lycett SJ, Collard M, McGrew WC. 2010. Are behavioral differences among wild chimpanzee communities genetic or cultural? An assessment using tool-use data and phylogenetic methods. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 142:461–67 [Google Scholar]
  72. Lyons DE, Damrosch DH, Lin JK, Macris DM, Keil FC. 2011. The scope and limits of overimitation in the transmission of artefact culture. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366:1158–67 [Google Scholar]
  73. Lyons DE, Young AG, Keil FC. 2007. The hidden structure of overimitation. PNAS 104:19751–56 [Google Scholar]
  74. Marshall-Pescini S, Whiten A. 2008a. Social learning of nut-cracking behaviour in East African sanctuary-living chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). J. Comp. Psychol. 122:186–94 [Google Scholar]
  75. Marshall-Pescini S, Whiten A. 2008b. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and the question of cumulative culture: an experimental approach. Anim. Cogn. 11:449–56 [Google Scholar]
  76. Matsuzawa T, Biro D, Humle T, Inoue-Nakamura N, Tonooka R, Yamakoshi G. 2001. Emergence of culture in wild chimpanzees: education by master-apprenticeship. Primate Origins of Human Cognition and Behaviour T Matsuzawa 557–74 Berlin: Springer-Verlag [Google Scholar]
  77. McGrew WC. 1992. Chimpanzee Material Culture Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  78. McGuigan N, Makinson J, Whiten A. 2011. From over-imitation to super-copying: Adults imitate causally irrelevant aspects of tool use with higher fidelity than young children. Br. J. Psychol. 102:1–18 [Google Scholar]
  79. McGuigan N, Whiten A, Flynn E, Horner V. 2007. Imitation of causally-opaque versus causally-transparent tool use by 3- and 5-year-old children. Cogn. Dev. 22:353–64 [Google Scholar]
  80. Meltzoff AN. 1988. Infant imitation after a 1-week delay: long-term memory for novel acts and multiple stimuli. Dev. Psychol. 24:470–76 [Google Scholar]
  81. Meltzoff AN. 1995. Understanding the intentions of others: re-enactment of intended acts by 18-month-old children. Dev. Psychol. 31:838–50 [Google Scholar]
  82. Mesoudi A, Whiten A. 2008. The multiple roles of cultural transmission experiments in understanding human cultural evolution. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 363:3489–501 [Google Scholar]
  83. Mesoudi A, Whiten A, Laland KN. 2006. Towards a unified science of cultural evolution. Behav. Brain Sci. 29:329–83 [Google Scholar]
  84. Morgan TJH, Laland KN, Harris PL. 2015. The development of adaptive conformity in young children: effects of uncertainty and consensus. Dev. Sci. 18:511–24 [Google Scholar]
  85. Nagell K, Olguin RS, Tomasello M. 1993. Processes of social learning in the tool use of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human children (Homo sapiens). J. Comp. Psychol. 107:174–86 [Google Scholar]
  86. Nielsen M, Haun D. 2016. Why developmental psychology is incomplete without comparative and cross-cultural perspectives. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 371:20150071 [Google Scholar]
  87. Nielsen M, Mushin I, Tomaselli K, Whiten A. 2014. Where culture takes hold: “overimitation” and its flexible deployment in Western, Aboriginal and Bushmen children. Child Dev 85:2169–84 [Google Scholar]
  88. Nielsen M, Simcock G, Jenkins L. 2008. The effect of social engagement on 24-month-olds’ imitation from live and televised models. Dev. Sci. 5:722–31 [Google Scholar]
  89. Nielsen M, Subiaul F, Galef BG Jr., Zentall TR, Whiten A. 2012. Social learning in humans and non-human animals: theoretical and empirical dissections. J. Comp. Psychol. 126:109–13 [Google Scholar]
  90. Nielsen M, Tomaselli K. 2010. Over-imitation in Kalahari Bushman children and the origins of human cultural cognition. Psychol. Sci. 21:729–36 [Google Scholar]
  91. Nielsen M, Widjojo E. 2011. Failure to find over-imitation in captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus): implications for our understanding of cross-generation information transfer. Developmental Psychology J Håkansson 153–67 New York: Nova Sci. [Google Scholar]
  92. Nisbett R, Peng K, Choi I, Norenzayan A. 2001. Culture and systems of thought: holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychol. Rev. 108:291–310 [Google Scholar]
  93. Pagel M. 2012. Wired for Culture: Origins of the Human Social Mind New York: Norton
  94. Price EE, Lambeth SP, Schapiro SJ, Whiten A. 2009. A potent effect of observational learning on chimpanzee tool construction. Proc. R. Soc. B 276:3377–83 [Google Scholar]
  95. Price EE, Wood LA, Whiten A. 2016. Adaptive cultural transmission biases in children and nonhuman primates. Infant. Behav. Dev. In press
