1932

Abstract

Humanity has regarded itself as intellectually superior to other species for millennia, yet human cognitive uniqueness remains poorly understood. Here, we evaluate candidate traits plausibly underlying our distinctive cognition (including mental time travel, tool use, problem solving, social cognition, and communication) as well as domain generality, and we consider how human cognitive uniqueness may have evolved. We conclude that there are no traits present in humans and absent in other animals that in isolation explain our species’ superior cognitive performance; rather, there are many cognitive domains in which humans possess unusually potent capabilities compared to those found in other species. Humans are flexible cognitive all-rounders, whose proficiency arises through interactions and reinforcement between cognitive domains at multiple scales.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-062220-051256
2021-01-04
2024-04-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/psych/72/1/annurev-psych-062220-051256.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-062220-051256&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Addis DR, Schacter DL. 2012. The hippocampus and imagining the future: Where do we stand. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 5:173
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Amici F, Widdig A, Lehmann J, Majolo B 2019. A meta-analysis of inter-individual differences in innovation. Anim. Behav. 155:257–68
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson ML. 2010. Neural reuse: a fundamental organizational principle of the brain. Behav. Brain Sci. 33:245–313
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderson ML, Finlay BL. 2014. Allocating structure to function: the strong links between neuroplasticity and natural selection. Front. Hum. Sci. 7:918
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Atance C, Louw A, Clayton NS 2014. Thinking ahead about where something is needed: new insights about episodic foresight in preschoolers. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 129:98–109
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Auersperg AMI, van Horik JO, Bugnyar T, Kacelnik A, Emery NJ, von Bayern AM 2015. Combinatory actions during object play in psittaciformes (Diopsittaca nobilis, Pionites melanocephala, Cacatua goffini) and corvids (Corvus corax, C. monedula, C. moneduloides). J. Comp. Psychol 129:62–71
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Barton RA, Harvey P. 2000. Mosaic evolution of brain structure in mammals. Nature 405:67901055–58
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Barton RA, Venditti C. 2014. Rapid evolution of the cerebellum in humans and other great apes. Curr. Biol. 24:202440–44
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bateson P, Martin P. 2013. Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  10. Beck SR, Apperly IA, Chappell J, Guthrie C, Cutting N 2011. Making tools isn't child's play. Cognition 119:2301–6
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Biro D, Haslam M, Rutz C 2013. Tool use as adaptation. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 368:20120408
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Boesch C, Head J, Robbins MM 2009. Complex tool sets for honey extraction among chimpanzees in Loango National Park, Gabon. J. Hum. Evol. 56:560–69
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bolhuis JJ, Okanoya K, Scharff C 2010. Twitter evolution: converging mechanisms in birdsong and human speech. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 11:747–59
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bonawitz E, Shafto P, Gweon H, Goodman ND, Spelke E, Schulz L 2011. The double-edged sword of pedagogy: Instruction limits spontaneous exploration and discovery. Cognition 120:3322–30
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Boyd R, Richerson PJ. 1985. Culture and the Evolutionary Process Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  16. Brady RJ, Hampton RR. 2018. Nonverbal working memory for novel images in rhesus monkeys. Curr. Biol. 28:243903–10
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Brockmann HJ. 1985. Tool use in digger wasps. Psyche 92:309–29
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Brown AL. 1990. Domain-specific principles affect learning and transfer in children. Cogn. Sci. 14:107–33
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Brown VJ, Bowman EM. 2002. Rodent models of prefrontal cortical function. Trends Neurosci 25:340–43
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Buchsbaum D, Bridgers S, Skolnick Weisberg D, Gopnik A 2012. The power of possibility: causal learning, counterfactual reasoning, and pretend play. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 367:15992202–12
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Buchsbaum D, Gopnik A, Griffiths TL, Shafto P 2011. Children's imitation of causal action sequences is influenced by statistical and pedagogical evidence. Cognition 120:3331–40
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Buckner RL, Carroll DC. 2007. Self-projection and the brain. Trends Cogn. Sci. 11:249–57
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Buller DJ, Hardcastle VG. 2000. Evolutionary psychology, meet developmental neurobiology: against promiscuous modularity. Brain Mind 1:307–25
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Burkart JM, Schäbiger MN, van Schaik CP 2017. The evolution of general intelligence. Behav. Brain Sci. 40:e195
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Byrne RW, Russon AE. 1998. Learning by imitation: a hierarchical approach. Behav. Brain Sci. 21:667–84
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Call J. 2013. Three ingredients for becoming a creative tool user. Tool Use in Animals: Cognition and Ecology CM Sanz, J Call, C Boesch 3–20 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Call J 2017. APA Handbook of Comparative PsychologyVols. 1, 2 Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc.
