1932

Abstract

Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Relative to an average expectable environment, which consists of a species-specific range of environmental conditions that support adaptive development among genetically normal individuals, maltreating families fail to provide many of the experiences that are required for normal development. Principles gleaned from the field of developmental psychopathology provide a framework for understanding multilevel functioning in normality and pathology. Knowledge of normative developmental processes provides the impetus to design and implement randomized control trial (RCT) interventions that can promote resilient functioning in maltreated children.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-122414-033259
2016-01-04
2024-06-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/psych/67/1/annurev-psych-122414-033259.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-122414-033259&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Ainsworth MDS, Blehar MC, Waters E, Wall S. 1978. Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  2. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: Am. Psychiatr. Publ, 5th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  3. Ayoub CC, O'Connor E, Rappolt-Schlichtmann G, Fischer KW, Rogosch FA. et al. 2006. Cognitive and emotional differences in young maltreated children: a translational application of dynamic skill theory. Dev. Psychopathol. 3:18679–706 [Google Scholar]
  4. Banny A, Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA, Crick NR, Oshri A. 2013. Vulnerability to depression: a moderated mediation model of the roles of child maltreatment, peer victimization, and genetic variation among children from low-SES backgrounds. Dev. Psychopathol. 25:599–614 [Google Scholar]
  5. Barnett D, Ganiban J, Cicchetti D. 1999. Maltreatment, negative expressivity, and the development of Type D attachments from 12- to 24-months of age. Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev. 64:97–118 [Google Scholar]
  6. Belsky J, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van IJzendoorn MH. 2007. For better and for worse: differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 16:300–4 [Google Scholar]
  7. Belsky J, van IJzendoorn MH. 2015. What works for whom? Genetic moderation of intervention efficacy. Dev. Psychopathol 27:1, Spec. Issue1–162 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bennett DS, Sullivan MW, Lewis M. 2010. Neglected children, shame proneness, and depressive symptoms. Child Maltreat. 15:4305–14 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bjorklund DF. 1997. The role of immaturity in human development. Psychol. Bull. 122:153–69 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bowlby J. 1969. Attachment New York: Basic Books [Google Scholar]
  11. Butchart A, Putney H, Furniss T, Kahane T. 2006. Preventing Child Maltreatment: A Guide to Taking Action and Generating Evidence. Geneva: World Health Organ. [Google Scholar]
  12. Byrd AL, Manuck SB. 2014. MAOA, childhood maltreatment, and antisocial behavior: meta-analysis of a gene–environment interaction. Biol. Psychiatry 75:19–17 [Google Scholar]
  13. Calkins SD, Perry NB. 2016. The development of emotion regulation: implications for child adjustment. Developmental Psychopathology 4 D Cicchetti New York: Wiley, 3rd. In press [Google Scholar]
  14. Calverley RM, Fischer KW, Ayoub C. 1994. Complex splitting of self-representations in sexually abused adolescent girls. Dev. Psychopathol. 6:195–213 [Google Scholar]
  15. Carlson EA, Yates TM, Sroufe LA. 2009. Dissociation and development of the self. Dissociation and the Dissociative Disorders: DSM-V and Beyond PF Dell, J O'Neill, E Somer 39–52 New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  16. Caspi A, McClay J, Moffitt T, Mill J, Martin J, Craig IW. 2002. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 297:851–54 [Google Scholar]
  17. Cicchetti D. 1991. Fractures in the crystal: developmental psychopathology and the emergence of the self. Dev. Rev. 11:271–87 [Google Scholar]
  18. Cicchetti D. 2002. The impact of social experience on neurobiological systems: illustration from a constructivist view of child maltreatment. Cogn. Dev. 17:1407–28 [Google Scholar]
  19. Cicchetti D. 2010. Resilience under conditions of extreme stress: a multilevel perspective. World Psychiatry 9:1–10 [Google Scholar]
  20. Cicchetti D. 2013. Resilient functioning in maltreated children: past, present, and future perspectives. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 54:402–22 [Google Scholar]
  21. Cicchetti D, Crick NR. 2009a. Precursors of and diverse pathways to personality disorder in children and adolescents, part 1. Dev. Psychopathol. 213, Spec. Issue Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  22. Cicchetti D, Crick NR. 2009b. Precursors of and diverse pathways to personality disorder in children and adolescents, part 2. Dev. Psychopathol. 214, Spec. Issue Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  23. Cicchetti D, Curtis WJ. 2006. The developing brain and neural plasticity: implications for normality, psychopathology, and resilience. Developmental Psychopathology: Developmental Neuroscience 2 D Cicchetti, DJ Cohen 1–64 New York: Wiley, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  24. Cicchetti D, Gunnar MR. 2008. Integrating biological processes into the design and evaluation of preventive interventions. Dev. Psychopathol. 20:3737–43 [Google Scholar]
  25. Cicchetti D, Natsuaki MN. 2014. Multilevel developmental perspectives toward understanding internalizing disorders: current research and future directions. Dev. Psychopathol. 264 Pt. 2, Spec. Issue Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  26. Cicchetti D, Ng R. 2014. Emotional development in maltreated children. Children and Emotion: New Insights into Developmental Affective Sciences KH Lagattuta 29–41 Basel, Switz.: Karger [Google Scholar]
  27. Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA. 1996. Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Dev. Psychopathol. 8:597–600 [Google Scholar]
