1932

Abstract

Social psychologists attempt to explain how we interact by appealing to basic principles of how we think. To make good on this ambition, they are increasingly relying on an interconnected set of formal tools that model inference, attribution, value-guided decision making, and multi-agent interactions. By reviewing progress in each of these areas and highlighting the connections between them, we can better appreciate the structure of social thought and behavior, while also coming to understand when, why, and how formal tools can be useful for social psychologists.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-021323-040420
2024-01-18
2024-04-12
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/psych/75/1/annurev-psych-021323-040420.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-021323-040420&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Aka A, Bhatia S. 2021. What I like is what I remember: memory modulation and preferential choice. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 150:102175–84
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alicke MD. 2000. Culpable control and the psychology of blame. Psychol. Bull. 126:4556–74
    [Google Scholar]
  3. André JB, Baumard N. 2011. The evolution of fairness in a biological market. Evolution 65:51447–56
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Andreoni J. 1990. Impure altruism and donations to public goods: a theory of warm-glow giving. Econ. J. 100:401464–77
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Asch SE. 1955. Opinions and social pressure. Sci. Am. 193:531–35
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Axelrod R, Hamilton WD. 1981. The evolution of cooperation. Science 211:44891390–96
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baker CL, Jara-Ettinger J, Saxe R, Tenenbaum JB 2017. Rational quantitative attribution of beliefs, desires and percepts in human mentalizing. Nat. Hum. Behav. 1:0064
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Baker CL, Saxe R, Tenenbaum JB. 2009. Action understanding as inverse planning. Cognition 113:3329–49
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Barclay P, Willer R. 2007. Partner choice creates competitive altruism in humans. Proc. R. Soc. B 274: 1610.749–53
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bass FM. 1969. A new product growth for model consumer durables. Manag. Sci. 15:5215–27
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Battigalli P, Dufwenberg M. 2009. Dynamic psychological games. J. Econ. Theory 144:11–35
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Baumard N, André JB, Sperber D. 2013. A mutualistic approach to morality: the evolution of fairness by partner choice. Behav. Brain Sci. 36:159–78
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bear A, Rand DG. 2016. Intuition, deliberation, and the evolution of cooperation. PNAS 113:4936–41
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Behrens TE, Hunt LT, Woolrich MW, Rushworth MF. 2008. Associative learning of social value. Nature 456:7219245–49
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bem DJ. 1972. Self-perception theory. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 6 L Berkowitz 1–62. Amsterdam: Elsevier
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bernhard RM, Cushman F. 2022. Extortion, intuition, and the dark side of reciprocity. Cognition 228:105215
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bernhard RM, LeBaron H, Phillips J. 2022. It's not what you did, it's what you could have done. Cognition 228:105222
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bhui R, Lai L, Gershman SJ. 2021. Resource-rational decision making. Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 41:15–21
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bicchieri C. 1990. Norms of cooperation. Ethics 100:4838–61
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Binmore K. 2005. Natural Justice Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  21. Boyd R, Richerson PJ. 1988. Culture and the Evolutionary Process Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  22. Boyd R, Richerson PJ. 1992. Punishment allows the evolution of cooperation (or anything else) in sizable groups. Ethol. Sociobiol. 13:3171–95
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Boyd R, Richerson PJ, Henrich J. 2011. The cultural niche: why social learning is essential for human adaptation. PNAS 108:Suppl210918–25
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Brehm JW. 1956. Postdecision changes in the desirability of alternatives. J. Abnormal Soc. Psychol. 52:3384–89
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Callaway F, van Opheusden B, Gul S, Das P, Krueger PM et al. 2022. Rational use of cognitive resources in human planning. Nat. Hum. Behav. 6:81112–25