  28. Call J, Tomasello M. 1998. Distinguishing intentional from accidental actions in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and children (Homo sapiens). J. Comp. Psychol. 112:192–206
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Call J, Tomasello M. 2008. Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? 30 years later. Trends Cogn. Sci. 12:5187–92
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Call J, Hare B, Carpenter M, Tomasello M 2004. Unwilling or unable? Chimpanzees’ understanding of intentional actions. Dev. Sci. 7:488–98
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Carey S. 2009. The Origin of Concepts New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  32. Caro TM, Hauser MD. 1992. Is there teaching in nonhuman animals. Q. Rev. Biol. 67:151–74
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Carroll JB. 1993. Human Cognitive Abilities: A Survey of Factor Analytic Studies Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  34. Casar C, Zuberbuehler K, Young RJ, Byrne RW 2013. Titi monkey call sequences vary with predator location and type. Biol. Lett. 9:20130535
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Cheke LG, Clayton NS. 2010. Mental time travel in animals. Cogn. Sci. 1:6915–30
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Cholewiak DM, Sousa-Lima RS, Cerchio S 2012. Humpback whale song hierarchical structure: historical context and discussion of current classification issues. Mar. Mammal Sci. 29:E312–32
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Chomsky N. 1980. Rules and Representations New York: Columbia Univ. Press
  38. Christiansen MH, Kirby S. 2003. Language evolution: consensus and controversies. Trends Cogn. Sci. 7:7300–7
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Christiansen MH, MacDonald MC. 2009. A usage-based approach to recursion in sentence processing. Lang. Learn. 59:126–61
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Chudek M, Henrich J. 2011. Culture-gene coevolution, norm psychology and the emergence of human prosociality. Trends Cogn. Sci. 155:218–26
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Clayton NS. 2017. Episodic-like memory and mental time travel in animals. See Call 2017 , Vol. 2:227–43
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Clayton NS, Bussey TJ, Dickinson A 2003. Can animals recall the past and plan for the future. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 4:685–91
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Clayton NS, Dickinson A. 1998. Episodic-like memory during cache recovery by scrub jays. Nature 395:272–74
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Clutton-Brock TH, Harvey PH. 1980. Primates, brains and ecology. J. Zool. 190:309–23
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Conway CM, Christiansen MH. 2001. Sequential learning in non-human primates. Trends Cogn. Sci. 5:539–46
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Cook P, Wilson M. 2010. Do young chimpanzees have extraordinary working memory. Psychonom. Bull. Rev. 17:4599–600
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Corballis MC. 2013. Mental time travel: a case for evolutionary continuity. Trends Cogn. Sci. 17:15–6
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Corballis MC. 2017. Language evolution: a changing perspective. Trends Cogn. Sci. 21:4229–36
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Csibra G. 2010. Recognizing communicative intentions in infancy. Mind Lang 25:141–68
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Csibra G, Gergely G. 2011. Natural pedagogy as evolutionary adaptation. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366:1149–57
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Dean LG, Kendal RL, Schapiro SJ, Thierry B, Laland KN 2012. Identification of the social and cognitive processes underlying human cumulative culture. Science 335:1114–18
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Deaner RO, van Schaik C, Johnson V 2006. Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others? A meta-analysis of nonhuman primate studies. Evol. Psychol. 4:149–96
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Deary IJ. 2001. Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  54. DeCasien AR, Williams SA, Higham JP 2017. Primate brain size is predicted by diet but not sociality. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 1:0112
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Dediu D, Levinson S. 2013. On the antiquity of language: the reinterpretation of Neandertal linguistic capacities and its consequences. Front. Psychol. 4:397
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Derex M, Bonnefon JF, Boyd R, Mesoudi M 2019. Causal understanding is not necessary for the improvement of culturally evolving technology. Nat. Hum. Behav. 3:446–52
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Dorrance BR, Zentall TR. 2002. Imitation of conditional discriminations in pigeons (Columba livia). J. Comp. Psychol. 116:277–85
