1932

Abstract

Music training is generally assumed to improve perceptual and cognitive abilities. Although correlational data highlight positive associations, experimental results are inconclusive, raising questions about causality. Does music training have far-transfer effects, or do preexisting factors determine who takes music lessons? All behavior reflects genetic and environmental influences, but differences in emphasis—nature versus nurture—have been a source of tension throughout the history of psychology. After reviewing the recent literature, we conclude that the evidence that music training causes nonmusical benefits is weak or nonexistent, and that researchers routinely overemphasize contributions from experience while neglecting those from nature. The literature is also largely exploratory rather than theory driven. It fails to explain mechanistically how music-training effects could occur and ignores evidence that far transfer is rare. Instead of focusing on elusive perceptual or cognitive benefits, we argue that it is more fruitful to examine the social-emotional effects of engaging with music, particularly in groups, and that music-based interventions may be effective mainly for clinical or atypical populations.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-032323-051354
2024-01-18
2024-04-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/psych/75/1/annurev-psych-032323-051354.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-032323-051354&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Alain C, Khatamian Y, He Y, Lee Y, Moreno S et al. 2018. Different neural activities support auditory working memory in musicians and bilinguals. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1423:435–46
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alain C, Zendel BR, Hutka S, Bidelman GM. 2014. Turning down the noise: the benefit of musical training on the aging auditory brain. Hear. Res. 308:162–73
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Albouy P, Weiss A, Baillet S, Zatorre RJ. 2017. Selective entrainment of theta oscillations in the dorsal stream causally enhances auditory working memory performance. Neuron 94:1193–206.e5
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Alemán X, Duryea S, Guerra NG, McEwan PJ, Muñoz R et al. 2017. The effects of musical training on child development: a randomized trial of El Sistema in Venezuela. Prev. Sci. 18:7865–78
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ayotte J, Peretz I, Hyde K. 2002. Congenital amusia: a group study of adults afflicted with a music-specific disorder. Brain 125:2238–51
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baker D, Hallam S, Rogers K. 2023. Does learning to play an instrument have an impact on change in attainment from age 11 to 16?. Br. J. Music Educ. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0265051723000116
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baker FA, Lee Y-EC, Sousa TV, Stretton-Smith PA, Tamplin J et al. 2022. Clinical effectiveness of music interventions for dementia and depression in elderly care (MIDDEL): Australian cohort of an international pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet Healthy Longev. 3:e153–65
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Barbaroux M, Dittinger E, Besson M. 2019. Music training with Démos program positively influences cognitive functions in children from low socio-economic backgrounds. PLOS ONE 14:5e0216874
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Başkent D, Fuller CD, Galvin JJ III, Schepel L, Gaudrain E, Free RH 2018. Musician effect on perception of spectro-temporally degraded speech, vocal emotion, and music in young adolescents. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 143:5EL311–16
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Başkent D, Gaudrain E. 2016. Musician advantage for speech-on-speech perception. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 139:3EL51–56
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bayanova L, Chichininca E, Veraksa A, Almazova O, Dolgikh A. 2022. Difference in executive functions development level between two groups: preschool children who took extra music classes in art schools and children who took only general music and dance classes offered by preschools. Educ. Sci. 12:119
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bedoin N, Besombes AM, Escande E, Dumont A, Lalitte P, Tillmann B. 2018. Boosting syntax training with temporally regular musical primes in children with cochlear implants. Ann. Phys. Rehabil. Med. 61:6365–71
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bedoin N, Brisseau L, Molinier P, Roch D, Tillmann B. 2016. Temporally regular musical primes facilitate subsequent syntax processing in children with specific language impairment. Front. Neurosci. 10:245
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Besson M, Chobert J, Marie C. 2011. Transfer of training between music and speech: common processing, attention, and memory. Front. Psychol. 2:94
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bhatara A, Yeung HH, Nazzi T. 2015. Foreign language learning in French speakers is associated with rhythm perception, but not with melody perception. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 41:2277–82
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bianchi F, Carney LH, Dau T, Santurette S. 2019. Effects of musical training and hearing loss on fundamental frequency discrimination and temporal fine structure processing: psychophysics and modeling. J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 20:263–77
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Biasutti M, Mangiacotti A. 2018. Assessing a cognitive music training for older participants: a randomized controlled trial. Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 33:2271–78
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Biasutti M, Mangiacotti A. 2021. Music training improves depressed mood symptoms in elderly people: a randomized controlled trial. Int. J. Aging Hum. Dev. 92:1115–33
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bigand E, Tillmann B. 2022. Near and far transfer: Is music special?. Mem. Cogn. 50:2339–47
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Bishop DVM. 2003. Test for Reception of GrammarVersion 2 London: Psychological Corporation
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bishop DVM, Thompson PA. 2023. Evaluating What Works N.p.: Bookdown https://bookdown.org/dorothy_bishop/Evaluating_What_Works/
  22. Blain S, Talamini F, Fornoni L, Bidet-Caulet A, Caclin A. 2022. Shared cognitive resources between memory and attention during sound-sequence encoding. Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 84:3739–59
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Boebinger D, Evans S, Rosen S, Lima CF, Manly T, Scott SK. 2015. Musicians and nonmusicians are equally adept at perceiving masked speech. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137:1378–87
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Bolduc J, Gosselin N, Chevrette T, Peretz I. 2021. The impact of music training on inhibition control, phonological processing, and motor skills in kindergarteners: a randomized control trial. Early Child Dev. Care 191:121886–95
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Boll-Avetisyan N, Bhatara A, Höhle B. 2020. Processing of rhythm in speech and music in adult dyslexia. Brain Sci 10:5261
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Bowles AR, Chang CB, Karuzis VP. 2016. Pitch ability as an aptitude for tone learning. Lang. Learn. 66:4774–808
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Bowmer A, Mason K, Knight J, Welch G. 2018. Investigating the impact of a musical intervention on preschool children's executive function. Front. Psychol. 9:2389
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Bregman AS. 1990. Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  29. Brown S. 2017. A joint prosodic origin of language and music. Front. Psychol. 8:1894
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Bugos JA, DeMarie D. 2017. The effects of a short-term music program on preschool children's executive functions. Psychol. Music 45:6855–67
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Bugos JA, DeMarie D, Stokes C, Power LP. 2022. Multimodal music training enhances executive functions in children: results of a randomized controlled trial. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1516:95–105
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Bugos JA, Lesiuk T, Nathani S. 2021. Piano training enhances Stroop performance and musical self-efficacy in older adults with Parkinson's disease. Psychol. Music 49:3615–30
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Bugos JA, Wang Y. 2022. Piano training enhances executive functions and psychosocial outcomes in aging: results of a randomized controlled trial. J. Gerontol. B Psychol. Sci. Soc. Sci. 77:91625–36
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Buren V, Degé F, Schwarzer G. 2021a. Active music making facilitates prosocial behaviour in 18-month-old children. Musicae Sci 25:4449–64
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Buren V, Müllensiefen D, Roeske TC, Degé F. 2021b. What makes babies musical? Conceptions of musicality in infants and toddlers. Front. Psychol. 12:736833