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Cao J, Kleiman-Weiner M, Banaji MR. 2017. Statistically inaccurate and morally unfair judgements via base rate intrusion. Nat. Hum. Behav. 1:10738–42
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Cao J, Kleiman-Weiner M, Banaji MR. 2019. People make the same Bayesian judgment they criticize in others. Psychol. Sci. 30:120–31
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Cao Y, Enke B, Falk A, Giuliano P, Nunn N. 2021. Herding, warfare, and a culture of honor: global evidence NBER Work. Pap 29250
  29. Capraro V, Rand DG. 2018. Do the right thing: experimental evidence that preferences for moral behavior, rather than equity or efficiency per se, drive human prosociality. Judgm. Decis. Mak. 13:199–111
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Carlsmith KM, Darley JM, Robinson PH. 2002. Why do we punish? Deterrence and just deserts as motives for punishment. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 83:2284–99
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Chang LJ, Smith A. 2015. Social emotions and psychological games. Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 5:133–40
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Chang LJ, Smith A, Dufwenberg M, Sanfey AG. 2011. Triangulating the neural, psychological, and economic bases of guilt aversion. Neuron 70:3560–72
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Charpentier CJ, Iigaya K, O'Doherty JP 2020. A neuro-computational account of arbitration between choice imitation and goal emulation during human observational learning. Neuron 106:4687–99
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Cikara M, Botvinick MM, Fiske ST. 2011. Us versus them: Social identity shapes neural responses to intergroup competition and harm. Psychol. Sci. 22:3306–13
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Cockburn J, Collins AG, Frank MJ. 2014. A reinforcement learning mechanism responsible for the valuation of free choice. Neuron 83:3551–57
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Coleman JS, James J. 1961. The equilibrium size distribution of freely-forming groups. Sociometry 24:136–45
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Critcher CR, Inbar Y, Pizarro DA. 2013. How quick decisions illuminate moral character. Soc. Psychol. Pers. Sci. 4:3308–15
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Crockett MJ. 2013. Models of morality. Trends Cogn. Sci. 17:8363–66
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Crockett MJ, Everett JA, Gill M, Siegel JZ. 2021. The relational logic of moral inference. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 64:1–64
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Crumpler H, Grossman PJ. 2008. An experimental test of warm glow giving. J. Public Econ. 92:5–61011–21
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Cushman F. 2008. Crime and punishment: distinguishing the roles of causal and intentional analyses in moral judgment. Cognition 108:2353–80
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Cushman F. 2013. Action, outcome, and value: a dual-system framework for morality. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 17:3273–92
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Cushman F. 2020. Rationalization is rational. Behav. Brain Sci. 43:e28
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Cushman F, Macindoe O. 2009. The coevolution of punishment and prosociality among learning agents. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Vol. 311174–79. Seattle, WA: Cogn. Sci. Soc.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Cushman F, Morris A. 2015. Habitual control of goal selection in humans. PNAS 112:4513817–22
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Diaconescu AO, Mathys C, Weber LA, Daunizeau J, Kasper L et al. 2014. Inferring on the intentions of others by hierarchical Bayesian learning. PLOS Comput. Biol. 10:9e1003810
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Diaconescu AO, Mathys C, Weber LA, Kasper L, Mauer J, Stephan KE. 2017. Hierarchical prediction errors in midbrain and septum during social learning. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 12:4618–34
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Fehr E, Fischbacher U. 2004. Third-party punishment and social norms. Evol. Hum. Behav. 25:263–87
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Fehr E, Gächter S. 2002. Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature 415:6868137–40
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Fehr E, Schmidt KM. 1999. A theory of fairness, competition, and cooperation. Q. J. Econom. 114:3817–68
    [Google Scholar]
  51. FeldmanHall O, Shenhav A. 2019. Resolving uncertainty in a social world. Nat. Hum. Behav. 3:5426–35
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Frank RH. 1988. Passions Within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
  53. Fudenberg D, Newey W, Strack P, Strzalecki T. 2020. Testing the drift-diffusion model. PNAS 117:5233141–48