    [Google Scholar]
  58. D'Souza D, Karmiloff-Smith A. 2011. When modularization fails to occur: a developmental perspective. Cogn. Neuropsychol. 28:3–4276–87
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Dunbar RIM, Shultz S. 2017. Why are there so many explanations for primate brain evolution. Phil. Trans. B 372:172720160244
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Elmore LC, Ma WJ, Magnotti JF, Leising KJ, Passaro AD et al. 2011. Visual short-term memory compared in rhesus monkeys and humans. Curr. Biol. 21:975–79
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Fausey CM, Jayaraman S, Smith LB 2016. From faces to hands: changing visual input in the first two years. Cognition 152:101–7
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Fehr E, Bernhard H, Rockenbach B 2008. Egalitarianism in young children. Nature 454:1079–83
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Fernandes HBF, Woodley MA, te Nijenhuis J 2014. Differences in cognitive abilities among primates are concentrated of G: phenotypic and phylogenetic comparisons with two meta-analytical databases. Intelligence 46:311–22
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Finlay BL, Darlington RB. 1995. Linked regularities in the development and evolution of mammalian brains. Science 268:1578–84
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Finlay BL, Uchiyama R. 2014. Developmental mechanisms channeling cortical evolution. Trends Neurosci 38:69–76
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Finlay BL, Uchiyama R. 2017. The timing of brain maturation, early experience, and the human social niche. Evolution of Nervous Systems 3 JH Kaas 123–48 Amsterdam: Elsevier
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Fischer J, Mikhael JG, Tenenbaum JB, Kanwisher N 2016. Functional neuroanatomy of intuitive physical inference. PNAS 113:34E5072–81
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Fitch WT. 2004. Kin selection and “mother tongues”: a neglected component in language evolution. Evolution of Communication Systems D Kimbrough Oller, U Griebel 275–96 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Fitch WT, Hauser MD. 2004. Computational constraints on syntactic processing in a nonhuman primate. Science 303:377–80
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Fitch WT, Hauser MD, Chomsky N 2005. The evolution of the language faculty: clarifications and implications. Cognition 97:179–210
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Fogarty L, Strimling P, Laland KN 2011. The evolution of teaching. Evolution 65:2760–70
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Forss SIF, Willems E, Call J, van Schaik CP 2016. Cognitive differences between orang-utan species: a test of the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Sci. Rep. 6:30516
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Franks NR, Richardson T. 2006. Teaching in tandem-running ants. Nature 439:153
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Friedman NP, Miyake A. 2017. Unity and diversity of executive functions. Cortex 86:186–204
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Fuentes A. 2017. The Creative Spark New York: Penguin
  76. Gardner RA, Gardner BT. 1969. Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee. Science 165:664–72
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Gergely G, Csibra G. 2005. The social construction of the cultural mind: imitative learning as a mechanism of human pedagogy. Interact. Stud. 6:463–81
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Gergely G, Egyed K, Kiraly I 2007. On pedagogy. Dev. Sci. 10:139–46
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Gerhart J, Kirschner M. 1997. Cells, Embryos and Evolution Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  80. González-Forero M, Gardner A. 2018. Inference of ecological and social drivers of human brain-size evolution. Nature 557:7706554–57
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Gopnik A, Griffiths T, Lucas CG 2015. When younger learners can be better (or at least more open-minded) than older ones. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 24:287–92
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Gopnik A, Meltzoff AN. 1997. Words, Thoughts, and Theories Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  83. Gopnik A, O'Grady S, Lucas CG, Griffiths TL, Wente A et al. 2017. Changes in cognitive flexibility and hypothesis search across human life history from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. PNAS 114:307892–99
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Greenfield PM. 1991. Language, tools and brain: the ontogeny and phylogeny of hierarchically organized sequential behavior. Behav. Brain Sci. 14:531–95
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Griffin AS, Guez D. 2014. Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms. Behav. Process. 109:121–34
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Gupta AS, van der Meer MAA, Touretzky DS, Redish AD 2010. Hippocampal replay is not a simple function of experience. Neuron 65:695–705