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Buren V, Müllensiefen D, Roeske TC, Degé F. 2021c. What makes a child musical? Conceptions of musical ability in childhood. Early Child Dev. Care 191:121985–2000
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Burnham D, Brooker R, Reid A 2015. The effects of absolute pitch ability and musical training on lexical tone perception. Psychol. Music 43:6881–97
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Butkovic A, Ullén F, Mosing MA. 2015. Personality related traits as predictors of music practice: underlying environmental and genetic influences. Pers. Individ. Differ. 74:133–38
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Campayo-Muñoz E, Cabedo-Mas A. 2017. The role of emotional skills in music education. Br. J. Music Educ. 34:3243–58
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Cancer A, Antonietti A. 2022. Music-based and auditory-based interventions for reading difficulties: a literature review. Heliyon 8:e09293
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Cancer A, Bonacina S, Antonietti A, Salandi A, Molteni M, Lorusso ML. 2020. The effectiveness of interventions for developmental dyslexia: rhythmic reading training compared with hemisphere-specific stimulation and action video games. Front. Psychol. 11:1158
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Carioti D, Danelli L, Guasti MT, Gallucci M, Perugini M et al. 2019. Music education at school: too little and too late? Evidence from a longitudinal study on music training in preadolescents. Front. Psychol. 10:2704
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Cason N, Marmursztejn M, D'Imperio M, Schön D 2020. Rhythmic abilities correlate with L2 prosody imitation abilities in typologically different languages. Lang. Speech 63:1149–65
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Chambers CF, Tzavella L. 2022. The past, present and future of Registered Reports. Nat. Hum. Behav. 6:29–42
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Chern A, Tillmann B, Vaughan C, Gordon RL. 2018. New evidence of a rhythmic priming effect that enhances grammaticality judgments in children. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 173:371–79
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Christiner M, Reiterer SM. 2018. Early influence of musical abilities and working memory on speech imitation abilities: study with pre-school children. Brain Sci 8:169
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Christiner M, Rüdegger S, Reiterer SM. 2018. Sing Chinese and tap Tagalog? Predicting individual differences in musical and phonetic aptitude using language families differing by sound-typology. Int. J. Multiling. 15:4455–71
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Chung W-L, Bidelman GM. 2021. Mandarin-speaking preschoolers’ pitch discrimination, prosodic and phonological awareness, and their relation to receptive vocabulary and reading abilities. Read. Writ. 34:2337–53
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Cirelli LK. 2018. How interpersonal synchrony facilitates early prosocial behavior. Curr. Opin. Psychol. 20:35–39
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Cirelli LK, Einarson KM, Trainor LJ. 2014. Interpersonal synchrony increases prosocial behavior in infants. Dev. Sci. 17:61003–11
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Cirelli LK, Wan SJ, Spinelli C, Trainor LJ. 2017. Effects of interpersonal movement synchrony on infant helping behaviors: Is music necessary?. Music Percept 34:3319–26
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Cirelli LK, Wan SJ, Trainor LJ. 2016. Social effects of movement synchrony: increased infant helpfulness only transfers to affiliates of synchronously moving partners. Infancy 21:6807–21
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Ciria LF, Román-Caballero R, Vadillo MA, Holgado D, Luque-Casado A et al. 2023. An umbrella review of randomized control trials on the effects of physical exercise on cognition. Nat. Hum. Behav. 7:928–41
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Clayton KK, Swaminathan J, Yazdanbakhsh A, Zuk J, Patel AD, Kidd G Jr. 2016. Executive function, visual attention and the cocktail party problem in musicians and non-musicians. PLOS ONE 11:7e0157638
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Coffey EBJ, Arseneau-Bruneau I, Zhang X, Zatorre RJ. 2019. The Music-In-Noise Task (MINT): a tool for dissecting complex auditory perception. Front. Neurosci. 13:199
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Coffey EBJ, Mogilever NB, Zatorre RJ. 2017. Speech-in-noise perception in musicians: a review. Hear. Res. 352:49–69
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Cooper PK. 2020. It's all in your head: a meta-analysis on the effects of music training on cognitive measures in schoolchildren. Int. J. Music Educ. 38:3321–36
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Correia AI, Castro SL, MacGregor C, Müllensiefen D, Schellenberg EG, Lima CF. 2022a. Enhanced recognition of vocal emotion in individuals with naturally good musical abilities. Emotion 22:5894–906
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Correia AI, Vincenzi M, Vanzella P, Pinheiro AP, Lima CF, Schellenberg EG. 2022b. Can musical ability be tested online?. Behav. Res. Methods 54:2955–69
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Correia AI, Vincenzi M, Vanzella P, Pinheiro AP, Schellenberg EG, Lima CF. 2023. Individual differences in musical ability among adults with no music training. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 76:71585–98
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Corrigall KA, Schellenberg EG. 2015. Predicting who takes music lessons: parent and child characteristics. Front. Psychol. 6:282
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Corrigall KA, Schellenberg EG, Misura NM. 2013. Music training, cognition, and personality. Front. Psychol. 4:222
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Criscuolo A, Bonetti L, Särkämö T, Kliuchko M, Brattico E. 2019. On the association between musical training, intelligence and executive functions in adulthood. Front. Psychol. 10:1704
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Crooke AHD, Smyth P, McFerran KS. 2016. The psychosocial benefits of school music: reviewing policy claims. J. Music Res. Online 7:1–15
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Culp ME. 2017. The relationship between phonological awareness and music aptitude. J. Res. Music. Educ. 65:3328–46
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Cumming R, Wilson A, Leong V, Colling LJ, Goswami U. 2015. Awareness of rhythm patterns in speech and music in children with specific language impairments. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 9:672
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Dalla Bella S, Giguère J-F, Peretz I 2009. Singing in congenital amusia. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126:1414–24
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Degé F. 2021. Music lessons and cognitive abilities in children: how far transfer could be possible. Front. Psychol. 11:557807
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Degé F, Frischen U. 2022. The impact of music training on executive functions in childhood—a systematic review. Z. Erziehungswiss. 25:579–602
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Degé F, Kerkovius K. 2018. The effects of drumming on working memory in older adults. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1423:242–50
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Degé F, Kubicek C, Schwarzer G. 2015. Associations between musical abilities and precursors of reading in preschool aged children. Front. Psychol. 6:1220
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Degé F, Müllensiefen D, Schwarzer G. 2020. Singing abilities and phonological awareness in 9- to 12-year-old children. Jahrb. Musikpsychol. 29:e66
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Degé F, Patscheke H, Schwarzer G. 2022. The influence of music training on motoric inhibition in German preschool children. Musicae Sci 26:1172–84
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Degé F, Schwarzer G. 2018. The influence of an extended music curriculum at school on academic self-concept in 9- to 11-year-old children. Musicae Sci 22:3305–21
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Dibben N, Coutinho E, Vilar JA, Estévez-Pérez G. 2018. Do individual differences influence moment-by-moment reports of emotion perceived in music and speech prosody?. Front. Behav. Neurosci. 12:184
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Donai JJ, Jennings MB. 2016. Gaps-in-noise detection and gender identification from noise-vocoded vowel segments: comparing performance of active musicians to non-musicians. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 139:5EL128–34
    [Google Scholar]
  77. dos Santos-Luiz C, Mónico LSM, Almeida LS, Coimbra D. 2016. Exploring the long-term associations between adolescents’ music training and academic achievement. Musicae Sci 20:4512–27
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Drayna D, Manichaikul A, De Lange M, Snieder H, Spector T. 2001. Genetic correlates of musical pitch recognition in humans. Science 291:55101969–72
