1932

Abstract

Sociocognitive research has demonstrated that power affects how people feel, think, and act. In this article, I review literature from social psychology, neuroscience, management, and animal research and propose an integrated framework of power as an intensifier of goal-related approach motivation. A growing literature shows that power energizes thought, speech, and action and orients individuals toward salient goals linked to power roles, predispositions, tasks, and opportunities. Power magnifies self-expression linked to active parts of the self (the active self), enhancing confidence, self-regulation, and prioritization of efforts toward advancing focal goals. The effects of power on cognitive processes, goal preferences, performance, and corruption are discussed, and its potentially detrimental effects on social attention, perspective taking, and objectification of subordinates are examined. Several inconsistencies in the literature are explained by viewing power holders as more flexible and dynamic than is usually assumed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044153
2017-01-03
2024-04-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/psych/68/1/annurev-psych-010416-044153.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044153&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Acton JEED. 1887 (1972). Letter to Mandell Creighton, April 5, 1887. Essays on Freedom and Power G Himmelfarb 335–36 Gloucester, MA: P. Smith [Google Scholar]
  2. Alcaro A, Huber R, Panksepp J. 2007. Behavioral functions of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system: an affective neuroethological perspective. Brain Res. Rev. 56:2283–321 [Google Scholar]
  3. Allen N, Angers H, Bhogal A, Ching C, Davidian S. et al. 2015. British MPs on British PMs: parliamentary evaluations of prime ministerial success. Politics 35:2111–27 [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderson C, Berdahl JL. 2002. The experience of power: examining the effects of power on approach and inhibition tendencies. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 83:61362–77 [Google Scholar]
  5. Anderson C, John OP, Keltner D. 2012. The personal sense of power. J. Pers. 80:2313–44 [Google Scholar]
  6. Anderson C, Kilduff GJ. 2009. Why do dominant personalities attain influence in face-to-face groups? The competence-signaling effects of trait dominance. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 96:2491–503 [Google Scholar]
  7. Ashforth BE, Anand V. 2003. The normalization of corruption in organizations. Res. Organ. Behav. 25:1–52 [Google Scholar]
  8. Berdahl JL, Martorana P. 2006. Effects of power on emotion and expression during a controversial group discussion. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 36:4497–509 [Google Scholar]
  9. Berridge KC. 2007. The debate over dopamine's role in reward: the case for incentive salience. Psychopharmacology 191:3391–431 [Google Scholar]
  10. Boehm C. 2009. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  11. Boksem MA, Smolders R, De Cremer D. 2012. Social power and approach-related neural activity. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 7:5516–20 [Google Scholar]
  12. Briñol P, Petty RE, Valle C, Rucker DD, Becerra A. 2007. The effects of message recipients' power before and after persuasion: a self-validation analysis. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 93:61040–53 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bugental DB. 2010. Paradoxical power manifestations: power assertion by the subjectively powerless. The Social Psychology of Power A Guinote, TK Vescio 209–30 New York: Guilford Press [Google Scholar]
  14. Bugental DB, Happaney K. 2004. Predicting infant maltreatment in low-income families: the interactive effects of maternal attributions and child status at birth. Dev. Psychol. 40:234–43 [Google Scholar]
  15. Carver CS. 2004. Negative affects deriving from the behavioral approach system. Emotion 4:13–22 [Google Scholar]
  16. Carver CS, Harmon-Jones E. 2009. Anger is an approach-related affect: evidence and implications. Psychol. Bull. 135:2183–204 [Google Scholar]
  17. Carver CS, White TL. 1994. Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: the BIS/BAS scales. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 67:2319–33 [Google Scholar]
