Using an autobiographical approach, I review several animal and human split-brain studies that have led me to change my long-term view on how best to understand mind/brain interactions. Overall, the view is consistent with the idea that complex neural systems, like other complex information processing systems, are highly modular. At the same time, how the modules come to interact and produce unitary goals is unknown. Here, I review the importance of self-cueing in that process of producing unitary goals from disparate functions. The role of self-cueing is demonstrably evident in the human neurologic patient and especially in patients with hemispheric disconnection. When viewed in the context of modularity, it may provide insights into how a highly parallel and distributed brain locally coordinates its activities to produce an apparent unitary output. Capturing and understanding how this is achieved will require shifting gears away from standard linear models and adopting a more dynamical systems view of brain function.

[Erratum, Closure]

An erratum has been published for this article:
Shifting Gears: Seeking New Approaches for Mind/Brain Mechanisms

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Bassett DH, Gazzaniga MS. 2011. Understanding complexity in the human brain. Trends Cogn. Sci. 15:5200–9 [Google Scholar]
  2. Doyle JC, Csete ME. 2011. Architecture, constraints, and behavior. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:Suppl. 315624–30 [Google Scholar]
  3. Gazzaniga MS. 1964. Cerebral mechanisms involved in ipsilateral eye-hand use in split-brain monkeys. Exp. Neurol. 10:148–55 [Google Scholar]
  4. Gazzaniga MS. 1966a. Interhemispheric cueing systems remaining after section of neocortical commissures in monkeys. Exp. Neurol. 16:28–35 [Google Scholar]
  5. Gazzaniga MS. 1966b. Visuomotor integration in split-brain monkeys with other cerebral lesions. Exp. Neurol. 16:289–98 [Google Scholar]
  6. Gazzaniga MS. 1969. Cross-cueing mechanisms and ipsilateral eye-hand control in split-brain monkeys. Exp. Neurol. 23:11–17 [Google Scholar]
  7. Gazzaniga MS. 1974. Determinants of cerebral recovery. Plasticity and Recovery of Function in the Central Nervous System DG Stein, JJ Rosen, N Butters 203–15 New York: Academic [Google Scholar]
  8. Gazzaniga MS. 1978. Is seeing believing: notes on clinical recovery. Recovery from Brain Damage: Research and Theory S Finger 409–14 New York: Plenum [Google Scholar]
  9. Gazzaniga MS. 1985. The Social Brain New York: Basic Books [Google Scholar]
  10. Gazzaniga MS. 1986. George Miller and the birth of cognitive neuroscience. Mind and Brain: Dialogues in Cognitive Neuroscience JE LeDoux, W Hirst New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  11. Gazzaniga MS. 2006. Lunch with Leon. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 1:188–94 [Google Scholar]
  12. Gazzaniga MS. 2011. Who's in Charge? Free Will and the Science of the Brain. New York: HarperCollins [Google Scholar]
  13. Gazzaniga MS, Bogen JE, Sperry RW. 1962. Some functional effects of sectioning the cerebral commissures in man. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 48:1765–69 [Google Scholar]
  14. Gazzaniga MS, Bogen JE, Sperry RW. 1967. Dyspraxia following division of the cerebral commissures. Arch. Neurol. 16:606–12 [Google Scholar]
  15. Gazzaniga MS, Doron KW, Funk CM. 2009. Looking toward the future: perspectives on examining the architecture and function of the human brain as a complex system. The Cognitive Neurosciences MS Gazzaniga 1247–54 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 4th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  16. Gazzaniga MS, Hillyard SA. 1971. Language and speech capacity of the right hemisphere. Neuropsychologia 9:273–80 [Google Scholar]
  17. Gazzaniga MS, Holtzman JD, Smylie CS. 1987. Speech without conscious awareness. Neurology 37:682–85 [Google Scholar]
  18. Gazzaniga MS, LeDoux JE. 1978. The Integrated Mind New York: Plenum [Google Scholar]
  19. Gazzaniga MS, LeDoux JE, Smylie CS, Volpe BT. 1979. Plasticity in speech organization following commissurotomy. Brain 102:805–15 [Google Scholar]
  20. Gazzaniga MS, Szer IS, Crane AM. 1974. Modification of drinking behavior in the adipsic rat. Exp. Neurol. 42:483–89 [Google Scholar]
  21. Miller MB, Sinnott-Armstrong WA, Young L, King D, Paggi A. et al. 2010. Abnormal moral reasoning in complete and partial callosotomy patients. Neuropsychologia 48:72215–20 [Google Scholar]
  22. Premack D. 1959. Toward empirical behavior laws: I. Positive reinforcement. Psychol. Rev. 66:219–33 [Google Scholar]
  23. Premack DG, Premack AJ. 1983. The Mind of an Ape New York: Norton [Google Scholar]
  24. Premack DG, Premack AJ. 2003. Original Intelligence: Unlocking the Mystery of Who We Are. New York: McGraw-Hill [Google Scholar]
  25. Premack DG, Woodruff G. 1978. Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?. Behav. Brain Sci. 1:515–26 [Google Scholar]
  26. Saxe R, Kanwisher N. 2003. People thinking about thinking people: the role of the temporo-parietal junction in “theory of mind.”. NeuroImage 19:1835–42 [Google Scholar]
  27. Sidtis JJ, Volpe BT, Holtzman JD, Wilson DH, Gazzaniga MS. 1981. Cognitive interaction after staged callosal section: evidence for a transfer of semantic activation. Science 212:344–46 [Google Scholar]
  28. Valero-Cuevas FJ, Yi JW, Brown D, McNamara RV 3rd, Paul C, Lipson H. 2007. The tendon network of the fingers performs anatomical computation at a macroscopic scale. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54:1161–66 [Google Scholar]
  29. Velletri Glass A, Gazzaniga MS, Premack D. 1973. Artificial language training in global aphasics. Neuropsychologia 11:95–103 [Google Scholar]
  30. Volpe BT, LeDoux JE, Gazzaniga MS. 1979. Information processing of visual stimuli in an extinguished field. Nature 282:722–24 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error