    [Google Scholar]
  79. D'Souza AA, Moradzadeh L, Wiseheart M 2018. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: working memory and inhibitory control. Cogn. Res. Princ. Implic. 3:11
    [Google Scholar]
  80. D'Souza AA, Wiseheart M 2018. Cognitive effects of music and dance training in children. Arch. Sci. Psychol. 6:1178–92
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Du Y, Zatorre RJ. 2017. Musical training sharpens and bonds ears and tongue to hear speech better. PNAS 114:5113579–84
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Dubinsky E, Wood EA, Nespoli G, Russo FA. 2019. Short-term choir singing supports speech-in-noise perception and neural pitch strength in older adults with age-related hearing loss. Front. Neurosci. 13:1153
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Eccles R, van der Linde J, le Roux M, Holloway J, MacCutcheon D et al. 2021a. Effect of music instruction on phonological awareness and early literacy skills of five- to seven-year-old children. Early Child Dev. Care 191:121896–1910
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Eccles R, van der Linde J, le Roux M, Holloway J, MacCutcheon D et al. 2021b. Is phonological awareness related to pitch, rhythm, and speech-in-noise discrimination in young children?. Lang. Speech Hear. Serv. Sch. 52:1383–95
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Ericsson KA, Krampe RT, Tesch-Römer C. 1993. The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychol. Rev. 100:3363–406
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Farmer E, Jicol C, Petrini K. 2020. Musicianship enhances perception but not feeling of emotion from others’ social interaction through speech prosody. Music Percept. 37:4323–38
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Fiveash A, Bedoin N, Gordon RL, Tillmann B. 2021. Processing rhythm in speech and music: shared mechanisms and implications for developmental speech and language disorders. Neuropsychology 35:8771–91
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Flagge AG, Neeley ME, Davis TM, Henbest VS. 2021. A preliminary exploration of pitch discrimination, temporal sequencing, and prosodic awareness skills of children who participate in different school-based music curricula. Brain Sci 11:982
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Flaugnacco E, Lopez L, Terribili C, Montico M, Zoia S, Schön D. 2015. Music training increases phonological awareness and reading skills in developmental dyslexia: a randomized control trial. PLOS ONE 10:9e0138715
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Fodor JA. 1983. The Modularity of Mind: An Essay on Faculty Psychology Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  91. Foncubierta JM, Machancoses FH, Buyse K, Fonseca-Mora MC. 2020. The acoustic dimension of reading: Does musical aptitude affect silent reading fluency?. Front. Neurosci. 14:399
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Fonseca-Mora MC, Jara-Jiménez P, Gómez-Domínguez M 2015. Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers. . Front. Psychol. 6:286
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Frey A, François C, Chobert J, Velay J-L, Habib M, Besson M. 2019. Music training positively influences the preattentive perception of voice onset time in children with dyslexia: a longitudinal study. Brain Sci 9:491
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Frischen U, Schwarzer G, Degé F. 2019. Comparing the effects of rhythm-based music training and pitch-based music training on executive functions in preschoolers. Front. Integr. Neurosci. 13:41
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Frischen U, Schwarzer G, Degé F. 2021. Music lessons enhance executive functions in 6- to 7-year-old children. Learn. Instruct. 74:101442
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Frischen U, Schwarzer G, Degé F. 2022. Music training and executive functions in adults and children: What role do hot executive functions play?. Z. Erziehungswiss. 25:551–78
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Fu MC, Belza B, Nguyen H, Logsdon R, Demorest S. 2018. Impact of group-singing on older adult health in senior living communities: a pilot study. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr. 76:138–46
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Fujioka T, Dawson DR, Wright R, Honjo K, Chen JL et al. 2018. The effects of music-supported therapy on motor, cognitive, and psychosocial functions in chronic stroke. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1423:264–74
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Ghaffarvand Mokari P, Werner S 2018. Perceptual training of second-language vowels: Does musical ability play a role?. J. Psycholinguist. Res. 47:195–112
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Gobet F, Sala G. 2023. Cognitive training: a field in search of a phenomenon. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 18:1125–41
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Gomez-Dominguez M, Fonseca-Mora MC, Machancoses FH. 2019. First and foreign language early reading abilities: the influence of musical perception. Psychol. Music 47:2213–24
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Gordon EE. 1965. The Musical Aptitude Profile Chicago: GIA
  103. Gordon EE 1989. Advanced Measures of Musical Audiation Chicago: GIA. Man. , ed..
  104. Gordon RL, Fehd HM, McCandliss BD. 2015a. Does music training enhance literacy skills? A meta-analysis. Front. Psychol. 6:1777
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Gordon RL, Jacobs MS, Schuele CM, McAuley JD. 2015b. Perspectives on the rhythm-grammar link and its implications for typical and atypical language development. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1337:16–25
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Gordon RL, Shivers CM, Wieland EA, Kotz SA, Yoder PJ et al. 2015c. Musical rhythm discrimination explains individual differences in grammar skills in children. Dev. Sci. 18:635–44
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Goswami U. 2018. A neural basis for phonological awareness? An oscillatory temporal-sampling perspective. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 27:156–63
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Guhn M, Emerson SD, Gouzouasis P. 2020. A population-level analysis of associations between school music participation and academic achievement. J. Educ. Psychol. 112:2308–28
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Guo X, Ohsawa C, Suzuki A, Sekiyama K. 2018. Improved digit span in children after a 6-week intervention of playing a musical instrument: an exploratory randomized controlled trial. Front. Psychol. 8:2303
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Gustavson DE, Coleman P L, Wang Y, Nitin R, Petty LE et al. 2023. Exploring the genetics of rhythmic perception and musical engagement in the Vanderbilt Online Musicality Study. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1521:140–54
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Gustavson DE, Friedman NP, Stallings MC, Reynolds CA, Coon H et al. 2021. Musical instrument engagement in adolescence predicts verbal ability 4 years later: a twin and adoption study. Dev. Psychol. 57:111943–57
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Habib M, Lardy C, Desiles T, Commeiras C, Chobert J, Besson M. 2016. Music and dyslexia: a new musical training method to improve reading and related disorders. Front. Psychol. 7:26
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Habibi A, Damasio A, Ilari B, Sachs ME, Damasio H. 2018. Music training and child development: a review of recent findings from a longitudinal study. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1423:73–81
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Habibi A, Kreutz G, Russo FA, Tervaniemi M. 2022. Music-based interventions in community settings: navigating the tension between rigor and ecological validity. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1518:47–57
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Haiduk F, Quigley C, Fitch WT. 2020. Song is more memorable than speech prosody: discrete pitches aid auditory working memory. Front. Psychol. 11:586723
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Hallberg KA, Martin WE, McClure JR. 2017. The impact of music instruction on attention in kindergarten children. Psychomusicology 27:2113–21
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Hambrick DZ, Burgoyne AP, Macnamara BN, Ullén F. 2018. Toward a multifactorial model of expertise: beyond born versus made. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1423:284–95
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Hambrick DZ, Tucker-Drob EM. 2015. The genetics of music accomplishment: evidence for gene–environment correlation and interaction. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 22:1112–20
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Harmon. Proj. 2019. About Harmony Project: It all begins with music. Harmony Project https://www.harmony-project.org/org-overview
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Haywood S, Griggs J, Lloyd C, Morris S, Kiss Z, Skipp A. 2015. Creative futures: act, sing, play. Eval. Rep. Exec. Summ. Educ. Endow. Found. Millbank, UK: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED581247.pdf