  18. Catalyst 2016. Women CEOs of the S&P 500 New York: Catalyst, updated July 1. http://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/women-ceos-sp-500
  19. Chen S, Langner CA, Mendoza-Denton R. 2009. When dispositional and role power fit: implications for self-expression and self–other congruence. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 96:3710–27 [Google Scholar]
  20. Chen S, Lee-Chai AY, Bargh JA. 2001. Relationship orientation as a moderator of the effects of social power. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 80:2173–87 [Google Scholar]
  21. Chin MK, Hambrick DC, Treviño LK. 2013. Political ideologies of CEOs: the influence of executives’ values on corporate social responsibility. Adm. Sci. Q. 58:2197–232 [Google Scholar]
  22. Civile C, Obhi SS. 2016. Power, objectification, and recognition of sexualized women and men. Psychol. Women Q. 40:2199–212 [Google Scholar]
  23. Clegg SR, Courpasson D, Phillips N. 2006. Power and Organizations Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press
  24. Corr PJ, Cooper AJ. 2016. The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire (RST-PQ): development and validation. Personal. Individ. Differ. 89:60–64 [Google Scholar]
  25. Costa PT Jr., McCrae RR. 1995. Domains and facets: hierarchical personality assessment using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. J. Pers. Assess. 64:121–50 [Google Scholar]
  26. Côté S, Kraus MW, Cheng BH, Oveis C, Van der Löwe I. et al. 2011. Social power facilitates the effect of prosocial orientation on empathic accuracy. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 101:2217–32 [Google Scholar]
  27. Dahl R. 1957 (2007). The concept of power. Syst. Res. 2:3201–15 [Google Scholar]
  28. Dane E, Pratt MG. 2007. Exploring intuition and its role in managerial decision making. Acad. Manag. Rev. 32:133–54 [Google Scholar]
  29. Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil C, Lee L, Pang B, Kleinberg J. 2012. Echoes of power: language effects and power differences in social interaction. Proc. Int. Conf. World Wide Web, 21st, Lyon, Fr.699–708 New York: ACM [Google Scholar]
  30. De Cremer D, Van Dijk E. 2005. When and why leaders put themselves first: leader behaviour in resource allocations as a function of feeling entitled. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 35:4553–63 [Google Scholar]
  31. De Dreu CK, Van Kleef GA. 2004. The influence of power on the information search, impression formation, and demands in negotiation. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 40:3303–19 [Google Scholar]
  32. De Hoogh AH, Den Hartog DN. 2008. Ethical and despotic leadership, relationships with leader's social responsibility, top management team effectiveness and subordinates' optimism: a multi-method study. Leadersh. Q. 19:3297–311 [Google Scholar]
  33. DeCelles KA, DeRue DS, Margolis JD, Ceranic TL. 2012. Does power corrupt or enable? When and why power facilitates self-interested behavior. J. Appl. Psychol. 97:3681–89 [Google Scholar]
  34. DeWall CN, Baumeister RF, Mead NL, Vohs KD. 2011. How leaders self-regulate their task performance: evidence that power promotes diligence, depletion, and disdain. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 100:147–65 [Google Scholar]
  35. Dinh JE, Lord RG. 2012. Implications of dispositional and process views of traits for individual difference research in leadership. Leadersh. Q. 23:4651–69 [Google Scholar]
  36. Duguid MM, Goncalo JA. 2012. Living large: the powerful overestimate their own height. Psychol. Sci. 23:136–40 [Google Scholar]
  37. Duguid MM, Goncalo JA. 2015. Squeezed in the middle: the middle status trade creativity for focus. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 109:4589–603 [Google Scholar]
  38. Ellemers N, De Gilder D, Haslam SA. 2004. Motivating individuals and groups at work: a social identity perspective on leadership and group performance. Acad. Manag. Rev. 29:3459–78 [Google Scholar]
  39. Emerson RM. 1962. Power-dependence relations. Am. Sociol. Rev. 27:31–41 [Google Scholar]
  40. Fast NJ, Chen S. 2009. When the boss feels inadequate: power, incompetence, and aggression. Psychol. Sci. 20:111406–13 [Google Scholar]
  41. Fast NJ, Gruenfeld DH, Sivanathan N, Galinsky AD. 2009. Illusory control: a generative force behind power's far-reaching effects. Psychol. Sci. 20:4502–8 [Google Scholar]