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Gates V, Callaway F, Ho MK, Griffiths TL. 2021. A rational model of people's inferences about others' preferences based on response times. Cognition 217:104885
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Geanakoplos J, Pearce D, Stacchetti E. 1989. Psychological games and sequential rationality. Games Econ. Behav. 1:160–79
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Gershman SJ 2023. The rational analysis of memory. In Oxford Handbook of Human Memoryed. M Kahana, A Wagner Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press In press
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Gershman SJ, Pouncy HT, Gweon H. 2017. Learning the structure of social influence. Cogn. Sci. 41:545–75
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Gerstenberg T, Goodman ND, Lagnado DA, Tenenbaum JB. 2021. A counterfactual simulation model of causal judgments for physical events. Psychol. Rev. 128:5936–75
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Gintis H, Smith EA, Bowles S. 2001. Costly signaling and cooperation. J. Theor. Biol. 213:1103–19
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Gold JI, Shadlen MN. 2007. The neural basis of decision making. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 30:535–74
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Goodman ND, Frank MC. 2016. Pragmatic language interpretation as probabilistic inference. Trends Cogn. Sci. 20:11818–29
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Grafen A. 1990. Biological signals as handicaps. J. Theor. Biol. 144:4517–46
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Greene JD. 2008. The secret joke of Kant's soul. Moral Psychol. 3:35–79
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Griffiths TL, Kemp C, Tenenbaum JB. 2008. Bayesian models of cognition. The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology R Sun 59–100. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Gweon H. 2021. Inferential social learning: cognitive foundations of human social learning and teaching. Trends Cogn. Sci. 25:10896–910
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Hackel LM, Doll BB, Amodio DM. 2015. Instrumental learning of traits versus rewards: dissociable neural correlates and effects on choice. Nat. Neurosci. 18:91233–35
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Halpern JY, Hitchcock C. 2015. Graded causation and defaults. Br. J. Philos. Sci. 66:2413–57
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Halpern JY, Kleiman-Weiner M. 2018. Towards formal definitions of blameworthiness, intention, and moral responsibility. Proceedings of the Thirty-Second AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 321853–60. New Orleans, LA: AAAI
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Harris A, Hutcherson CA. 2022. Temporal dynamics of decision making: a synthesis of computational and neurophysiological approaches. WIREs Cogn. Sci. 13:3e1586
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Harsanyi JC, Selten R. 1988. A General Theory of Equilibrium Selection in Games. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  71. Heider F. 1958. The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations New York: John Wiley & Sons
  72. Heider F, Simmel M. 1944. An experimental study of apparent behavior. Am. J. Psychol. 57:2243–59
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Henrich J. 2004. Cultural group selection, coevolutionary processes and large-scale cooperation. J. Econ. Behav. Organ. 53:13–35
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Henrich J. 2009. The evolution of costly displays, cooperation and religion: credibility enhancing displays and their implications for cultural evolution. Evol. Hum. Behav. 30:4244–60
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Herrmann B, Thoni C, Gachter S. 2008. Antisocial punishment across societies. Science 319:58681362–67
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Hitchcock C, Knobe J. 2009. Cause and norm. J. Philos. 106:11587–612
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Ho MK, Abel D, Correa CG, Littman ML, Cohen JD, Griffiths TL. 2022a. People construct simplified mental representations to plan. Nature 606:7912129–36
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Ho MK, Cushman F, Littman ML, Austerweil JL. 2019. People teach with rewards and punishments as communication, not reinforcements. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 148:3520–49
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Ho MK, Cushman F, Littman ML, Austerweil JL. 2021. Communication in action: planning and interpreting communicative demonstrations. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 150:112246–72
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Ho MK, MacGlashan J, Littman ML, Cushman F. 2017. Social is special: a normative framework for teaching with and learning from evaluative feedback. Cognition 167:91–106