  121. Hennessy SL, Sachs ME, Ilari B, Habibi A. 2019. Effects of music training on inhibitory control and associated neural networks in school-aged children: a longitudinal study. Front. Neurosci. 13:1080
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Hennessy SL, Wood A, Wilcox R, Habibi A. 2021. Neurophysiological improvements in speech-in-noise task after short-term choir training in older adults. Aging 13:79468–95
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Herholz SC, Zatorre RJ. 2012. Musical training as a framework for brain plasticity: behavior, function, and structure. Neuron 76:3486–502
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Holochwost SJ, Propper CB, Wolf DP, Willoughby MT, Fisher KR et al. 2017. Music education, academic achievement, and executive functions. Psychol. Aesthet. Creat. Arts 11:2147–66
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Howe MJ, Davidson JW, Sloboda JA. 1998. Innate talents: reality or myth?. Behav. Brain Sci. 21:3399–407
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Husain G, Thompson WF, Schellenberg EG. 2002. Effects of musical tempo and mode on arousal, mood, and spatial abilities. Mus. Percept. 20:2151–71
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Hutchins S. 2018. Early childhood music training and associated improvements in music and language abilities. Mus. Percept. 35:5579–93
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Hutka S, Bidelman GM, Moreno S. 2015. Pitch expertise is not created equal: cross-domain effects of musicianship and tone language experience on neural and behavioural discrimination of speech and music. Neuropsychologia 71:52–63
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Hyde KL, Peretz I. 2004. Brains that are out-of-tune but in time. Psychol. Sci. 15:5356–60
    [Google Scholar]
  130. James CE, Zuber S, Dupuis-Lozeron E, Abdili L, Gervaise D, Kliegel M. 2020a. Formal string instrument training in a class setting enhances cognitive and sensorimotor development of primary school children. Front. Neurosci. 14:567
    [Google Scholar]
  131. James CE, Zuber S, Dupuis-Lozeron E, Abdili L, Gervaise D, Kliegel M. 2020b. How musicality, cognition and sensorimotor skills relate in musically untrained children. Swiss J. Psychol. 79:3–4101–12
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Janurik M, Józsa K. 2022. Long-term impacts of early musical abilities on academic achievement: a longitudinal study. J. Intell. 10:336
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Janurik M, Surján N, Józsa K. 2022. The relationship between early word reading, phonological awareness, early music reading and musical aptitude. J. Intell. 10:350
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Janus M, Lee Y, Moreno S, Bialystok E. 2016. Effects of short-term music and second-language training on executive control. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 144:84–97
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Jaschke AC, Honing H, Scherder EJA. 2018. Longitudinal analysis of music education on executive functions in primary school children. Front. Neurosci. 12:103
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Jespersen KV, Gebauer L, Vuust P. 2022. Music interventions in health care White Pap. Cent. Music Brain, Aarhus Univ. Aarhus, Den.: https://danishsoundcluster.dk/white-paper-music-interventions-in-health-care/
  137. Jiam NT, Limb C. 2020. Music perception and training for pediatric cochlear implant users. Expert Rev. Med. Devices 17:111193–205
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Johnson JK, Stewart AL, Acree M, Nápoles AM, Flatt JD et al. 2020. A community choir intervention to promote well-being among diverse older adults: results from the Community of Voices trial. J. Gerontol. B Psychol. Sci. Soc. Sci. 75:3549–59
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Joret M-E, Germeys F, Gidron Y. 2017. Cognitive inhibitory control in children following early childhood music education. Musicae Sci 21:3303–15
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Kassai R, Futo J, Demetrovics Z, Takacs ZK. 2019. A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence on the near- and far-transfer effects among children's executive function skills. Psychol. Bull. 145:2165–88
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Kawase S, Ogawa J. 2020. Group music lessons for children aged 1–3 improve accompanying parents’ moods. Psychol. Music 48:3410–20
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Kawase S, Ogawa J, Obata S, Hirano T. 2018. An investigation into the relationship between onset age of musical lessons and levels of sociability in childhood. Front. Psychol. 9:2244
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Kempert S, Götz R, Blatter K, Tibken C, Artelt C et al. 2016. Training early literacy related skills: To which degree does a musical training contribute to phonological awareness development?. Front. Psychol. 7:1803
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Kim T, Chung M, Jeong E, Cho YS, Kwon O-S, Kim S-P. 2023. Cortical representation of musical pitch in event-related potentials. Biomed. Eng. Lett. 13:441–54
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Koelsch S. 2014. Brain correlates of music-evoked emotions. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 15:170–80
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Kosokabe T, Mizusaki M, Nagaoka W, Honda M, Suzuki N et al. 2021. Self-directed dramatic and music play programs enhance executive function in Japanese children. Trends Neurosci. Educ. 24:100158
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Kragness HE, Swaminathan S, Cirelli LK, Schellenberg EG. 2021. Individual differences in musical ability are stable over time in childhood. Dev. Sci. 24:4e13081
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Kraus N, Chandrasekaran B. 2010. Music training for the development of auditory skills. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 11:599–605
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Kraus N, Slater J. 2016. Beyond words: how humans communicate through sound. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 67:83–103
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Kraus N, White-Schwoch T. 2020. The argument for music education. Am. Sci. 108:210–13
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Krishnan S, Lima CF, Evans S, Chen S, Guldner S et al. 2018. Beatboxers and guitarists engage sensorimotor regions selectively when listening to the instruments they can play. Cereb. Cortex 28:4063–79
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Ladányi E, Novakovic M, Boorom OA, Aaron AS, Scartozzi AC et al. 2023. Using motor tempi to understand rhythm and grammatical skills in developmental language disorder and typical language development. Neurobiol. Lang. 4:11–28
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Law LNC, Zentner M. 2012. Assessing musical abilities objectively: construction and validation of the profile of music perception skills. PLOS ONE 7:12e52508
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Lee YS, Ahn S, Holt RF, Schellenberg EG. 2020. Rhythm and syntax processing in school-age children. Dev. Psychol. 56:91632–41
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Lehtonen M, Soveri A, Laine A, Järvenpää J, Bruin A, Antfolk J. 2018. Is bilingualism associated with enhanced executive functioning in adults? A meta-analytic review. Psychol. Bull. 144:4394–425
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Lerner JS, Li Y, Valdesolo P, Kassam KS. 2015. Emotion and decision making. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 66:799–823
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Li M, DeKeyser R. 2017. Perception practice, production practice, and musical ability in L2 Mandarin tone-word learning. Stud. Second Lang. Acquis. 39:4593–620
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Li X, Zatorre RJ, Du Y. 2021. The microstructural plasticity of the arcuate fasciculus undergirds improved speech in noise perception in musicians. Cereb. Cortex 31:93975–85
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Lifshitz-Ben-Basat A, Fostick L. 2019. Music-related abilities among readers with dyslexia. Ann. Dyslexia 69:3318–34
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Linnavalli T, Putkinen V, Lipsanen J, Huotilainen M, Tervaniemi M. 2018. Music playschool enhances children's linguistic skills. Sci. Rep. 8:8767
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Liu J, Hilton CB, Bergelson E, Mehr SA. 2023. Language experience predicts music processing in a half-million speakers of fifty-four languages. Curr. Biol. 33:101916–25.e4
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Lo CY, Looi V, Thompson WF, McMahon CM. 2022. Beyond audition: psychosocial benefits of music training for children with hearing loss. Ear Hear 43:1128–42
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Lu J, Moussard A, Guo S, Lee Y, Bidelman GM et al. 2022. Music training modulates theta brain oscillations associated with response suppression. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1516:212–21