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Hansell M, Ruxton G. 2008. Setting tool use within the context of animal construction behavior. Trends Ecol. Behav. 23:273–78
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Hare B, Kwetuenda S. 2010. Bonobos voluntarily share their own food with others. Curr. Biol. 20:5R230–31
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Hassabis D, Kumaran D, Maguire EA 2007. Using imagination to understand the neural basis of episodic memory. J. Neurosci. 27:5214365–74
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Hassabis D, Maguire EA. 2007. Deconstructing episodic memory with construction. Trends Cogn. Sci. 11:299–306
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Hauser MD, Chomsky N, Fitch WT 2002. The faculty of language: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve. Science 298:1569–79
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Healy SD, Krebs JR. 1996. Food storing and the hippocampus in Paridae. Brain Behav. Evol. 47:195–99
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Henrich J. 2016. The Secret of Our Success Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  94. Henrich J, McElreath R. 2003. The evolution of cultural evolution. Evol. Anthropol. 12:3123–35
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Herman LM, Richards DG, Wolz JP 1984. Comprehension of sentences by bottlenose dolphins. Cognition 16:129–219
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Herrmann E, Call J, Hernandez-Lloreda MV, Hare B, Tomasello M 2007. Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Science 317:1360–66
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Herrmann E, Hernandez-Lloreda MV, Call J, Hare B, Tomasello M 2010. The structure of individual differences in the cognitive abilities of children and chimpanzees. Psychol. Sci. 21:102–10
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Heyes C. 2018. Cognitive Gadgets: The Cultural Evolution of Thinking Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  99. Hill K, Barton M, Hurtado AM 2009. The emergence of human uniqueness: characters underlying behavioral modernity. Evol. Anthropol. 18:174–87
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Hobaiter C, Byrne RW. 2011. The gestural repertoire of the wild chimpanzee. Anim. Cogn. 14:745–67
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Hoehl S, Keupp S, Schleihauf H, McGuigan N 2019. “Over-imitation”: a review and appraisal of a decade of research. Dev. Rev. 51:90–108
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Hoppitt WJE, Brown G, Kendal RL, Rendell L, Thornton A et al. 2008. Lessons from animal teaching. Trends Ecol. Evol. 23:9486–93
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Horner V, Whiten A. 2005. Causal knowledge and imitation/emulation switching in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens). Anim. Cogn. 8:164–81
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Hunt GR, Gray RD, Taylor AH 2013. Why is tool use rare in animals?. Tool Use in Animals: Cognition and Ecology CM Sanz, J Call, C Boesch 89–118 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Ingvar DH. 1979. “Hyperfrontal” distribution of the cerebral grey matter flow in resting wakefulness; on the function anatomy of the conscious state. Acta Neurol. Scand. 60:12–25
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Inoue S, Matsuzawa M. 2007. Working memory of numerals in chimpanzees. Curr. Biol. 23:R1004–5
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Jaakkola K. 2014. Do animals understand invisible displacement? A critical review. J. Comp. Psychol. 128:225–39
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Jensen K, Hare B, Call J, Tomasello M 2006. Self-regard precludes altruism and spite in chimpanzees. Proc. R. Soc. B 273:1013–21
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Jing HG, Madore KP, Schacter DL 2017. Preparing for what might happen: An episodic specificity induction impacts the generation of alternative future events. Cognition 169:118–28
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Kahneman D. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
  111. Kaplan HS, Hill K, Lancaster J, Hurtado AM 2000. A theory of human life history evolution: diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evol. Anthropol. 9:156–85
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Karmiloff-Smith A. 1995. Beyond Modularity: A Developmental Perspective on Cognitive Science Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  113. Kendal RL, Coe RL, Laland KN 2005. Age differences in neophilia, exploration, and innovation in family groups of callitrichid monkeys. Am. J. Primatol. 66:167–88
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Keupp S, Behne T, Rakoczy H 2018. The rationality of (over)imitation. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 13:6678–87
