1932

Abstract

Motivational processes are complex and multifaceted, with both directional and activational aspects. Behavioral activation and exertion of effort are functions that enable organisms to overcome obstacles separating them from significant outcomes. In a complex environment, organisms make cost/benefit decisions, assessing work-related response costs and reinforcer preference. Animal studies have challenged the general idea that dopamine (DA) is best viewed as the reward transmitter and instead have illustrated the involvement of DA in activational and effort-related processes. Mesocorticolimbic DA is a key component of the effort-related motivational circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Human studies have identified brain areas and transmitter systems involved in effort-based decision making and characterized the reduced selection of high-effort activities associated with motivational symptoms of depression and schizophrenia. Animal and human research on the neurochemistry of behavioral activation and effort-related processes makes an important conceptual contribution by illustrating the dissociable nature of distinct aspects of motivation.

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2024-01-18
2024-04-20
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