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Lukács B, Honbolygó F. 2019. Task-dependent mechanisms in the perception of music and speech: domain- specific transfer effects of elementary school music education. J. Res. Music Educ. 67:2153–70
    [Google Scholar]
  165. MacAulay RK, Edelman P, Boeve A, Sprangers N, Halpin A. 2019. Group music training as a multimodal cognitive intervention for older adults. Psychomusicology 29:4180–87
    [Google Scholar]
  166. MacDonald J, Wilbiks JMP. 2022. Undergraduate students with musical training report less conflict in interpersonal relationships. Psychol. Music 50:41091–106
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Madsen SMK, Marschall M, Dau T, Oxenham AJ. 2019. Speech perception is similar for musicians and non-musicians across a wide range of conditions. Sci. Rep. 9:10404
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Madsen SMK, Whiteford KL, Oxenham AJ. 2017. Musicians do not benefit from differences in fundamental frequency when listening to speech in competing speech backgrounds. Sci. Rep. 7:12624
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Mankel K, Bidelman GM. 2018. Inherent auditory skills rather than formal music training shape the neural encoding of speech. PNAS 115:5113129–34
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Martins M, Pinheiro AP, Lima CF. 2021. Does music training improve emotion recognition abilities? A critical review. Emot. Rev. 13:3199–210
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Matziorinis AM, Koelsch S. 2022. The promise of music therapy for Alzheimer's disease: a review. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1516:11–17
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Maury S, Rickard N. 2022. The benefits of participation in a choir and an exercise group on older adults’ wellbeing in a naturalistic setting. Musicae Sci 26:1144–71
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Medina D, Barraza P. 2019. Efficiency of attentional networks in musicians and non-musicians. Heliyon 5:e01315
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Melby-Lervåg M, Hulme C. 2013. Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Dev. Psychol. 49:2270–91
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Merten N, Fischer ME, Dillard LK, Klein BEK, Tweed TS, Cruickshanks KJ. 2021. Benefit of musical training for speech perception and cognition later in life. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 64:72885–96
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Milovanov R, Tervaniemi M. 2011. The interplay between musical and linguistic aptitudes: a review. Front. Psychol. 2:321
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Moradzadeh L, Blumenthal G, Wiseheart M. 2015. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: a closer look at task switching and dual-task performance. Cogn. Sci. 39:992–1020
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Moreno S, Bidelman GM. 2014. Examining neural plasticity and cognitive benefit through the unique lens of musical training. Hear. Res. 308:84–97
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Morrill TH, McAuley JD, Dilley LC, Hambrick DZ. 2015. Individual differences in the perception of melodic contours and pitch-accent timing in speech: support for domain-generality of pitch processing. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 144:4730–36
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Mosing MA, Madison G, Pedersen NL, Kuja-Halkola R, Ullén F. 2014a. Practice does not make perfect: no causal effect of music practice on music ability. Psychol. Sci. 25:91795–803
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Mosing MA, Madison G, Pedersen NL, Ullén F. 2016. Investigating cognitive transfer within the framework of music practice: genetic pleiotropy rather than causality. Dev. Sci. 19:3504–12
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Mosing MA, Pedersen NL, Madison G, Ullén F. 2014b. Genetic pleiotropy explains associations between musical auditory discrimination and intelligence. PLOS ONE 9:11e113874
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Mosing MA, Ullén F. 2018. Genetic influences on musical specialization: a twin study on choice of instrument and music genre. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1423:427–34
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Moussard A, Bermudez P, Alain C, Tays W, Moreno S 2016. Life-long music practice and executive control in older adults: an event-related potential study. Brain Res 1642:146–53
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Mualem O, Lavidor M. 2015. Music education intervention improves vocal emotion recognition. Int. J. Music Educ. 33:4413–25
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Müllensiefen D, Gingras B, Musil J, Stewart L. 2014. The musicality of nonmusicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population. PLOS ONE 9:2e89642
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Munafò MR, Nosek BA, Bishop DVM, Button KS, Chambers CD et al. 2017. A manifesto for reproducible science. Nat. Hum. Behav. 1:0021
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Mussoi BS. 2021. The impact of music training and working memory on speech recognition in older age. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 64:114524–34
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Nan Y, Liu L, Geiser E, Shu H, Gong CC et al. 2018. Piano training enhances the neural processing of pitch and improves speech perception in Mandarin-speaking children. PNAS 115:28e6630–39
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Nandi B, Ostrand A, Johnson V, Ford TJ, Gazzaley A, Zanto TP. 2023. Musical training facilitates exogenous temporal attention via delta phase entrainment within a sensorimotor network. J. Neurosci. 43:183365–78
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Nantais KM, Schellenberg EG. 1999. The Mozart effect: an artifact of preference?. Psychol. Sci. 10:4370–73
    [Google Scholar]
  192. Neves L, Correia AI, Castro SL, Martins D, Lima CF. 2022. Does music training enhance auditory and linguistic processing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of behavioral and brain evidence. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 140:104777
    [Google Scholar]
  193. Nie P, Wang C, Rong G, Du B, Lu J et al. 2022. Effects of music training on the auditory working memory of Chinese-speaking school-aged children: a longitudinal intervention study. Front. Psychol. 12:770425
    [Google Scholar]
  194. Nitin R, Gustavson DE, Aaron AS, Boorom OA, Bush CT et al. 2023. Exploring individual differences in musical rhythm and grammar skills in school-aged children with typically developing language. Sci. Rep. 13:2201
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Nosek BA, Alter G, Banks GC, Borsboom D, Bowman SD et al. 2015. Promoting an open research culture. Science 348:62421422–25
    [Google Scholar]
  196. Nosek BA, Hardwicke TE, Moshontz H, Allard A, Corker KS et al. 2022. Replicability, robustness, and reproducibility in psychological science. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 73:719–48
    [Google Scholar]
  197. Nussbaum C, Schweinberger SR. 2021. Links between musicality and vocal emotion perception. Emot. Rev. 13:3211–24
    [Google Scholar]
  198. Oberman L, Pascual-Leone A. 2013. Changes in plasticity across the lifespan: cause of disease and target for intervention. Prog. Brain Res. 207:91–120
    [Google Scholar]
  199. Okada BM, Slevc LR. 2018. Individual differences in musical training and executive functions: a latent variable approach. Mem. Cogn. 46:1076–92
    [Google Scholar]
  200. Okely JA, Overy K, Deary IJ. 2022. Experience of playing a musical instrument and lifetime change in general cognitive ability: evidence from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Psychol. Sci. 33:91495–508
    [Google Scholar]
  201. Osborne MS, McPherson GE, Faulkner R, Davidson JW, Barrett MS. 2016. Exploring the academic and psychosocial impact of El Sistema-inspired music programs within two low socio-economic schools. Music Educ. Res. 18:2156–75
    [Google Scholar]
  202. Palomar-García , Hernández M, Olcina G, Adrián-Ventura J, Costumero V et al. 2020. Auditory and frontal anatomic correlates of pitch discrimination in musicians, non-musicians, and children without musical training. Brain Struct. Funct. 225:92735–44
    [Google Scholar]
  203. Papatzikis E, Agapaki M, Selvan RN, Pandey V, Zeba F. 2023. Quality standards and recommendations for research in music and neuroplasticity. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1520::20–33
    [Google Scholar]
  204. Park M, Gutyrchik E, Welker L, Carl P, Pöppel E et al. 2015. Sadness is unique: neural processing of emotions in speech prosody in musicians and non-musicians. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 8:1049
    [Google Scholar]
  205. Partanen E, Kivimäki R, Huotilainen M, Ylinen S, Tervaniemi M. 2022. Musical perceptual skills, but not neural auditory processing, are associated with better reading ability in childhood. Neuropsychologia 169:108189
    [Google Scholar]
  206. Patel AD. 2011. Why would musical training benefit the neural encoding of speech? The OPERA hypothesis. Front. Psychol. 2:142