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Kirby S, Cornish H, Smith K 2008. Cumulative cultural evolution in the laboratory. PNAS 105:10681–86
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Klein SB, Loftus JF, Kihlstrom JF 2002. Memory and temporal experience: the effects of episodic memory loss on an amnesic patient's ability to remember the past and imagine the future. Soc. Cogn. 20:353–79
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Kloo D, Kristen-Antonow S, Sodian B 2020. Progressing from an implicit to an explicit false belief understanding: a matter of executive control. Int. J. Behav. Dev. 44:2107–15
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Krupenye C, Kano F, Hirata S, Call J, Tomasello M 2016. Great apes anticipate that other individuals will act according to false beliefs. Science 354:6308110–14
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Laland KN. 2017. Darwin's Unfinished Symphony: How Culture Made the Human Mind Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  120. Laland KN, Odling-Smee FJ, Myles S 2010. How culture has shaped the human genome: bringing genetics and the human sciences together. Nat. Rev. Genet. 11:137–48
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Lawson R. 2006. The science of cycology: failures to understand how everyday objects work. Mem. Cogn. 34:1667–75
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Leavens DA, Hopkins WD, Bard KA 2005. Understanding the point of chimpanzee pointing: epigenesist and ecological validity. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 14:185–89
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Lefebvre L, Reader SM, Sol D 2004. Brains, innovations and evolution in birds and primates. Brain Behav. Evol. 63:233–46
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Lefebvre L, Whittle P, Lascaris E, Finkelstein A 1997. Feeding innovations and forebrain size in birds. Anim. Behav. 53:549–60
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Legare CH, Nielsen M. 2015. Imitation and innovation: the dual engines of cultural learning. Trends Cogn. Sci. 19:11688–99
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Lewis HM, Laland KN. 2012. Transmission fidelity is the key to the build-up of cumulative culture. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 367:2171–80
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Lind J, Enquist M, Ghirlanda S 2015. Animal memory: a review of delayed matching-to-sample data. Behav. Process. 117:52–58
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Liszkowski U, Carpenter M, Striano T, Tomasello M 2006. Twelve- and 18-month-olds point to provide information. J. Cogn. Dev. 7:173–87
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Loissel E, Cheke LG, Clayton NS 2018. Exploring the relative contributions of reward-history and functionality information in the Aesop's fable task. PLOS ONE 13:e0193264
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Lyons DE, Young AG, Keil FC 2007. The hidden structure of overimitation. PNAS 104:19751–56
    [Google Scholar]
  131. MacLean EL, Hare B, Nunn CL, Addessi E, Amici F et al. 2014. The evolution of self-control. PNAS 111:2140–48
    [Google Scholar]
  132. McGrew WC. 2010. Chimpanzee technology. Science 328:579–80
    [Google Scholar]
  133. McGuigan N, Whiten A. 2009. Emulation and “overemulation” in the social learning of causally opaque versus causally transparent tool use by 23- and 30-month-olds. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 104:367–81
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Melis A, Hare B, Tomasello M 2006. Engineering cooperation in chimpanzees: tolerance constraints on cooperation. Anim. Behav. 72:276–86
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Miloyan B, McFarlane KA, Suddendorf T 2019. Measuring mental time travel: Is the hippocampus really critical for episodic memory and episodic foresight. Cortex 117:371–84
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Molenberghs P, Cunnington R, Mattingley JB 2012. Brain regions with mirror properties: a meta-analysis of 125 human fMRI studies. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 36:1341–49
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Moore R. 2016. Meaning and ostension in great ape gestural communication. Anim. Cogn. 19:1223–31
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Morgan TJH, Uomini NT, Rendell LE, Chouinard-Thuly L, Street SE et al. 2015. Experimental evidence for the co-evolution of hominin tool-making, teaching and language. Nat. Commun. 6:6029
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Mullally SL, Maguire EA. 2014. Memory, imagination, and predicting the future: a common brain mechanism. Neuroscientist 20:3220–34
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Muthukrishna M, Doebeli M, Chudek M, Henrich J 2018. The cultural brain hypothesis: how culture drives brain expansion, sociality, and life history. PLOS Comput. Biol. 14:11e1006504