  42. Fast NJ, Sivanathan N, Mayer ND, Galinsky AD. 2012. Power and overconfident decision-making. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 117:2249–60 [Google Scholar]
  43. Fiske ST. 1992. Thinking is for doing: portraits of social cognition from daguerreotype to laserphoto. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 63:6877–89 [Google Scholar]
  44. Fiske ST. 1993. Controlling other people: the impact of power on stereotyping. Am. Psychol. 48:6621–28 [Google Scholar]
  45. Fiske ST, Berdahl J. 2007. Social power. Social Psychology: A Handbook of Basic Principles 2 AW Kruglanski, T Higgins 678–92 New York: Guilford [Google Scholar]
  46. Fiske ST, Dépret E. 1996. Control, interdependence and power: understanding social cognition in its social context. Eur. Rev. Soc. Psychol. 7:131–61 [Google Scholar]
  47. Fiske ST, Neuberg SL. 1990. A continuum of impression formation, from category-based to individuating processes: influences of information and motivation on attention and interpretation. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 23:1–74 [Google Scholar]
  48. French JRP, Raven B. 1959. The bases of social power. Studies in Social Power D Cartwright 150–67 Ann Arbor: Univ. Michigan Inst. Soc. Res. [Google Scholar]
  49. Galinsky AD, Gruenfeld DH, Magee JC. 2003. From power to action. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 85:3453–66 [Google Scholar]
  50. Galinsky AD, Magee JC, Gruenfeld DH, Whitson JA, Liljenquist KA. 2008. Power reduces the press of the situation: implications for creativity, conformity, and dissonance. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 95:61450–66 [Google Scholar]
  51. Galinsky AD, Magee JC, Inesi ME, Gruenfeld DH. 2006. Power and perspectives not taken. Psychol. Sci. 17:121068–74 [Google Scholar]
  52. Gervais SJ, Guinote A, Allen J, Slabu L. 2013. Power increases situated creativity. Soc. Influ. 8:4294–311 [Google Scholar]
  53. Gonzaga GC, Keltner D, Ward D. 2008. Power in mixed-sex stranger interactions. Cogn. Emot. 22:81555–68 [Google Scholar]
  54. Goodwin SA, Gubin A, Fiske ST, Yzerbyt VY. 2000. Power can bias impression processes: stereotyping subordinates by default and by design. Group Process. Intergroup Relat. 3:3227–56 [Google Scholar]
  55. Gough HG. 1987. California Psychology Inventory Administrator's Guide Palo Alto, CA: Consult. Psychol. Press
  56. Grant RW, Keohane RO. 2005. Accountability and abuses of power in world politics. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 99:129–43 [Google Scholar]
  57. Gray JA. 1990. Brain systems that mediate both emotion and cognition. Cogn. Emot. 4:3269–88 [Google Scholar]
  58. Gray JA, McNaughton N. 2000. The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Function of the Septo-Hippocampal System Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, 2nd ed..
  59. Gruenfeld DH, Inesi ME, Magee JC, Galinsky AD. 2008. Power and the objectification of social targets. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 95:1111–27 [Google Scholar]
  60. Guinote A. 2007a. Behaviour variability and the situated focus theory of power. Eur. Rev. Soc. Psychol. 18:1256–95 [Google Scholar]
  61. Guinote A. 2007b. Power affects basic cognition: increased attentional inhibition and flexibility. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 43:5685–97 [Google Scholar]
  62. Guinote A. 2007c. Power and goal pursuit. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 33:81076–87 [Google Scholar]
  63. Guinote A. 2008. Power and affordances: when the situation has more power over powerful than powerless individuals. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 95:2237–52 [Google Scholar]
  64. Guinote A. 2010. In touch with your feelings: Power increases reliance on bodily information. Soc. Cogn. 28:1110–21 [Google Scholar]
  65. Guinote A, Chen S. 2016. Power as active self: acquisition and use of power. The Oxford Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology K Deaux, M Snyder Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press. In press [Google Scholar]
  66. Guinote A, Cotzia I, Sandhu S, Siwa P. 2015. Social status modulates prosocial behavior and egalitarianism in preschool children and adults. PNAS 112:3731–36 [Google Scholar]