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Ho MK, Saxe R, Cushman F. 2022b. Planning with theory of mind. Trends Cogn. Sci. 26:11959–71
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Hoffman M, Yoeli E, Nowak MA. 2015. Cooperate without looking: why we care what people think and not just what they do. PNAS 112:61727–32
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Holyoak KJ, Simon D. 1999. Bidirectional reasoning in decision making by constraint satisfaction. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 128:13–31
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Hornsby AN, Love BC. 2020. How decisions and the desire for coherency shape subjective preferences over time. Cognition 200:104244
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Hsu M, Anen C, Quartz SR. 2008. The right and the good: distributive justice and neural encoding of equity and efficiency. Science 320:58791092–95
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Hutcherson CA, Bushong B, Rangel A. 2015. A neurocomputational model of altruistic choice and its implications. Neuron 87:2451–62
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Icard TF, Kominsky JF, Knobe J. 2017. Normality and actual causal strength. Cognition 161:80–93
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Izuma K, Adolphs R. 2013. Social manipulation of preference in the human brain. Neuron 78:3563–73
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Izuma K, Saito DN, Sadato N. 2008. Processing of social and monetary rewards in the human striatum. Neuron 58:2284–94
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Izuma K, Saito DN, Sadato N. 2010. Processing of the incentive for social approval in the ventral striatum during charitable donation. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 22:4621–31
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Jara-Ettinger J. 2019. Theory of mind as inverse reinforcement learning. Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 29:105–10
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Jara-Ettinger J, Gweon H, Schulz LE, Tenenbaum JB. 2016. The naïve utility calculus: computational principles underlying commonsense psychology. Trends Cogn. Sci. 20:8589–604
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Jara-Ettinger J, Tenenbaum JB, Schulz LE. 2015. Not so innocent: toddlers' inferences about costs and culpability. Psychol. Sci. 26:5633–40
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Jordan JJ, Hoffman M, Bloom P, Rand DG. 2016a. Third-party punishment as a costly signal of trustworthiness. Nature 530:7591473–76
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Jordan JJ, Hoffman M, Nowak MA, Rand DG. 2016b. Uncalculating cooperation is used to signal trustworthiness. PNAS 113:318658–63
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Kahneman D. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow. London: Macmillan
  97. Kalkstein DA, Hook CJ, Hard BM, Walton GM. 2023. Social norms govern what behaviors come to mind—and what do not. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 124:61203–29
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Kelley HH. 1973. The processes of causal attribution. Am. Psychol. 28:2107–28
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Keramati M, Smittenaar P, Dolan RJ, Dayan P. 2016. Adaptive integration of habits into depth-limited planning defines a habitual-goal–directed spectrum. PNAS 113:4512868–73
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Kim M, Park B, Young L. 2020. The psychology of motivated versus rational impression updating. Trends Cogn. Sci. 24:2101–11
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Kleiman-Weiner M, Gerstenberg T, Levine S, Tenenbaum JB. 2015. Inference of intention and permissibility in moral decision making. Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society1123–28. Seattle, WA: Cogn. Sci. Soc.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Kleiman-Weiner M, Ho MK, Austerweil JL, Littman ML, Tenenbaum JB. 2016. Coordinate to cooperate or compete: abstract goals and joint intentions in social interaction. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society1679–84. Seattle, WA: Cogn. Sci. Soc.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Kleiman-Weiner M, Saxe R, Tenenbaum JB 2017. Learning a commonsense moral theory. Cognition 167:107–23
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Knobe J, Nichols S. 2011. Free will and the bounds of the self. The Oxford Handbook of Free Will R Kane 530–54. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Koster R, Duzel E, Dolan RJ. 2015. Action and valence modulate choice and choice-induced preference change. PLOS ONE 10:3e0119682