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Navarrete AF, Reader SM, Street SE, Whalen A, Laland KN 2016. The coevolution of innovation and technical intelligence in primates. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371:20150186
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Nowak M, Highfield R. 2011. Super-Cooperators: Altruism, Evolution, and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed New York: Free Press
  143. Osvath M, Osvath H. 2008. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orangutan (Pongo abelii) forethought: self-control and pre-experience in the face of future tool use. Anim. Cogn. 11:4661–74
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Over H, Carpenter M. 2013. The social side of imitation. Child Dev. Perspect. 7:16–11
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Overington SE, Morand-Ferron J, Boogert NJ, Lefebvre L 2009. Technical innovations drive the relationship between innovativeness and residual brain size in birds. Anim. Behav. 78:1001–10
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Owren MJ, Rendall D. 1997. An affect-conditioning model of nonhuman primate vocalizations. Perspectives in Ethology, Vol. 12: Communication DH Owings, MD Beecher, NS Thompson 299–346 New York: Plenum
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Pagel M. 2012. Wired for Culture: The Natural History of Human Cooperation London: Penguin
  148. Penn DC, Holyoak KJ, Povinelli DJ 2008. Darwin's mistake: explaining the discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds. Behav. Brain Sci. 31:2109–30
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Pepperberg IM. 1999. The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  150. Pepperberg IM. 2017. Symbolic communication in nonhuman animals. See Call 2017 , Vol. 1:663–79
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Perner J. 1991. Understanding the Representational Mind Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  152. Pfenning AR, Hara E, Whitney O, Rivas MV, Wang R et al. 2014. Convergent transcriptional specialisations in the brains of humans and song-learning birds. Science 346:62151256846
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Phillips W, Barnes JL, Mahajan N, Yamaguchi M, Santos LR 2009. “Unwilling” versus “unable”: capuchin monkeys’ (Cebus apella) understanding of human intentional action. Dev. Sci. 12:938–45
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Pika S, Liebal K, Call J, Tomasello M 2005. The gestural communication of apes. Gesture 5:1–241–56
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Pinker S, Jackendoff R. 2005. The faculty of language: What's special about it. Cognition 95:201–36
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Povinelli D. 2000. Folk Physics for Apes New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  157. Pyers JE, Senghas A. 2009. Language promotes false-belief understanding: evidence from learners of a new sign language. Psychol. Sci. 20:805–12
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Raby CR, Alexis DM, Dickinson A, Clayton NS 2007. Planning for the future by western scrub-jays. Nature 445:919–21
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Reader SM, Flynn E, Morand-Ferron J, Laland KN 2016. Innovation in animals and humans. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 371:1690)
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Reader SM, Hager Y, Laland KN 2011. The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 366:1017–27
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Reader SM, Laland KN. 2001. Primate innovation: sex, age and social rank differences. Int. J. Primatol. 22:787–805
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Reader SM, Laland KN. 2002. Social intelligence, innovation and enhanced brain size in primates. PNAS 99:4436–41
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Redshaw J. 2014. Does metarepresentation make human mental time travel unique. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Cogn. Sci. 5:5519–31
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Redshaw J, Bulley A. 2018. Future-thinking in animals: capacities and limits. The Psychology of Thinking About the Future G Oettingen, AT Sevincer, PM Gollwitzer 31–51 New York: Guilford
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Redshaw J, Suddendorf T. 2016. Children's and apes’ preparatory responses to two mutually exclusive possibilities. Curr. Biol. 26:131758–62
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Rendell L, Boyd R, Cownden D, Enquist M, Eriksson K et al. 2010. Why copy others? Insights from the social learning strategies tournament. Science 327:208–13
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Richerson PJ, Boyd R. 2005. Not by Genes Alone Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  168. Roberts WA, Santi A. 2017. The comparative study of working memory. See Call 2017 , Vol. 2:203–25
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Ruiz AM, Santos LR. 2013. Understanding differences in the way human and non-human primates represent tools. Tool Use in Animals CM Sanz, J Call, C Boesch 119–33 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Saffran JR, Aslin RN, Newport EL 1996. Statistical learning by 8-month-olds. Science 274:1926–28