  67. Guinote A, Judd CM, Brauer M. 2002. Effects of power on perceived and objective group variability: evidence that more powerful groups are more variable. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 82:5708–21 [Google Scholar]
  68. Guinote A, Phillips A. 2010. Power can increase stereotyping: evidence from managers and subordinates in the hotel industry. Soc. Psychol. 41:3–9 [Google Scholar]
  69. Guinote A, Weick M, Cai A. 2012. Does power magnify the expression of dispositions. Psychol. Sci. 94:6956–70 [Google Scholar]
  70. Guinote A, Willis GB, Martellotta C. 2010. Social power increases implicit prejudice. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 46:2299–307 [Google Scholar]
  71. Gwinn JD, Judd CM, Park B. 2013. Less power = less human? Effects of power differentials on dehumanization. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 49:3464–70 [Google Scholar]
  72. Hall JA, Coats EJ, LeBeau LS. 2005. Nonverbal behavior and the vertical dimension of social relations: a meta-analysis. Psychol. Bull. 131:6898–924 [Google Scholar]
  73. Hall JA, Schmid Mast MS, Latu IM. 2015. The vertical dimension of social relations and accurate interpersonal perception: a meta-analysis. J. Nonverbal Behav. 39:2131–63 [Google Scholar]
  74. Hamid AA, Pettibone JR, Mabrouk OS, Hetrick VL, Schmidt R. et al. 2016. Mesolimbic dopamine signals the value of work. Nat. Neurosci. 19:1117–26 [Google Scholar]
  75. Harada T, Bridge DJ, Chiao JY. 2012. Dynamic social power modulates neural basis of math calculation. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6:350115–27 [Google Scholar]
  76. Haslam SA, Reicher SD, Platow MJ. 2010. The New Psychology of Leadership: Identity, Influence and Power New York: Psychol. Press
  77. Hildreth JAD, Anderson C. 2016. Failure at the top: how power undermines collaborative performance. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 110:2261–86 [Google Scholar]
  78. Hofstede G, Van Deusen CA, Mueller CB, Charles TA. Bus. Goals Netw 2002. What goals do business leaders pursue? A study in fifteen countries. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 33:785–803 [Google Scholar]
  79. Hogan J, Hogan R, Kaiser RB. 2010. Management derailment. APA Handb. Ind. Organ. Psychol. 3:555–75 [Google Scholar]
  80. Hogg MA. 2001. A social identity theory of leadership. Pers. Soc. Psych. Rev. 5:3184–200 [Google Scholar]
  81. Hoogervorst N, De Cremer D, Van Dijke M, Mayer DM. 2012. When do leaders sacrifice? The effects of sense of power and belongingness on leader self-sacrifice. Leadersh. Q. 23:5883–96 [Google Scholar]
  82. Inesi ME. 2010. Power and loss aversion. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process 112:158–69 [Google Scholar]
  83. Inesi ME, Gruenfeld DH, Galinsky AD. 2012. How power corrupts relationships: cynical attributions for others' generous acts. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 48:4795–803 [Google Scholar]
  84. Ingersoll RM. 2009. Who Controls Teachers' Work? Power and Accountability in America's Schools Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  85. Josephs RA, Sellers JG, Newman ML, Mehta PH. 2006. The mismatch effect: when testosterone and status are at odds. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 90:6999–1013 [Google Scholar]
  86. Joshi PD, Fast NJ. 2013a. I am my (high-power) role: power and role identification. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 39:7898–910 [Google Scholar]
  87. Joshi PD, Fast NJ. 2013b. Power and reduced temporal discounting. Psychol. Sci. 24:4432–38 [Google Scholar]
  88. Judge TA, Bono JE, Ilies R, Gerhardt MW. 2002. Personality and leadership: a qualitative and quantitative review. J. Appl. Psychol. 87:4765–80 [Google Scholar]
  89. Judge TA, Colbert AE, Ilies R. 2004. Intelligence and leadership: a quantitative review and test of theoretical propositions. J. Appl. Psychol. 89:3542–52 [Google Scholar]
  90. Kacewicz E, Pennebaker JW, Davis M, Jeon M, Graesser AC. 2013. Pronoun use reflects standings in social hierarchies. J. Lang. Soc. Psychol. 33:2125–47 [Google Scholar]
  91. Kang SK, Galinsky AD, Kray LJ, Shirako A. 2015. Power affects performance when the pressure is on: evidence for low-power threat and high-power lift. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 41:5726–35 [Google Scholar]