  96. Rakoczy H, Hamann K, Warneken F, Tomasello M. 2010. Bigger knows better: Young children selectively learn rule games from adults rather than from peers. Br. J. Dev. Psychol. 28:4785–98 [Google Scholar]
  97. Rawlings B, Davila-Ross M, Boysen ST. 2014. Semi-wild chimpanzees open hard-shelled fruits differently across communities. Anim. Cogn. 17:891–99 [Google Scholar]
  98. Sanz C, Call J, Morgan D. 2009. Design complexity in termite-fishing tools of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Biol. Lett. 5:293–96 [Google Scholar]
  99. Semaw S, Rogers MJ, Quade J, Renne PR, Butler RF. et al. 2003. 2.6-Million-year-old stone tools and associated bones from OGS-6 and OGS-7, Gona, Afar, Ethiopia. J. Hum. Evol. 45:169–77 [Google Scholar]
  100. Stout D. 2011. Stone toolmaking and the evolution of human culture and cognition. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366:1050–59 [Google Scholar]
  101. Tennie C, Call J, Tomasello M. 2006. Push or pull: imitation versus emulation in great apes and human children. Ethology 112:1159–69 [Google Scholar]
  102. Tennie C, Call J, Tomasello M. 2009. Ratcheting up the ratchet: on the evolution of cumulative culture. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 364:15282405–15 [Google Scholar]
  103. Tennie C, Call J, Tomasello M. 2010. Evidence for emulation in chimpanzees in social settings using the floating peanut task. PLOS ONE 5:e10544 [Google Scholar]
  104. Thornton A, McAuliffe K. 2006. Teaching in wild meerkats. Science 313:227–29 [Google Scholar]
  105. Thornton A, Raihani NJ. 2008. The evolution of teaching. Anim. Behav. 75:1823–36 [Google Scholar]
  106. Tomasello M. 1990. Cultural transmission in the tool use and communicatory signaling of chimpanzees?. “Language” and Intelligence in Monkeys and Apes: Comparative Developmental Perspectives ST Parker, K Gibson 274–311 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  107. Tomasello M. 1998. Emulation learning and cultural learning. Behav. Brain Sci. 21:703–4 [Google Scholar]
  108. Tomasello M, Call J. 1997. Primate Cognition Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  109. Tomasello M, Carpenter M. 2005. The emergence of social cognition in three young chimpanzees. Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev. 70:1vii–132 [Google Scholar]
  110. Tomasello M, Davis-Dasilva M, Camak L, Bard K. 1987. Observational learning of tool-use by young chimpanzees. Hum. Evol. 2:175–83 [Google Scholar]
  111. Tomasello M, Kruger AE, Ratner H. 1993a. Cultural learning. Behav. Brain Sci. 16:595–652 [Google Scholar]
  112. Tomasello M, Savage-Rumbaugh S, Kruger AC. 1993b. Imitative learning of actions on objects by children, chimpanzees and enculturated chimpanzees. Child Dev 64:1688–705 [Google Scholar]
  113. Vale GL, Flynn EG, Lambeth SP, Schapiro SJ, Kendal RL. 2014. Public information use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens). J. Comp. Psychol 128:215–23 [Google Scholar]
  114. van de Waal E, Borgeaud C, Whiten A. 2013. Potent social learning and conformity shape a wild primate's foraging decisions. Science 340:6131483–85 [Google Scholar]
  115. van Leeuwen EJC, Call J, Haun DBM. 2014a. Human children rely more on social information than chimpanzees do. Biol. Lett. 10:1120140487 [Google Scholar]
  116. van Leeuwen EJC, Cronin K, Haun DBM. 2014b. A group-specific arbitrary tradition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Anim. Cogn. 17:61421–25 [Google Scholar]
  117. van Leeuwen EJC, Cronin KA, Haun DBM, Mundry R, Bodamer MD. 2012. Neighbouring chimpanzee communities show different preferences in social grooming behaviour. Proc. R. Sci. B 279:4362–67 [Google Scholar]
  118. van Leeuwen EJC, Haun DBM. 2014. Conformity without majority? The case for demarcating social from majority influences. Anim. Behav. 96:187–94 [Google Scholar]
  119. van Schaik CP, Ancrenaz M, Borgen G, Galdikas B, Knott CD. et al. 2003. Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture. Science 299:102–5 [Google Scholar]
  120. Walker MB, Andrade MG. 1996. Conformity in the Asch test as a function of age. Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 136:367–72 [Google Scholar]
  121. Want SC, Harris PL. 2002. How do children ape? Applying concepts from the study of non-human primates to the developmental study of “imitation” in children. Dev. Sci. 5:1–14 [Google Scholar]
  122. Wasielewski H. 2014. Imitation is necessary for cumulative cultural evolution in an unfamiliar, opaque task. Hum. Nat. 25:161–79 [Google Scholar]
  123. Whiten A. 2005. The second inheritance system of chimpanzees and humans. Nature 437:52–55 [Google Scholar]