    [Google Scholar]
  207. Patel AD. 2012. The OPERA hypothesis: assumptions and clarifications. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1252:124–28
    [Google Scholar]
  208. Patel AD. 2014. Can nonlinguistic musical training change the way the brain processes speech? The expanded OPERA hypothesis. Hear. Res. 308:98–108
    [Google Scholar]
  209. Patscheke H, Degé F, Schwarzer G. 2016. The effects of training in music and phonological skills on phonological awareness in 4- to 6-year-old children of immigrant families. Front. Psychol. 7:1647
    [Google Scholar]
  210. Penhune VB. 2020. A gene-maturation-environment model for understanding sensitive period effects in musical training. Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 36:13–22
    [Google Scholar]
  211. Pentikäinen E, Pitkäniemi A, Siponkoski S-T, Jansson M, Louhivuori J et al. 2021. Beneficial effects of choir singing on cognition and well-being of older adults: evidence from a cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE 16:2e0245666
    [Google Scholar]
  212. Peretz I. 2008. Musical disorders: from behavior to genes. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 17:5329–33
    [Google Scholar]
  213. Peretz I 2011. Music, language, and modularity in action. Language and Music as Cognitive Systems P Rebuschat, M Rohmeier, JA Hawkins, I Cross 254–68. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  214. Peretz I, Coltheart M. 2003. Modularity of music processing. Nat. Neurosci. 6:7688–91
    [Google Scholar]
  215. Peretz I, Cummings S, Dubé M-P. 2007. The genetics of congenital amusia (tone deafness): a family-aggregation study. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81:3582–88
    [Google Scholar]
  216. Peretz I, Gosselin N, Nan Y, Caron-Caplette E, Trehub SE, Béland R. 2013. A novel tool for evaluating children's musical abilities across age and culture. Front. Syst. Neurosci. 7:30
    [Google Scholar]
  217. Peretz I, Hyde KL. 2003. What is specific to music processing? Insights from congenital amusia. Trends Cogn. Sci. 7:8362–67
    [Google Scholar]
  218. Perron M, Theaud G, Descoteaux M, Tremblay P. 2021. The frontotemporal organization of the arcuate fasciculus and its relationship with speech perception in young and older amateur singers and non-singers. Hum. Brain Mapp. 42:103058–76
    [Google Scholar]
  219. Perron M, Vaillancourt J, Tremblay P. 2022. Amateur singing benefits speech perception in aging under certain conditions of practice: behavioural and neurobiological mechanisms. Brain Struct. Funct. 227:943–62
    [Google Scholar]
  220. Pham MT. 2007. Emotion and rationality: a critical review and interpretation of empirical evidence. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 11:2155–78
    [Google Scholar]
  221. Phelps EA, Lempert KM, Sokol-Hessner P. 2014. Emotion and decision making: multiple modulatory neural circuits. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 37:263–87
    [Google Scholar]
  222. Pierce GR, Sarason IG, Sarason BR, Solky-Butzel JA, Nagle LC. 1997. Assessing the quality of personal relationships. J. Soc. Pers. Relat. 14:3339–56
    [Google Scholar]
  223. Pinheiro AP, Vasconcelos M, Dias M, Arrais N, Gonçalves OF. 2015. The music of language: an ERP investigation of the effects of musical training on emotional prosody processing. Brain Lang 140:24–34
    [Google Scholar]
  224. Pino MC, Giancola M, D'Amico S. 2023. The association between music and language in children: a state-of-the-art review. Children 10:801
    [Google Scholar]
  225. Plomin R, Pedersen NL, Lichtenstein P, McClearn GE. 1994. Variability and stability in cognitive abilities are largely genetic later in life. Behav. Genet. 24:3207–15
    [Google Scholar]
  226. Poldrack RA, Baker CI, Durnez J, Gorgolewski KJ, Matthews PM et al. 2017. Scanning the horizon: towards transparent and reproducible neuroimaging research. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 18:2115–26
    [Google Scholar]
  227. Politimou N, Dalla Bella S, Farrugia N, Franco F 2019. Born to speak and sing: musical predictors of language development in pre-schoolers. Front. Psychol. 10:948
    [Google Scholar]
  228. Price-Mohr R, Price C. 2021. Learning to play the piano whilst reading music: short-term school-based piano instruction improves memory and word recognition in children. Int. J. Early Child. 53:333–44
    [Google Scholar]
  229. Protzko J. 2015. The environment in raising early intelligence: a meta-analysis of the fadeout effect. Intelligence 53:202–10
    [Google Scholar]
  230. Pujazón A. 2021. Musical aptitude and foreign language receptive pronunciation. Phonica 17:72–89
    [Google Scholar]
  231. Racette A, Bard C, Peretz I. 2006. Making non-fluent aphasics speak: sing along. ! Brain 129:102571–84
    [Google Scholar]
  232. Rauscher FH, Shaw GL, Ky CN. 1993. Music and spatial task performance. Nature 365:611
    [Google Scholar]
  233. Rautenberg I. 2015. The effects of musical training on the decoding skills of German-speaking primary school children. J. Res. Read. 38:11–17
    [Google Scholar]
  234. Reifinger JL Jr. 2019. Dyslexia in the music classroom: a review of literature. Update Appl. Res. Music Educ. 38:19–17
    [Google Scholar]
  235. Rennung M, Göritz AS. 2016. Prosocial consequences of interpersonal synchrony. Z. Psychol. 224:3168–89
    [Google Scholar]
  236. Ribeiro FS, Santos FH. 2017. Enhancement of numeric cognition in children with low achievement in mathematic after a non-instrumental musical training. Res. Dev. Disabil. 62:26–39
    [Google Scholar]
  237. Rodriguez-Gomez DA, Talero-Gutiérrez C. 2022. Effects of music training in executive function performance in children: a systematic review. Front. Psychol. 13:968144
    [Google Scholar]
  238. Rolka EJ, Silverman MJ. 2015. A systematic review of music and dyslexia. Arts Psychother 46:24–32
    [Google Scholar]
  239. Román-Caballero R, Arnedo M, Triviño M, Lupiáñez J. 2018. Musical practice as an enhancer of cognitive function in healthy aging—a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE 13:11e0207957
    [Google Scholar]
  240. Román-Caballero R, Lupiáñez J. 2022. Suggestive but not conclusive: an independent meta-analysis on the auditory benefits of learning to play a musical instrument. Commentary on Neves et al. 2022. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 142:104916
    [Google Scholar]
  241. Román-Caballero R, Martín-Arévalo E, Lupiáñez J. 2021. Attentional networks functioning and vigilance in expert musicians and non-musicians. Psychol. Res. 85:1121–35
    [Google Scholar]
  242. Román-Caballero R, Vadillo MA, Trainor LJ, Lupiáñez J. 2022. Please don't stop the music: a meta-analysis of the cognitive and academic benefits of instrumental musical training in childhood and adolescence. Educ. Res. Rev. 35:100436
    [Google Scholar]
  243. Romeiser JL, Smith DM, Clouston SAP. 2021. Musical instrument engagement across the life course and episodic memory in late life: an analysis of 60 years of longitudinal data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. PLOS ONE 16:6e0253053
    [Google Scholar]
  244. Roncaglia-Denissen MP, Roor DA, Chen A, Sadakata M. 2016. The enhanced musical rhythmic perception in second language learners. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 10:288
    [Google Scholar]
  245. Saarikivi K, Chan TMV, Huotilainen M, Tervaniemi M, Putkinen V. 2023. Enhanced neural mechanisms of set shifting in musically trained adolescents and young adults: converging fMRI, EEG, and behavioral evidence. Cereb. Cortex. 33:117237–49
    [Google Scholar]
  246. Saarikivi K, Putkinen V, Tervaniemi M, Huotilainen M. 2016. Cognitive flexibility modulates maturation and music-training-related changes in neural sound discrimination. Eur. J. Neurosci. 44:21815–25
    [Google Scholar]
  247. Sala G, Gobet F. 2017a. Does far transfer exist? Negative evidence from chess, music, and working memory training. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 26:6515–20
    [Google Scholar]
  248. Sala G, Gobet F. 2017b. When the music's over: Does music skill transfer to children's and young adolescents’ cognitive and academic skills? A meta-analysis. Educ. Res. Rev. 20:55–67
    [Google Scholar]
  249. Sala G, Gobet F. 2020a. Cognitive and academic benefits of music training with children: a multilevel meta-analysis. Mem. Cogn. 48:81429–41
    [Google Scholar]
  250. Sala G, Gobet F. 2020b. Working memory training in typically developing children: a multilevel meta-analysis. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 27:3423–34
    [Google Scholar]
  251. Sampaio-Baptista C, Sanders Z-B, Johansen-Berg H. 2018. Structural plasticity in adulthood with motor learning and stroke rehabilitation. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 41:25–40
    [Google Scholar]
  252. Sares AG, Foster NEV, Allen K, Hyde KL. 2018. Pitch and time processing in speech and tones: the effects of musical training and attention. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 61:3496–509
    [Google Scholar]
  253. Schellenberg EG. 2004. Music lessons enhance IQ. Psychol. Sci. 15:8511–14
    [Google Scholar]
  254. Schellenberg EG. 2006. Long-term positive associations between music lessons and IQ. J. Educ. Psychol. 98:2457–68
    [Google Scholar]