  92. Kaplan JR, Manuck SB, Fontenot MB, Mann JJ. 2002. Central nervous system monoamine correlates of social dominance in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Neuropsychopharmacology 26:431–43 [Google Scholar]
  93. Keltner D, Gruenfeld D, Galinsky A, Kraus MW. 2010. Paradoxes of power: dynamics of the acquisition, experience, and social regulation of social power. The Social Psychology of Power A Guinote, T Vescio 177–208 New York: Guilford Press [Google Scholar]
  94. Keltner D, Gruenfeld DH, Anderson C. 2003. Power, approach, and inhibition. Psychol. Rev. 110:2265–84 [Google Scholar]
  95. Kim PH, Pinkley RL, Fragale AR. 2005. Power dynamics in negotiation. Acad. Manag. Rev. 30:4799–822 [Google Scholar]
  96. Kipnis D. 1972. Does power corrupt?. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 24:133–41 [Google Scholar]
  97. Kipnis D. 1976. The Powerholders Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  98. Kopelman S. 2009. The effect of culture and power on cooperation in commons dilemmas: implications for global resource management. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process 108:1153–63 [Google Scholar]
  99. Kounios J, Beeman M. 2009. The Aha! moment: the cognitive neuroscience of insight. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 18:4210–16 [Google Scholar]
  100. Kraus MW, Chen S, Keltner D. 2011. The power to be me: Power elevates self-concept consistency and authenticity. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 47:5974–80 [Google Scholar]
  101. Kruglanski AW, Bélanger JJ, Chen X, Köpetz C, Pierro A, Mannetti L. 2012. The energetics of motivated cognition: a force-field analysis. Psychol. Rev. 119:11–20 [Google Scholar]
  102. Kunstman JW, Maner JK. 2011. Sexual overperception: power, mating motives, and biases in social judgment. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 100:2282–94 [Google Scholar]
  103. Lammers J, Dubois D, Rucker DD, Galinsky AD. 2013. Power gets the job: Priming power improves interview outcomes. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 49:4776–79 [Google Scholar]
  104. Lammers J, Galinsky AD, Gordijn EH, Otten S. 2008. Illegitimacy moderates the effects of power on approach. Psychol. Sci. 19:6558–64 [Google Scholar]
  105. Lammers J, Stoker JI, Jordan J, Pollmann M, Stapel DA. 2011. Power increases infidelity among men and women. Psychol. Sci. 22:91191–97 [Google Scholar]
  106. Lammers J, Stoker JI, Rink F, Galinsky AD. 2016. To have control over or to be free from others? The desire for power reflects a need for autonomy. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 42:4498–512 [Google Scholar]
  107. Lammers J, Stoker JI, Stapel DA. 2010. Power and behavioral approach orientation in existing power relations and the mediating effect of income. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 40:3543–51 [Google Scholar]
  108. Langner CA, Keltner D. 2008. Social power and emotional experience: actor and partner effects within dyadic interactions. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 44:3848–56 [Google Scholar]
  109. Laurin K, Fitzsimons GM, Finkel EJ, Carswell KL, Van Dellen MR. et al. 2016. Power and the pursuit of a partner's goals. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 110:6840–68 [Google Scholar]
  110. Little BR. 2008. Personal projects and free traits: personality and motivation reconsidered. Soc. Personal. Psychol. Compass 2:31235–54 [Google Scholar]
  111. Lord RG, Maher KJ. 2002. Leadership and Information Processing: Linking Perceptions and Performance Abingdon, UK: Routledge
  112. Magee JC, Galinsky AD, Gruenfeld DH. 2007. Power, propensity to negotiate, and moving first in competitive interactions. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 33:2200–12 [Google Scholar]
  113. Magee JC, Milliken FJ, Lurie AR. 2010. Power differences in the construal of a crisis: the immediate aftermath of September 11, 2001. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 36:3354–70 [Google Scholar]
  114. Maner JK, Case CR. 2016. Dominance and prestige: dual strategies for navigating social hierarchies. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 54:129–80 [Google Scholar]
  115. Maner JK, Kaschak MP, Jones JL. 2010. Social power and the advent of action. Soc. Cogn. 28:1122–32 [Google Scholar]