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Kraft-Todd G, Kleiman-Weiner M, Young L. 2022. Virtue discounting: Observability reduces moral actors' perceived virtue. PsyArXiv, Febr. 27. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/hsjta
  107. Krajbich I, Armel C, Rangel A. 2010. Visual fixations and the computation and comparison of value in simple choice. Nat. Neurosci. 13:101292–98
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Kunda Z. 1990. The case for motivated reasoning. Psychol. Bull. 108:3480–98
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Lau T, Pouncy HT, Gershman SJ, Cikara M. 2018. Discovering social groups via latent structure learning. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 147:121881–91
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Le Pargneux A, Chater N, Zeitoun H 2023. Contractualist reasoning influences moral judgment and decision making. PsyArXiv, May 4. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/p4cyx
  111. Leong YC, Hughes BL, Wang Y, Zaki J. 2019. Neurocomputational mechanisms underlying motivated seeing. Nat. Hum. Behav. 3:9962–73
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Levine S, Kleiman-Weiner M, Schulz L, Tenenbaum J, Cushman F. 2020. The logic of universalization guides moral judgment. PNAS 117:4226158–69
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Lewin K. 1936. Principles of Topological Psychology New York: McGraw-Hill
  114. Lewis D. 2013. Counterfactuals New York: John Wiley & Sons
  115. Lieder F, Griffiths TL. 2020. Resource-rational analysis: understanding human cognition as the optimal use of limited computational resources. Behav. Brain Sci. 43:e1
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Littman ML. 2001. Value-function reinforcement learning in Markov games. Cogn. Syst. Res. 2:155–66
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Liu S, Ullman TD, Tenenbaum JB, Spelke ES. 2017. Ten-month-old infants infer the value of goals from the costs of actions. Science 358:63661038–41
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Lockwood PL, Klein-Flügge MC, Abdurahman A, Crockett MJ. 2020. Model-free decision making is prioritized when learning to avoid harming others. PNAS 117:4427719–30
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Lombrozo T. 2010. Causal-explanatory pluralism: how intentions, functions, and mechanisms influence causal ascriptions. Cogn. Psychol. 61:4303–32
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Maier M, Cheung V, Bartoš F, Lieder F. 2023. Learning from consequences shapes reliance on moral rules versus cost-benefit reasoning. PsyArXiv, Apr. 21. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/gjf3h
  121. Malle BF, Guglielmo S, Monroe AE. 2014. A theory of blame. Psychol. Inq. 25:2147–86
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Marr D. 1982. Vision: A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  123. Martin JW, Cushman F. 2016. Why we forgive what can't be controlled. Cognition 147:133–43
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Michotte A. 2017. The Perception of Causality London: Routledge
  125. Mikhail J. 2007. Universal moral grammar: theory, evidence and the future. Trends Cogn. Sci. 11:4143–52
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Milgram S, Bickman L, Berkowitz L. 1969. Note on the drawing power of crowds of different size. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 13:279–82
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Morris A, Cushman F. 2018. A common framework for theories of norm compliance. Soc. Philos. Policy 35:1101–27
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Morris A, MacGlashan J, Littman ML, Cushman F. 2017. Evolution of flexibility and rigidity in retaliatory punishment. PNAS 114:3910396–401
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Morris A, Phillips JS, Huang K, Cushman F. 2021. Generating options and choosing between them depend on distinct forms of value representation. Psychol. Sci. 32:111731–46
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Morris A, Phillips JS, Icard T, Knobe J, Gerstenberg T, Cushman F. 2018. Causal judgments approximate the effectiveness of future interventions. PsyArXiv, Apr. 26. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/nq53z
  131. Najar A, Bonnet E, Bahrami B, Palminteri S. 2020. The actions of others act as a pseudo-reward to drive imitation in the context of social reinforcement learning. PLOS Biol. 18:12e3001028
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Nakayama K, Shimojo S 1992. Experiencing and perceiving visual surfaces. Science 257:1357–63
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Nash J. 1951. Non-cooperative games. Ann. Math. 54:2286–95
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Nash JF. 1950. The bargaining problem. Econometrica 18:2155–62
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Newell A, Simon H. 1956. The logic theory machine—a complex information processing system. IRE Trans. Inform. Theory 2:361–79