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Santos LR, Hauser MD, Spelke ES 2002. Domain-specific knowledge in human children and nonhuman primates: artefacts and foods. The Cognitive Animal M Bekoff, C Allen, GM Burghardt 206–16 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Sanz CM, Call J, Morgan D 2009. Design complexity in termite-fishing tools of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Biol. Lett. 5:293–96
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Schacter DL, Addis DR. 2007. The cognitive neuroscience of constructive memory: remembering the past and imagining the future. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. 362:773–86
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Schacter DL, Addis DR, Buckner RL 2007. Remembering the past to imagine the future: the prospective brain. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8:657–61
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Schel AM, Townsend SW, Machanda Z, Zuberbühler K, Slocombe KE 2013. Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality. PLOS ONE 8:10e76674
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Schultz LE, Gopnik A, Glamour C 2007. Preschool children learn about causal structure from conditional interventions. Dev. Sci. 10:3322–32
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Seed AM, Call J. 2014. Space or physics? Children use physical reasoning to solve the trap problem from 2.5 years of age. Dev. Psychol. 50:71951–62
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Seed AM, Dickerson KL. 2016. Future thinking: Children but not apes consider multiple possibilities. Curr. Biol. 26:13R525–27
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Seed AM, Mayer C. 2017. Problem solving. See Call 2017 , Vol. 2:601–25
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Seed AM, Seddon E, Greene B, Call J 2012. Chimpanzee “folk physics”: bringing failures into focus. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 367:16032743–52
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Seed AM, Tebbich S, Emery NJ, Clayton NS 2006. Investigating physical cognition in rooks, Corvus frugilegus. Curr. Biol. 16:697–701
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL, Marler P 1980. Vervet monkey alarm calls: semantic communication in a free- ranging primate. Anim. Behav. 28:1070–94
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Sherwood C. 2018. Are we wired differently. Sci. Am. 319:60–63
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Shettleworth SJ. 2010. Cognition, Evolution, and Behavior New York: Oxford Univ. Press. , 2nd. ed.
  185. Silk JB, Brosnan SF, Vonk J et al. 2005. Chimpanzees are indifferent to the welfare of unrelated group members. Nature 437:1357–59
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Slocombe KE, Seed AM. 2019. Cooperation in children. Curr. Biol. 29:11R470–73
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Somel M, Liu X, Khaitovich P 2013. Human brain evolution: transcripts, metabolites and their regulators. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 14:112–27
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Somel M, Rohlfs R, Liu X 2014. Transcriptomic insights into human brain evolution: acceleration, neutrality, heterochrony. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 29:110–19
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Spelke ES. 2000. Core knowledge. Am. Psychol. 55:111233–43
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Spelke ES. 2009. Forum. Why We Cooperate, by M Tomasello 149–72 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Stevens JR. 2014. Evolutionary pressures on primate intertemporal choice. Proc. R. Soc. B 281:20140499
    [Google Scholar]
  192. Stout D, Chaminade T. 2012. Stone tools, language and the brain in human evolution. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 367:75–87
    [Google Scholar]
  193. Street SE, Navarrete AF, Reader SM, Laland KN 2017. Coevolution of cultural intelligence, extended life history, sociality, and brain size in primates. PNAS 114:7908–14
    [Google Scholar]
  194. Striedter GF. 2005. Principles of Brain Evolution Sunderland, MA: Sinauer
  195. Suddendorf T. 2013. The Gap: The Science of What Separates Us from Other Animals New York: Basic Books
  196. Suddendorf T, Corballis MC. 2007. The evolution of foresight: What is mental time travel, and is it unique to humans. Behav. Brain Sci. 30:3299–313
    [Google Scholar]
  197. Tebbich S, Seed A, Emery NJ, Clayton NS 2007. Non-tool-using rooks (Corvus frugilegus) solve the trap-tube task. Anim. Cogn. 10:225–31
    [Google Scholar]
  198. Tehrani JJ, Riede F. 2008. Towards an archaeology of pedagogy: learning, teaching and the generation of material culture traditions. World Archaeol 40:316–31
    [Google Scholar]