  116. Markus H, Nurius P. 1986. Possible selves. Am. Psychol. 41:9954–69 [Google Scholar]
  117. Mast MS. 2002. Dominance as expressed and inferred through speaking time. Hum. Commun. Res. 28:3420–50 [Google Scholar]
  118. Mazur A, Booth A. 1998. Testosterone and dominance in men. Behav. Brain Sci. 21:3353–63 [Google Scholar]
  119. McClelland DC, Burnham DH. 1995. Power is the great motivator. Harv. Bus. Rev. 73:1126–39 [Google Scholar]
  120. McClure SM, Laibson DI, Loewenstein G, Cohen JD. 2004. Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards. Science 306:5695503–7 [Google Scholar]
  121. McGregor I, Nash K, Mann N, Phills CE. 2010. Anxious uncertainty and reactive approach motivation (RAM). J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 99:1133–47 [Google Scholar]
  122. Mehta PH, Josephs RA. 2010. Testosterone and cortisol jointly regulate dominance: evidence for a dual-hormone hypothesis. Horm. Behav. 58:5898–906 [Google Scholar]
  123. Mills CW. 1999. The Power Elite Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  124. Min D, Kim JH. 2013. Is power powerful? Power, confidence, and goal pursuit. Int. J. Res. Mark. 30:3265–75 [Google Scholar]
  125. Morgan D, Grant KA, Gage HD, Mach RH, Kaplan JR. et al. 2002. Social dominance in monkeys: dopamine D2 receptors and cocaine self-administration. Nat. Neurosci. 5:2169–74 [Google Scholar]
  126. Nissan T, Shapira O, Liberman N. 2015. Effects of power on mental rotation and emotion recognition in women. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 41:101425–37 [Google Scholar]
  127. Northouse PG. 2015. Leadership: Theory and Practice Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
  128. Oc B, Bashshur MR, Moore C. 2015. Speaking truth to power: the effect of candid feedback on how individuals with power allocate resources. J. Appl. Psychol. 100:2450–63 [Google Scholar]
  129. Overbeck JR, Park B. 2001. When power does not corrupt: superior individuation processes among powerful perceivers. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 81:4549–65 [Google Scholar]
  130. Overbeck JR, Park B. 2006. Powerful perceivers, powerless objects: flexibility of powerholders’ social attention. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process 99:2227–43 [Google Scholar]
  131. Parsons T. 1963. On the concept of political power. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 107:3232–62 [Google Scholar]
  132. Petkanopoulou K, Willis GB, Rodríguez-Bailón R. 2016. The emotional side of power(lessness). Coping with Lack of Control in a Social World M Bukowski, GA Fristche, A Guinote, M Kofa Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis. In press [Google Scholar]
  133. Pfeffer J. 2007. Human resources from an organizational behavior perspective: some paradoxes explained. J. Econ. Perspect. 21:4115–34 [Google Scholar]
  134. Pratto F. 2015. On power and empowerment. Brit. J. Soc. Psychol. 55:11–20 [Google Scholar]
  135. Ratcliff NJ, Vescio TK. 2013. Benevolently bowing out: the influence of self-construals and leadership performance on the willful relinquishing of power. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 49:6978–83 [Google Scholar]
  136. Reid SA, Ng SH. 1999. Language, power, and intergroup relations. J. Soc. Issues 55:1119–39 [Google Scholar]
  137. Righetti F, Luchies LB, van Gils S, Slotter EB, Witcher B, Kumashiro M. 2015. The prosocial versus proself power holder: how power influences sacrifice in romantic relationships. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 41:6779–90 [Google Scholar]
  138. Rodríguez-Bailón R, Moya M, Yzerbyt V. 2000. Why do superiors attend to the negative stereotypic information about their subordinates? Effects of power legitimacy on social perception. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 30:651–71 [Google Scholar]
  139. Ross L, Greene D, House P. 1977. The “false consensus effect”: an egocentric bias in social perception and attribution processes. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 13:3279–301 [Google Scholar]
  140. Rus D, Van Knippenberg D, Wisse B. 2012. Leader power and self-serving behavior: the moderating role of accountability. Leadersh. Q. 23:113–26 [Google Scholar]
  141. Russell B. 1938. Power: A New Social Analysis New York: Routledge