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Nichols S. 2021. Rational Rules: Towards a Theory of Moral Learning Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press
  137. Nisbett RE. 2018. Culture of Honor: The Psychology of Violence in the South London: Routledge
  138. Nowak MA. 2006. Five rules for the evolution of cooperation. Science 314:58051560–63
    [Google Scholar]
  139. O'Connor C. 2019. The Origins of Unfairness: Social Categories and Cultural Evolution Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  140. Olsson A, Phelps EA. 2007. Social learning of fear. Nat. Neurosci. 10:91095–102
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Ong DC, Zaki J, Goodman ND. 2019. Computational models of emotion inference in theory of mind: a review and roadmap. Top. Cogn. Sci. 11:2338–57
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Ostrom E. 2000. Collective action and the evolution of social norms. J. Econ. Perspect. 14:3137–58
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Park B, Kim M, Young L. 2021. An examination of accurate versus “biased” mentalizing in moral and economic decision-making. The Neural Basis of Mentalizing M Gilead, KN Ochsner 537–54. Cham, Switz.: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Patil I, Zucchelli MM, Kool W, Campbell S, Fornasier F et al. 2021. Reasoning supports utilitarian resolutions to moral dilemmas across diverse measures. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 120:2443–60
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Pearl J. 2009. Causality Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  146. Phan KL, Sripada CS, Angstadt M, McCabe K. 2010. Reputation for reciprocity engages the brain reward center. PNAS 107:2913099–104
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Phillips J, Cushman F. 2017. Morality constrains the default representation of what is possible. PNAS 114:184649–54
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Phillips J, Morris A, Cushman F. 2019. How we know what not to think. Trends Cogn. Sci. 23:121026–40
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Pinker S. 2010. The cognitive niche: coevolution of intelligence, sociality, and language. PNAS 107:Suppl. 28993–99
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Pizarro D, Uhlmann E, Salovey P. 2003. Asymmetry in judgments of moral blame and praise: the role of perceived metadesires. Psychol. Sci. 14:3267–72
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Quillien T, German TC. 2021. A simple definition of “intentionally. .” Cognition 214:104806
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Quillien T, Lucas CG. 2022. Counterfactuals and the logic of causal selection. PsyArXiv, June 13. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ts76y
    [Crossref]
  153. Rabin M. 1993. Incorporating fairness into game theory and economics. Am. Econ. Rev. 83:51281–302
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Rabinowitz N, Perbet F, Song F, Zhang C, Eslami SA, Botvinick M. 2018. Machine theory of mind. PMLR 80:4218–27
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Rand DG, Greene JD, Nowak MA. 2012. Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature 489:7416427–30
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Rand DG, Peysakhovich A, Kraft-Todd GT, Newman GE, Wurzbacher O et al. 2014. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation. Nat. Commun. 5:13677
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Rangel A, Camerer C, Montague PR. 2008. A framework for studying the neurobiology of value-based decision making. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 9:7545–56
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Ratcliff R, Smith PL. 2004. A comparison of sequential sampling models for two-choice reaction time. Psychol. Rev. 111:2333–67
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Redish AD. 2022. Changing How We Choose: The New Science of Morality Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  160. Rescorla RA. 1972. A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and non-reinforcement. Classical Conditioning II: Current Research and Theory AH Black, WF Prokasy 64–99. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Rilling JK, Sanfey AG. 2011. The neuroscience of social decision-making. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 62:23–48
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Roberts G. 1998. Competitive altruism: from reciprocity to the handicap principle. Proc. R. Soc. B 265: 1394.427–31
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Ross L. 1977. The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings: distortions in the attribution process. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 10:173–220