  199. Tennie C, Call J, Tomasello M 2009. Ratcheting up the ratchet: on the evolution of cumulative culture. Phil. Tran. R. Soc. B 364:15282405–15
    [Google Scholar]
  200. Terrace HS. 1979. How Nim Chimpsky Changed My Mind San Francisco: Ziff-Davis
  201. Thornton A, McAuliffe K. 2006. Teaching in wild meerkats. Science 313:227–29
    [Google Scholar]
  202. Tomasello M. 1999. The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  203. Tomasello M. 2008. Origins of Human Communication Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  204. Tomasello M. 2009. Why We Cooperate Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  205. Tomasello M. 2011. Human culture in evolutionary perspective. Advances in Culture and Psychology MJ Gelfand, C Chui, Y Hong 5–51 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  206. Tomasello M. 2018. How children come to understand false beliefs: a shared intentionality account. PNAS 115:348491–98
    [Google Scholar]
  207. Tomasello M, Call J. 1997. Primate Cognition New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  208. Tomasello M, Carpenter M, Call J, Behne T, Moll H 2005. Understanding and sharing intentions: the origins of cultural cognition. Behav. Brain Sci. 28:675–735
    [Google Scholar]
  209. Tulving E. 2005. Episodic memory and autonoesis: uniquely human. The Missing Link in Cognition: Origins of Self-Reflective Consciousness HS Terrace, J Metcalfe 3–56 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  210. Uddin M, Wildman DE, Liu G et al. 2004. Sister grouping of chimpanzees and humans as revealed by genome-wide phylogenetic analysis of brain gene expression profiles. PNAS 101:2957–62
    [Google Scholar]
  211. Vaesen K. 2012. The cognitive bases of human tool use. Behav. Brain Sci. 35:4203–18
    [Google Scholar]
  212. van Schaik CP, Ancrenaz M, Borgen G, Galdikas B, Knott CD et al. 2003. Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture. Science 299:102–5
    [Google Scholar]
  213. Visalberghi E, Limongelli L. 1994. Lack of comprehension of cause-effect relations in tool-using capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). J. Comp. Psychol. 1:15–22
    [Google Scholar]
  214. Visalberghi E, Sabbatini G, Taylor AH, Hunt GR 2017. Cognitive insights from tool use in nonhuman animals. See Call 2017 2673–701
  215. Völter CJ, Call J. 2017. Causal and inferential reasoning in animals. See Call 2017 , Vol. 2643–71
  216. Völter CJ, Tinklenberg B, Call J, Seed AM 2018. Comparative psychometrics: Establishing what differs is central to understanding what evolves. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 373:20170283
    [Google Scholar]
  217. Walden TA, Ogan TA. 1988. The development of social referencing. Child Dev 59:51230–40
    [Google Scholar]
  218. Warneken F, Tomasello M. 2009. The roots of human altruism. Br. J. Psychol. 100:455–71
    [Google Scholar]
  219. Wasserman E, Castro L, Fagot T 2017. Relational thinking in animals and humans. See Call 2017 , Vol. 2435–71
  220. Weir AAS, Chappell J, Kacelnik A 2002. Shaping of hooks in New Caledonian crows. Science 297:981
    [Google Scholar]
  221. Wellman HM, Cross D, Watson J 2001. Meta-analysis of theory-of-mind development: the truth about false belief. Child Dev 72:3655–84
    [Google Scholar]
  222. Whalen A, Cownden D, Laland KN 2015. The learning of action sequences through social transmission. Anim. Cogn. 18:1093–103
    [Google Scholar]
  223. Wheeler BC, Fischer J. 2012. Functionally referential signals: a promising paradigm whose time has passed. Evol. Anthropol. 21:195–205
    [Google Scholar]
  224. Wheeler BC, Fischer J. 2015. The blurred boundaries of functional reference: a response to Scarantion & Clay. Anim. Behav. 100:e9–13
    [Google Scholar]
  225. Whiten A. 1998. Imitation of the sequential structure of actions by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J. Comp. Psychol. 112:3270–81
    [Google Scholar]
  226. Whiten A, Ayala F, Feldman MW, Laland KN 2017. The extension of biology through culture. PNAS 114:7775–81
    [Google Scholar]
  227. Whiten A, Erdal D. 2012. The human socio-cognitive niche and its evolutionary origins. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 367:2119–29
    [Google Scholar]
  228. Whiten A, Goodall J, McGrew WC, Nishida T, Reynolds V et al. 1999. Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature 399:682–85
    [Google Scholar]
  229. Whiten A, Hinde RA, Laland KN, Stringer CB 2012. Culture evolves. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B. 366:1567)
    [Google Scholar]
  230. Whiten A, van Schaik CP 2007. The evolution of animal “cultures” and social intelligence. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 363:603–20
    [Google Scholar]
  231. Zuberbuhler K, Cheney DL, Noe R 1999. Conceptual semantics in a non‐human primate. J. Comp. Psychol. 113:33–42
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-062220-051256
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-062220-051256
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error