  142. Salamone JD, Correa M. 2002. Motivational views of reinforcement: implications for understanding the behavioral functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine. Behav. Brain Res. 137:13–25 [Google Scholar]
  143. Salamone JD, Correa M. 2012. The mysterious motivational functions of mesolimbic dopamine. Neuron 76:3470–85 [Google Scholar]
  144. Sassenberg K, Ellemers N, Scheepers D, Scholl A. 2014. “Power corrupts” revisited: the role of construal of power as opportunity or responsibility. Power, Politics, and Paranoia: Why People Are Suspicious of Their Leaders JW Van Prooijen, P Van Lange 73–87 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  145. Sawaoka T, Hughes BL, Ambady N. 2015. Power heightens sensitivity to unfairness against the self. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 41:81023–35 [Google Scholar]
  146. Scheepers D, de Wit F, Ellemers N, Sassenberg K. 2012. Social power makes the heart work more efficiently: evidence from cardiovascular markers of challenge and threat. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 48:1371–74 [Google Scholar]
  147. Schilke O, Reimann M, Cook SO. 2015. Power decreases trust in social exchange. PNAS 112:4212950–55 [Google Scholar]
  148. Schmid PC, Amodio DM. 2016. Power effects on implicit prejudice and stereotyping: the role of intergroup face processing. Soc. Neurosci. 24:1–14 [Google Scholar]
  149. Schmid PC, Kleiman T, Amodio DM. 2015. Power effects on cognitive control: turning conflict into action. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 144:3655–63 [Google Scholar]
  150. Schmid PC, Schmid Mast M. 2013. Power increases performance in a social evaluation situation as a result of decreased stress responses. Eur. J. Soc. Psych. 43:3201–11 [Google Scholar]
  151. Schmid Mast M, Jonas K, Hall JA. 2009. Give a person power and he or she will show interpersonal sensitivity: the phenomenon and its why and when. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 97:5835–50 [Google Scholar]
  152. Scholl A, Sassenberg K. 2014. Where could we stand if I had…? How social power impacts counterfactual thinking after failure. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 53:51–61 [Google Scholar]
  153. Scholl A, Sassenberg K. 2015. Better know when (not) to think twice: how social power impacts prefactual thought. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 41:2159–70 [Google Scholar]
  154. Schubert TW. 2005. Your highness: vertical positions as perceptual symbols of power. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 89:11–21 [Google Scholar]
  155. Schultheiss OC, Wirth MM, Torges CM, Pang JS, Villacorta MA, Welsh KM. 2005. Effects of implicit power motivation on men's and women's implicit learning and testosterone changes after social victory or defeat. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 88:1174–88 [Google Scholar]
  156. See KE, Morrison EW, Rothman NB, Soll JB. 2011. The detrimental effects of power on confidence, advice taking, and accuracy. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 116:2272–85 [Google Scholar]
  157. Seibert SE, Wang G, Courtright SH. 2011. Antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment in organizations: a meta-analytic review. J. Appl. Psychol. 96:5981–1003 [Google Scholar]
  158. Smith PK, Bargh JA. 2008. Nonconscious effects of power on basic approach and avoidance tendencies. Soc. Cogn. 26:11–24 [Google Scholar]
  159. Smith PK, Jostmann NB, Galinsky AD, Van Dijk WW. 2008. Lacking power impairs executive functions. Psychol. Sci. 19:5441–47 [Google Scholar]
  160. Smith PK, Trope Y. 2006. You focus on the forest when you're in charge of the trees: power priming and abstract information processing. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 90:4578–96 [Google Scholar]
  161. Stamkou E, van Kleef GA, Fischer AH, Kret ME. 2016. Are the powerful really blind to the feelings of others? How hierarchical concerns shape attention to emotions. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 42:6755–68 [Google Scholar]
  162. Thibaut JW, Kelley HH. 1959. The Social Psychology of Groups New York: Wiley
  163. Thomas L, Singh I, Peccei JS. 2004. Language, Society and Power: An Introduction New York: Psychol. Press