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Ruff CC, Fehr E. 2014. The neurobiology of rewards and values in social decision making. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 15:8549–62
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Ruiz-Serra J, Harré MS. 2023. Inverse reinforcement learning as the algorithmic basis for theory of mind: current methods and open problems. Algorithms 16:268
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Sanfey AG, Rilling JK, Aronson JA, Nystrom LE, Cohen JD. 2003. The neural basis of economic decision-making in the ultimatum game. Science 300:56261755–58
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Saxe R, Houlihan SD. 2017. Formalizing emotion concepts within a Bayesian model of theory of mind. Curr. Opin. Psychol. 17:15–21
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Schelling TC. 1960. The Strategy of Conflict Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  169. Schelling TC. 1971. Dynamic models of segregation. J. Math. Sociol. 1:2143–86
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Sell AN. 2011. The recalibrational theory and violent anger. Aggress. Violent Behav. 16:5381–89
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Sell AN, Sznycer D, Al-Shawaf L, Lim J, Krauss A et al. 2017. The grammar of anger: mapping the computational architecture of a recalibrational emotion. Cognition 168:110–28
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Shafto P, Goodman ND, Griffiths TL. 2014. A rational account of pedagogical reasoning: teaching by, and learning from, examples. Cogn. Psychol. 71:55–89
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Sharot T, De Martino B, Dolan RJ. 2009. How choice reveals and shapes expected hedonic outcome. J. Neurosci. 29:123760–65
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Shin YS, Niv Y. 2021. Biased evaluations emerge from inferring hidden causes. Nat. Hum. Behav. 5:91180–89
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Shultz TR, Lepper MR 1999. Computer simulation of cognitive dissonance reduction. Cognitive Dissonance: Progress on a Pivotal Theory in Social Psychology E Harmon-Jones, J Mills 235–65. Washington, DC: APA
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Shum M, Kleiman-Weiner M, Littman ML, Tenenbaum JB. 2019. Theory of minds: understanding behavior in groups through inverse planning. Proceedings of the Thirty-Third AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 336163–70. New Orleans, LA: AAAI
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Siegel JZ, Mathys C, Rutledge RB, Crockett MJ. 2018. Beliefs about bad people are volatile. Nat. Hum. Behav. 2:10750–56
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Silver D, Schrittwieser J, Simonyan K, Antonoglou I, Huang A et al. 2017. Mastering the game of Go without human knowledge. Nature 550:7676354–59
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Simon HA. 1956. Rational choice and the structure of the environment. Psychol. Rev. 63:2129–38
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Sloman SA. 1996. The empirical case for two systems of reasoning. Psychol. Bull. 119:13–22
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Smith JM. 1991. Honest signalling: the Philip Sidney game. Anim. Behav. 42:61034–35
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Smith JM. 1994. Must reliable signals always be costly?. Anim. Behav. 47:51115–20
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Smith JM, Price GR. 1973. The logic of animal conflict. Nature 246:542715–18
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Son JY, Bhandari A, FeldmanHall O. 2019. Crowdsourcing punishment: Individuals reference group preferences to inform their own punitive decisions. Sci. Rep. 9:11625
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Sosa FA, Ullman T, Tenenbaum JB, Gershman SJ, Gerstenberg T. 2021. Moral dynamics: grounding moral judgment in intuitive physics and intuitive psychology. Cognition 217:104890
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Sullivan N, Hutcherson C, Harris A, Rangel A. 2015. Dietary self-control is related to the speed with which attributes of healthfulness and tastiness are processed. Psychol. Sci. 26:2122–34
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Sutton RS. 1988. Learning to predict by the methods of temporal differences. Mach. Learn. 3:9–44
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Sutton RS, Barto AG. 2018. Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  189. Swidler A. 1986. Culture in action: symbols and strategies. Am. Sociol. Rev. 51:2273–86
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Sznycer D. 2019. Forms and functions of the self-conscious emotions. Trends Cogn. Sci. 23:2143–57
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Sznycer D, Tooby J, Cosmides L, Porat R, Shalvi S, Halperin E. 2016. Shame closely tracks the threat of devaluation by others, even across cultures. PNAS 113:102625–30
    [Google Scholar]