  255. Schellenberg EG 2012. Cognitive performance after listening to music: a review of the Mozart effect. Music, Health and Wellbeing RAR MacDonald, G Kreutz, L Mitchell 324–38. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  256. Schellenberg EG. 2015. Music training and speech perception: a gene-environment interaction. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1337:1170–77
    [Google Scholar]
  257. Schellenberg EG. 2019. Music training, music aptitude, and speech perception. PNAS 116:82783–84
    [Google Scholar]
  258. Schellenberg EG. 2020. Correlation = causation? Music training, psychology, and neuroscience. Psychol. Aesthet. Creat. Arts 14:4475–80
    [Google Scholar]
  259. Schellenberg EG, Correia AI, Lima CF. 2023. Is musical expertise associated with self-reported foreign-language ability?. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 49:71083–89
    [Google Scholar]
  260. Schellenberg EG, Corrigall KA, Dys SP, Malti T. 2015. Group music training and children's prosocial skills. PLOS ONE 10:10e0141449
    [Google Scholar]
  261. Schellenberg EG, Hallam S. 2005. Music listening and cognitive abilities in 10- and 11-year-olds: the Blur effect. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1060:202–9
    [Google Scholar]
  262. Schellenberg EG, Mankarious M. 2012. Music training and emotion comprehension in childhood. Emotion 12:5887–91
    [Google Scholar]
  263. Schellenberg EG, Nakata T, Hunter PG, Tamoto S. 2007. Exposure to music and cognitive performance: tests of children and adults. Psychol. Music 35:15–19
    [Google Scholar]
  264. Schellenberg EG, Weiss MW. 2013. Music and cognitive abilities. The Psychology of Music D Deutsch 499–550. Amsterdam: Elsevier. , 3rd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  265. Schlaug G. 2015. Musicians and music making as a model for the study of brain plasticity. Prog. Brain Res. 217:37–55
    [Google Scholar]
  266. Schneider P, Groß C, Bernhofs V, Christiner M, Benner J et al. 2022. Short-term plasticity of neuro-auditory processing induced by musical active listening training. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1517:176–90
    [Google Scholar]
  267. Seashore CE. 1919. Manual of Instructions and Interpretations for Measures of Musical Talent New York: Columbia Graphophone
  268. Shen Y, Lin Y, Liu S, Fang L, Liu G. 2019. Sustained effect of music training on the enhancement of executive function in preschool children. Front. Psychol. 10:1910
    [Google Scholar]
  269. Shipstead Z, Redick TS, Engle RW. 2012. Is working memory training effective?. Psychol. Bull. 138:4628–54
    [Google Scholar]
  270. Sihvonen AJ, Särkämö T, Leo V, Tervaniemi M, Altenmüller E, Soinila S. 2017. Music-based interventions in neurological rehabilitation. Lancet Neurol 16:8648–60
    [Google Scholar]
  271. Silas S, Müllensiefen D, Gelding R, Frieler K, Harrison PMC. 2022. The associations between music training, musical working memory, and visuospatial working memory: an opportunity for causal modeling. Music Percept 39:4401–20
    [Google Scholar]
  272. Silvia PJ, Thomas KS, Nusbaum EC, Beaty RE, Hodges DA. 2016. How does music training predict cognitive abilities? A bifactor approach to musical expertise and intelligence. Psychol. Aesthet. Creat. Arts 10:2184–90
    [Google Scholar]
  273. Sinn OS, Hwa PC, Wing CK, Cooper S. 2022. The effect of music-based intervention on linguistic skills: a systematic review. Harmonia J. Arts Res. Educ. 22:11–14
    [Google Scholar]
  274. Siponkoski S-T, Pitkäniemi A, Laitinen S, Särkämö E-R, Pentikäinen E et al. 2023. Efficacy of a multicomponent singing intervention on communication and psychosocial functioning in chronic aphasia: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Brain Comm 5:1fcac337
    [Google Scholar]
  275. Skubic D, Blazka G, Jerman J. 2021. Supporting development of phonological awareness through musical activities according to Edgar Willems. SAGE Open 11:2 https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440211021832
    [Google Scholar]
  276. Slater J, Kraus N. 2016. The role of rhythm in perceiving speech in noise: a comparison of percussionists, vocalists and non-musicians. Cogn. Process. 17:179–87
    [Google Scholar]
  277. Slater J, Skoe E, Strait DL, O'Connell S, Thompson E, Kraus N. 2015. Music training improves speech-in-noise perception: longitudinal evidence from a community-based music program. Behav. Brain Res. 291:244–52
    [Google Scholar]
  278. Slevc LR, Davey NS, Buschkuehl M, Jaeggi SM. 2016. Tuning the mind: exploring the connections between musical ability and executive functions. Cognition 152:199–211
    [Google Scholar]
  279. Stanley TG. 2017. Limitations of PET-PEESE and other meta-analysis methods. Soc. Psychol. Pers. Sci. 8:5581–91
    [Google Scholar]
  280. Steinberg S, Liu T, Lense MD. 2021. Musical engagement and parent-child attachment in families with young children during the Covid-19 pandemic. Front. Psychol. 12:641733
    [Google Scholar]
  281. Steinbrink C, Knigge J, Mannhaupt G, Sallat S, Werkle A. 2019. Are temporal and tonal musical skills related to phonological awareness and literacy skills?—Evidence from two cross-sectional studies with children from different age groups. Front. Psychol. 10:805
    [Google Scholar]
  282. Stepanov A, Pavlič M, Stateva P, Reboul A. 2018. Children's early bilingualism and musical training influence prosodic discrimination of sentences in an unknown language. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 143:1EL1–7
    [Google Scholar]
  283. Strait DL, Kraus N. 2014. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning. Hear. Res. 308:109–21
    [Google Scholar]
  284. Strong JV. 2022. Music experience predicts episodic memory performance in older adult instrumental musicians. Brain Cogn 161:105883
    [Google Scholar]
  285. Strong JV, Mast BT. 2019. The cognitive functioning of older adult instrumental musicians and non-musicians. Aging Neuropsychol. Cogn. 26:3367–86
    [Google Scholar]
  286. Sun C, Meng X, Du B, Zhang Y, Liu L et al. 2022. Behavioral and neural rhythm sensitivities predict phonological awareness and word reading development in Chinese. Brain Lang 230:105126
    [Google Scholar]
  287. Sun Y, Lu X, Ho HT, Thompson WF. 2017. Pitch discrimination associated with phonological awareness: evidence from congenital amusia. Sci. Rep. 7:44285
    [Google Scholar]
  288. Swaminathan J, Mason CR, Streeter TM, Best V, Kidd G Jr., Patel AD. 2015. Musical training, individual differences and the cocktail party problem. Sci. Rep. 5:11628
    [Google Scholar]
  289. Swaminathan S, Kragness HE, Schellenberg EG. 2021. The Musical Ear Test: norms and correlates from a large sample of Canadian undergraduates. Behav. Res. Methods 53:52007–24
    [Google Scholar]
  290. Swaminathan S, Schellenberg EG. 2015. Current emotion research in music psychology. Emot. Rev. 7:2189–97
    [Google Scholar]
  291. Swaminathan S, Schellenberg EG 2016. Music training. Cognitive Training: An Overview of Features and Applications T Strobach, J Karbach 137–44. New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  292. Swaminathan S, Schellenberg EG. 2017. Musical competence and phoneme perception in a foreign language. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 24:61929–34
    [Google Scholar]
  293. Swaminathan S, Schellenberg EG. 2018. Musical competence is predicted by music training, cognitive abilities, and personality. Sci. Rep. 8:9223
    [Google Scholar]
  294. Swaminathan S, Schellenberg EG. 2020. Musical ability, music training, and language ability in childhood. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 46:122340–48
    [Google Scholar]
  295. Swaminathan S, Schellenberg EG, Khalil S. 2017. Revisiting the association between music lessons and intelligence: training effects or music aptitude?. Intelligence 62:119–24
    [Google Scholar]
  296. Swaminathan S, Schellenberg EG, Venkatesan K. 2018. Explaining the association between music training and reading in adults. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 44:6992–99
    [Google Scholar]
  297. Symons AE, Tierney AT. 2023. Musical experience is linked to enhanced dimension-selective attention to pitch and increased primary weighting during suprasegmental categorization. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xlm0001217
    [Google Scholar]
  298. Taets GGDCC, Gutierrez RWH, Bergold LB, Monteiro LS. 2021. Effects of choral singing on salivary cortisol levels and self-reported stress in university students. Music Med 13:4243–49
    [Google Scholar]
  299. Tai DM, Phillipson SN, Phillipson S. 2018. Music training and the academic achievement of Hong Kong students. Res. Stud. Music Educ. 40:2244–64
    [Google Scholar]
  300. Talamini F, Altoè G, Carretti B, Grassi M. 2017. Musicians have better memory than nonmusicians: a meta-analysis. PLOS ONE 12:10e0186773
    [Google Scholar]
  301. Talamini F, Blain S, Ginzburg J, Houix O, Bouchet P et al. 2022. Auditory and visual short-term memory: influence of material type, contour, and musical expertise. Psychol. Res. 86:2421–42
    [Google Scholar]
  302. Talamini F, Carretti B, Grassi M. 2016. The working memory of musicians and nonmusicians. Music Percept 34:2183–91
    [Google Scholar]