  164. Torelli CJ, Shavitt S. 2010. Culture and concepts of power. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 99:4703–23 [Google Scholar]
  165. Tost LP, Gino F, Larrick RP. 2012. Power, competitiveness, and advice taking: why the powerful don't listen. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 117:153–65 [Google Scholar]
  166. Van Dijke M, Poppe M. 2006. Striving for personal power as a basis for social power dynamics. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 36:4537–56 [Google Scholar]
  167. Van Kleef GA, Oveis C, Van der Löwe I, LuoKogan A, Goetz J, Keltner D. 2008. Power, distress, and compassion: turning a blind eye to the suffering of others. Psychol. Sci. 19:121315–22 [Google Scholar]
  168. Van Loo KJ, Rydell RJ. 2013. On the experience of feeling powerful: perceived power moderates the effect of stereotype threat on women's math performance. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 39:3387–400 [Google Scholar]
  169. Van Vugt M, Hogan R, Kaiser RB. 2008. Leadership, followership, and evolution: some lessons from the past. Am. Psychol. 63:3182–96 [Google Scholar]
  170. Vescio TK, Snyder M, Butz DA. 2003. Power in stereotypically masculine domains: a Social Influence Strategy X Stereotype Match model. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 85:61062–78 [Google Scholar]
  171. Wang YN. 2015. Authenticity and relationship satisfaction: two distinct ways of directing power to self-esteem. PloS ONE 10:12e0146050 [Google Scholar]
  172. Weber M. 1914 (1978). Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology Berkeley, CA: Univ. Calif. Press
  173. Weick M, Guinote A. 2008. When subjective experiences matter: Power increases reliance on the ease of retrieval. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 94:6956–70 [Google Scholar]
  174. Weick M, Guinote A. 2010. How long will it take? Power biases time predictions. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 46:4595–604 [Google Scholar]
  175. Wheeler SC, DeMarree KG, Petty RE. 2007. Understanding the role of the self in prime-to-behavior effects: the active-self account. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 11:3234–61 [Google Scholar]
  176. Whitson JA, Liljenquist KA, Galinsky AD, Magee JC, Gruenfeld DH, Cadena B. 2013. The blind leading: Power reduces awareness of constraints. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 49:3579–82 [Google Scholar]
  177. Wilkinson D, Guinote A, Weick M, Molinari R, Graham K. 2010. Feeling socially powerless makes you more prone to bumping into things on the right and induces leftward line bisection error. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 17:6910–14 [Google Scholar]
  178. Willis GB, Rodríguez-Bailón R, Lupiáñez J. 2011. The boss is paying attention: Power affects the functioning of the attentional networks. Soc. Cogn. 29:2166–81 [Google Scholar]
  179. Wojciszke B, Struzynska-Kujalowicz A. 2007. Power influences self-esteem. Soc. Cogn. 25:4472–94 [Google Scholar]
  180. Woltin KA, Guinote A. 2015. I can, I do, and so I like: from power to action and aesthetic preferences. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 144:61124–36 [Google Scholar]
  181. Yap AJ, Mason MF, Ames DR. 2013. The powerful size others down: the link between power and estimates of others' size. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 49:3591–94 [Google Scholar]
  182. Yukl G, Gordon A, Taber T. 2002. A hierarchical taxonomy of leadership behavior: integrating a half century of behavior research. J. Leadersh. Organ. Stud. 9:115–32 [Google Scholar]
  183. Zaccaro SJ, Foti RJ, Kenny DA. 1991. Self-monitoring and trait-based variance in leadership: an investigation of leader flexibility across multiple group situations. J. Appl. Psychol. 76:2308–15 [Google Scholar]
  184. Zhang X, Bartol KM. 2010. Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: the influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement. Acad. Manag. J. 53:1107–28 [Google Scholar]
  185. Zimbardo PG. 1971. The Power and Pathology of Imprisonment Hearings before House Comm. Judic., Subcomm. 3, 92 Congr., 1st Sess. on Correction, Part II, Prisons, Prison Reform and Prisoner's Rights: California, Congr. Rec. (Serial No. 15), Oct. 25
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044153
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error