  192. Tamir DI, Thornton MA. 2018. Modeling the predictive social mind. Trends Cogn. Sci. 22:3201–12
    [Google Scholar]
  193. Tappin BM, Pennycook G, Rand DG. 2020. Thinking clearly about causal inferences of politically motivated reasoning: why paradigmatic study designs often undermine causal inference. Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 34:81–87
    [Google Scholar]
  194. Tenenbaum JB, Griffiths TL, Kemp C 2006. Theory-based Bayesian models of inductive learning and reasoning. Trends Cogn. Sci 10:309–18
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Thompson B, Van Opheusden B, Sumers T, Griffiths T. 2022. Complex cognitive algorithms preserved by selective social learning in experimental populations. Science 376:658895–98
    [Google Scholar]
  196. Tinbergen N. 1963. On aims and methods of ethology. Z. Tierpsychol. 20:4410–33
    [Google Scholar]
  197. Todd PM, Gigerenzer G. 2000. Précis of simple heuristics that make us smart. Behav. Brain Sci. 23:5727–41
    [Google Scholar]
  198. Tomasello M. 2009. The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  199. Treadway MT, Buckholtz JW, Martin JW, Jan K, Asplund CL et al. 2014. Corticolimbic gating of emotion-driven punishment. Nat. Neurosci. 17:91270–75
    [Google Scholar]
  200. Trivers RL. 1971. The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Q. Rev. Biol. 46:135–57
    [Google Scholar]
  201. Uhlmann EL, Pizarro DA, Diermeier D. 2015. A person-centered approach to moral judgment. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 10:172–81
    [Google Scholar]
  202. van Baar JM, Chang LJ, Sanfey AG. 2019. The computational and neural substrates of moral strategies in social decision-making. Nat. Commun. 10:11483
    [Google Scholar]
  203. Van den Bos W, van Dijk E, Westenberg M, Rombouts SA, Crone EA. 2009. What motivates repayment? Neural correlates of reciprocity in the trust game. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 4:3294–304
    [Google Scholar]
  204. Vasilyeva N, Blanchard T, Lombrozo T. 2018. Stable causal relationships are better causal relationships. Cogn. Sci. 42:41265–96
    [Google Scholar]
  205. Veblen T. 1889. The Theory of the Leisure Class London: George Allen & Unwin
  206. Vélez N, Chen A, Burke T, Cushman F, Gershman S. 2023. Teachers recruit mentalizing regions to represent learners' beliefs. PNAS 120:22e2215015120
    [Google Scholar]
  207. Vélez N, Gweon H. 2019. Integrating incomplete information with imperfect advice. Top. Cogn. Sci. 11:2299–315
    [Google Scholar]
  208. Vélez N, Gweon H. 2021. Learning from other minds: an optimistic critique of reinforcement learning models of social learning. Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 38:110–15
    [Google Scholar]
  209. Vinckier F, Rigoux L, Kurniawan IT, Hu C, Bourgeois-Gironde S et al. 2019. Sour grapes and sweet victories: how actions shape preferences. PLOS Comput. Biol. 15:1e1006499
    [Google Scholar]
  210. Von Hippel W, Trivers R. 2011. The evolution and psychology of self-deception. Behav. Brain Sci. 34:11–56
    [Google Scholar]
  211. Vul E, Pashler H. 2008. Measuring the crowd within: probabilistic representations within individuals. Psychol. Sci. 19:7645–47
    [Google Scholar]
  212. Watkins CJ, Dayan P. 1992. Q-learning. Mach. Learn. 8:279–92
    [Google Scholar]
  213. Weiner B. 1995. Judgments of Responsibility: A Foundation for a Theory of Social Conduct New York: Guilford
  214. Wu CM, Vélez N, Cushman FA. 2022. Representational exchange in human social learning: balancing efficiency and flexibility. The Drive for Knowledge: The Science of Human Information Seeking I Cogliati Dezza, E Schulz, C Wu 169–92. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  215. Young L, Cushman F, Hauser M, Saxe R. 2007. The neural basis of the interaction between theory of mind and moral judgment. PNAS 104:208235–40
    [Google Scholar]
  216. Yu H, Siegel JZ, Clithero JA, Crockett MJ. 2021. How peer influence shapes value computation in moral decision-making. Cognition 211:104641
    [Google Scholar]
  217. Yu H, Siegel JZ, Crockett MJ. 2019. Modeling morality in 3-D: decision-making, judgment, and inference. Top. Cogn. Sci. 11:2409–32
    [Google Scholar]
  218. Zahavi A. 1975. Mate selection—a selection for a handicap. J. Theor. Biol. 53:1205–14
    [Google Scholar]
  219. Zaki J, Mitchell JP. 2011. Equitable decision making is associated with neural markers of intrinsic value. PNAS 108:4919761–66
    [Google Scholar]
  220. Zaki J, Schirmer J, Mitchell JP. 2011. Social influence modulates the neural computation of value. Psychol. Sci. 22:7894–900
    [Google Scholar]
  221. Zhang Z, Wang S, Good M, Hristova S, Kayser AS, Hsu M. 2021. Retrieval-constrained valuation: toward prediction of open-ended decisions. PNAS 118:20e2022685118
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-021323-040420
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error