  303. Talamini F, Grassi M, Toffalini E, Santoni R, Carretti B. 2018. Learning a second language: Can music aptitude or music training have a role?. Learn. Individ. Differ. 64:1–7
    [Google Scholar]
  304. Tallal P. 2004. Improving language and literacy is a matter of time. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5:9721–28
    [Google Scholar]
  305. Tan YT, McPherson GE, Wilson SJ 2017. The molecular genetic basis of music ability and music-related phenotypes. The Science of Expertise: Behavioral, Neural, and Genetic Approaches to Complex Skill DZ Hambrick, G Campitelli, BN Macnamara 283–304. New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  306. Taylor AC, Dewhurst SA. 2017. Investigating the influence of music training on verbal memory. Psychol. Music 45:6814–20
    [Google Scholar]
  307. Tervaniemi M. 2023. The neuroscience of music—towards ecological validity. Trends Neurosci 46:5355–64
    [Google Scholar]
  308. Thompson WF, Schellenberg EG, Husain G. 2001. Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect. Psychol. Sci. 12:3248–51
    [Google Scholar]
  309. Thompson WF, Schellenberg EG, Husain G. 2004. Decoding speech prosody: Do music lessons help?. Emotion 4:146–64
    [Google Scholar]
  310. Thorndike EL, Woodworth RS. 1901. The influence of improvement in one mental function upon the efficiency of other functions (I). Psychol. Rev. 8:247–61
    [Google Scholar]
  311. Tierney A, Kraus N. 2013. Music training for the development of reading skills. Prog. Brain Res. 207:209–41
    [Google Scholar]
  312. Tierney A, Krizman J, Kraus N. 2015. Music training alters the course of adolescent auditory development. PNAS 112:3210062–67
    [Google Scholar]
  313. Toh XR, Lau F, Wong FCK. 2022. Individual differences in nonnative lexical tone perception: effects of tone language repertoire and musical experience. Front. Psychol. 13:940363
    [Google Scholar]
  314. Toh XR, Tan SH, Wong G, Lau F, Wong FCK. 2023. Enduring musician advantage among former musicians in prosodic pitch perception. Sci. Rep. 13:2657
    [Google Scholar]
  315. Tremblay P, Perron M. 2023. Auditory cognitive aging in amateur singers and non-singers. Cognition 230:105311
    [Google Scholar]
  316. Tsao C-H, Lai Y-H, Chen Y-L, Wang H-LS. 2023. Musical rhythm perception and production, phonological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge in preschoolers: a cross-language study. Int. J. Early Child. 55:127–46
    [Google Scholar]
  317. Tunçgenç B, Cohen E, Fawcett C. 2015. Rock with me: the role of movement synchrony in infants’ social and nonsocial choices. Child Dev 86:3976–84
    [Google Scholar]
  318. Turker S, Reiterer SM. 2021. Brain, musicality, and language aptitude: a complex interplay. Annu. Rev. Appl. Linguist. 41:95–107
    [Google Scholar]
  319. Ullén F, Hambrick DZ, Mosing MA. 2016. Rethinking expertise: a multifactorial gene–environment interaction model of expert performance. Psychol. Bull. 142:4427–46
    [Google Scholar]
  320. Ullén F, Mosing MA, Holm L, Eriksson H, Madison G. 2014. Psychometric properties and heritability of a new online test for musicality, the Swedish Musical Discrimination Test. Pers. Individ. Differ. 63:87–93
    [Google Scholar]
  321. van der Weijden F, Hernández E, Rossell Perry PE, van Essen LH 2023. The influence of music lessons on the socio-emotional wellbeing of children with cleft lip and/or palate. Br. Dent. J. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41415-023-5570-x
    [Google Scholar]
  322. Vanden Bosch der Nederlanden CM, Zaragoza C, Rubio-Garcia A, Clarkson E, Snyder JS 2020. Change detection in complex auditory scenes is predicted by auditory memory, pitch perception, and years of musical training. Psychol. Res. 84:3585–601
    [Google Scholar]
  323. Vangehuchten L, Verhoeven V, Thys P. 2015. Pronunciation proficiency and musical aptitude in Spanish as a foreign language: results of an experimental research project. Rev. Lingüíst. Leng. Apl. 10:90–100
    [Google Scholar]
  324. Vidal MM, Lousada M, Vigário M. 2020. Music effects on phonological awareness development in 3-year-old children. Appl. Psycholinguist. 41:2299–318
    [Google Scholar]
  325. Vincenzi M, Correia AI, Vanzella P, Pinheiro AP, Lima CF, Schellenberg EG. 2022. Associations between music training and cognitive abilities: the special case of professional musicians. Psychol. Aesthet. Creat. Arts. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/aca0000481
    [Google Scholar]
  326. von Bastian CC, Oberauer K. 2014. Effects and mechanisms of working memory training: a review. Psychol. Res. 78:803–20
    [Google Scholar]
  327. Wallentin M, Nielsen AH, Friis-Olivarius M, Vuust C, Vuust P. 2010. The Musical Ear Test, a new reliable test for measuring musical competence. Learn. Individ. Differ. 20:3188–96
    [Google Scholar]
  328. Warren JD, Warren JE, Fox N, Warrington EK. 2003. Nothing to say, something to sing: primary progressive dynamic aphasia. Neurocase 9:2140–55
    [Google Scholar]
  329. Weijkamp J, Sadakata M. 2017. Attention to affective audio-visual information: comparison between musicians and non-musicians. Psychol. Music 45:2204–15
    [Google Scholar]
  330. Weinstein D, Launay J, Pearce E, Dunbar RIM, Stewart L. 2016. Singing and social bonding: changes in connectivity and pain threshold as a function of group size. Evol. Hum. Behav. 37:152–58
    [Google Scholar]
  331. Wesseldijk LW, Gordon RL, Mosing MA, Ullén F. 2021a. Music and verbal ability—a twin study of genetic and environmental associations. Psychol. Aesthet. Creat. Arts. https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000401
    [Google Scholar]
  332. Wesseldijk LW, Mosing MA, Ullén F. 2021b. Why is an early start of training related to musical skills in adulthood? A genetically informative study. Psychol. Sci. 32:13–13
    [Google Scholar]
  333. Wiener S, Bradley ED. 2023. Harnessing the musician advantage: short-term musical training affects non-native cue weighting of linguistic pitch. Lang. Teach. Res. 27:41016–31
    [Google Scholar]
  334. Wiens N, Gordon RL. 2018. The case for treatment fidelity in active music interventions: why and how. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1423:219–28
    [Google Scholar]
  335. Wilbiks JMP, Hutchins S. 2020. Musical training improves memory for instrumental music, but not vocal music or words. Psychol. Music 48:1150–59
    [Google Scholar]
  336. Witek MAG, Matthews T, Bodak R, Blausz MW, Penhune V, Vuust P. 2023. Musicians and non-musicians show different preference profiles for single chords of varying harmonic complexity. PLOS ONE 18:2e0281057
    [Google Scholar]
  337. Wolff PH. 2002. Timing precision and rhythm in developmental dyslexia. Read. Writ. 15:1–2179–206
    [Google Scholar]
  338. Xie X, Myers E. 2015. The impact of musical training and tone language experience on talker identification. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137:1419–32
    [Google Scholar]
  339. Yeend I, Beach EF, Sharma M, Dillon H. 2017. The effects of noise exposure and musical training on suprathreshold auditory processing and speech perception in noise. Hear. Res. 353:224–36
    [Google Scholar]
  340. Yoo J, Bidelman G. 2019. Linguistic, perceptual, and cognitive factors underlying musicians’ benefits in noise-degraded speech perception. Hear. Res. 377:189–95
    [Google Scholar]
  341. Zanto TP, Johnson V, Ostrand A, Gazzaley A. 2022. How musical rhythm training improves short-term memory for faces. PNAS 119:41e2201655119
    [Google Scholar]
  342. Zendel BR, Alexander EJ. 2020. Autodidacticism and music: Do self-taught musicians exhibit the same auditory processing advantages as formally trained musicians?. Front. Neurosci. 14:752
    [Google Scholar]
  343. Zendel BR, Tremblay C-D, Belleville S, Peretz I. 2015. The impact of musicianship on the cortical mechanisms related to separating speech from background noise. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 27:51044–59
    [Google Scholar]
  344. Zendel BR, West GL, Belleville S, Peretz I. 2019. Musical training improves the ability to understand speech-in-noise in older adults. Neurobiol. Aging 81:102–15
    [Google Scholar]
  345. Zentner M, Strauss H. 2017. Assessing musical ability quickly and objectively: development and validation of the Short-PROMS and the Mini-PROMS. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1400:33–45
    [Google Scholar]
  346. Zhang J, Meng Y, Wu C, Zhou DQ. 2017. Writing system modulates the association between sensitivity to acoustic cues in music and reading ability: evidence from Chinese–English bilingual children. Front. Psychol. 8:1965
    [Google Scholar]
  347. Zhang L, Fu X, Luo D, Xing L, Du Y. 2021. Musical experience offsets age-related decline in understanding speech-in-noise: Type of training does not matter, working memory is the key. Ear Hear 42:2258–70
    [Google Scholar]
  348. Zhang L, Wang X, Alain C, Du Y 2023. Successful aging of musicians: preservation of sensorimotor regions aids audiovisual speech-in-noise perception. Sci. Adv. 9:eadg7056
    [Google Scholar]
  349. Zioga I, Di Bernardi Luft C, Bhattacharya J. 2016. Musical training shapes neural responses to melodic and prosodic expectation. Brain Res. 1650:267–82
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-032323-051354
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error