  124. Whiten A. 2010. Ape behaviour and the origins of human culture. Mind the Gap: Tracing the Origins of Human Universals P Kappeler, J Silk 429–50 Berlin: Springer-Verlag [Google Scholar]
  125. Whiten A. 2011. The scope of culture in chimpanzees, humans and ancestral apes. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366:997–1007 [Google Scholar]
  126. Whiten A. 2012. Primate social learning, traditions and culture. The Evolution of Primate Societies J Mitani, J Call, P Kappeler, R Palombit, J Silk 681–99 Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  127. Whiten A. 2013. Social cognition: making us smart, or sometimes making us dumb? Overimitation, conformity, non-conformity and the transmission of culture in ape and child. Navigating the Social World: What Infants, Children, and Other Species Can Teach Us M Banaji, S Gelman 150–54 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  128. Whiten A. 2015. Experimental studies illuminate the cultural transmission of percussive technology in Homo and Pan. Philos.. Trans. R. Soc. B 370:20140359 [Google Scholar]
  129. Whiten A, Caldwell CA, Mesoudi A. 2016. Cultural diffusion in humans and other animals. Curr. Opin. Psychol. 8:15–21 [Google Scholar]
  130. Whiten A, Custance DM, Gomez JC, Teixidor P, Bard KA. 1996. Imitative learning of artificial fruit processing in children (Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J. Comp. Psychol. 110:3–14 [Google Scholar]
  131. Whiten A, Erdal D. 2012. The human socio-cognitive niche and its evolutionary origins. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 367:2119–29 [Google Scholar]
  132. Whiten A, Flynn EG. 2010. The transmission and evolution of experimental “microcultures” in groups of young children. Dev. Psychol. 46:1694–709 [Google Scholar]
  133. Whiten A, Goodall J, McGrew WC, Nishida T, Reynolds V. et al. 1999. Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature 399:682–85 [Google Scholar]
  134. Whiten A, Goodall J, McGrew WC, Nishida T, Reynolds V. et al. 2001. Charting cultural variation in chimpanzees. Behaviour 138:1489–525 [Google Scholar]
  135. Whiten A, Ham R. 1992. On the nature and evolution of imitation in the animal kingdom: reappraisal of a century of research. Adv. Study Behav. 21:239–83 [Google Scholar]
  136. Whiten A, Hinde RA, Stringer CB, Laland KN. 2011. Culture evolves. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366:938–48 [Google Scholar]
  137. Whiten A, Horner V, de Waal FBM. 2005a. Conformity to cultural norms of tool use in chimpanzees. Nature 437:737–40 [Google Scholar]
  138. Whiten A, Horner V, Litchfield CA, Marshall-Pescini S. 2004. How do apes ape?. Learn. Behav. 32:36–52 [Google Scholar]
  139. Whiten A, Horner V, Marshall-Pescini SRJ. 2003. Cultural panthropology. Evol. Anthropol. 12:92–105 [Google Scholar]
  140. Whiten A, Horner V, Marshall-Pescini S. 2005b. Selective imitation in child and chimpanzee: a window on the construal of others’ actions. Perspectives on Imitation: From Neuroscience to Social Science S Hurley, N Chater 263–83 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  141. Whiten A, McGuigan H, Hopper LM, Marshall-Pescini S. 2009. Imitation, over-imitation, emulation and the scope of culture for child and chimpanzee. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 364:2417–28 [Google Scholar]
  142. Whiten A, Mesoudi A. 2008. An experimental science of culture: animal social diffusion experiments. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 363:3477–88 [Google Scholar]
  143. Whiten A, Spiteri A, Horner V, Bonnie KE, Lambeth SP. et al. 2007. Transmission of multiple traditions within and between chimpanzee groups. Curr. Biol. 17:1038–43 [Google Scholar]
  144. Whiten A, van Schaik CP. 2007. The evolution of animal “cultures” and social intelligence. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 362:603–20 [Google Scholar]
  145. Wood LA, Kendal RL, Flynn EG. 2013. Whom do children copy? Model-based biases in social learning. Dev. Rev. 33:341–46 [Google Scholar]
  146. Yerkes RM. 1916. The Mental Life of Monkeys and Apes Delmar, NY: Scholars’ Facsim. Repr.
  147. Zmyj N, Buttelmann D, Carpenter M, Daum MM. 2010. The reliability of a model influences 14-month-olds’ imitation. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 106:4208–20 [Google Scholar]
  148. Zmyj N, Daum MM, Prinz W, Nielsen M, Aschersleben G. 2012. Fourteen-month-olds’ imitation of differently aged models. Infant Child Dev 21:3250–66 [Google Scholar]
  149. Zwinner E, Thornton A. 2016. Cognitive requirements of cumulative culture: Teaching is useful but not essential. Sci. Rep. 5:16781 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Material

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error