  28. Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA. 2012. Gene by environment interaction and resilience: effects of child maltreatment and serotonin, corticotropin releasing hormone, dopamine, and oxytocin genes. Dev. Psychopathol. 24:411–27 [Google Scholar]
  29. Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA, Hecht KF, Crick NR, Hetzel S. 2014. Moderation of maltreatment effects on childhood borderline personality symptoms by gender and oxytocin receptor and FK506 binding protein 5 genes. Dev. Psychopathol. 26:3831–49 [Google Scholar]
  30. Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA, Thibodeau EL. 2012. The effects of child maltreatment on early signs of antisocial behavior: genetic moderation by tryptophan hydroxylase, serotonin transporter, and monoamine oxidase A genes. Dev. Psychopathol. 24:907–28 [Google Scholar]
  31. Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA, Toth SL. 2006. Fostering secure attachment in infants in maltreating families through preventive interventions. Dev. Psychopathol. 18:3623–50 [Google Scholar]
  32. Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA, Toth SL. 2011. The effects of child maltreatment and polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter and dopamine D4 receptor genes on infant attachment and intervention efficacy. Dev. Psychopathol. 23:357–72 [Google Scholar]
  33. Cicchetti D, Toth SL. 2005. Child maltreatment. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 1:409–38 [Google Scholar]
  34. Cicchetti D, Toth SL. 2009. The past achievements and future promises of developmental psychopathology: the coming of age of a discipline. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 50:16–25 [Google Scholar]
  35. Cicchetti D, Toth SL. 2015. Child maltreatment. Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science 3 Socioemotional Processes RM Lerner, ME Lamb 515–63 New York: Wiley, 7th ed.. [Google Scholar]
  36. Cicchetti D, Valentino K. 2006. An ecological transactional perspective on child maltreatment: failure of the average expectable environment and its influence upon child development. Developmental Psychopathology 3 D Cicchetti, DJ Cohen 129–201 New York: Wiley, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  37. Cyr C, Euser EM, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van IJzendoorn MH. 2010. Attachment security and disorganization in maltreating and high-risk families: a series of meta-analyses. Dev. Psychopathol. 22:87–108 [Google Scholar]
  38. Dodge K, Pettit G, Bates JE. 1997. How the experience of early physical abuse leads children to become chronically aggressive. Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology 8 D Cicchetti, SL Toth 263–88 Rochester, NY: Univ. Rochester Press [Google Scholar]
  39. Ellis BJ, Boyce WT, Belsky J, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van IJzendoorn MH. 2011. Differential susceptibility to the environment: an evolutionary-neurodevelopmental theory. Dev. Psychopathol. 23:7–28 [Google Scholar]
  40. Fonagy P, Gergely G, Target M. 2007. The parent-infant dyad and the construction of the subjective self. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 48:3–4288–328 [Google Scholar]
  41. Gottesman I, Shields J. 1972. Schizophrenia and Genetics: A Twin Study Vantage Point New York: Academic [Google Scholar]
  42. Hart H, Rubia K. 2012. Neuroimaging of child abuse: a critical review. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6:52 [Google Scholar]
  43. Hawkins AL, Haskett ME. 2014. Internal working models and adjustment of physically abused children: the mediating role of self-regulatory abilities. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 55:2135–43 [Google Scholar]
  44. Hesse E, Main M. 2006. Frightened, threatening, and dissociative parental behavior in low-risk samples: description, discussion, and interpretations. Dev. Psychopathol. 18:309–44 [Google Scholar]
  45. Hostinar CE, Sullivan RM, Gunnar MR. 2014. Psychobiological mechanisms underlying the social buffering of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis: a review of animal models and human studies across development. Psychol. Bull. 140:256–82 [Google Scholar]
  46. Howe GW, Reiss D, Yuh J. 2002. Can prevention trials test theories of etiology?. Dev. Psychopathol. 14:673–94 [Google Scholar]
  47. Ialongo N, Rogosch FA, Cicchetti D, Toth SL, Buckley J. et al. 2006. A developmental psychopathology approach to the prevention of mental health disorders. Developmental Psychopathology 1 D Cicchetti, DJ Cohen 968–1018 New York: Wiley, 2nd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  48. Inst. Med 1994. Reducing Risks for Mental Disorders: Frontiers for Preventative Intervention Research. Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press [Google Scholar]
  49. Johnson R. 1993. On the neural generators of the P300 component of the even-related potential. Psychophysiology 30:90–97 [Google Scholar]
  50. Karg K, Burnmeister M, Shedden K, Sen S. 2011. The serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR), stress, and depression meta-analysis revisited: evidence of genetic moderation. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 68:444–54 [Google Scholar]
  51. Kim JE, Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA, Manly JT. 2009. Child maltreatment and trajectories of personality and behavioral functioning: implications for the development of personality disorder. Dev. Psychopathol. 21:3889–912 [Google Scholar]
  52. Kim-Cohen J, Caspi A, Taylor A, Williams B, Newcombe R. et al. 2006. MAOI, maltreatment, and gene-environment interaction predicting children's mental health: new evidence and a meta-analysis. Mol. Psychiatry 11:903–13 [Google Scholar]
  53. Kim-Spoon J, Rogosch FA, Cicchetti D. 2013. A longitudinal study of emotion regulation, emotion lability/negativity, and internalizing symptomatology in maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Child Dev. 84:297–312 [Google Scholar]
  54. Kraemer HC, Kazdin AE, Offord DR, Kessler RC, Jensen PS, Kupfer DJ. 1997. Coming to terms with the terms of risk. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 54:337–43 [Google Scholar]
  55. Lewis M. 1995. Shame: The Exposed Self. New York: Free Press [Google Scholar]
  56. Luijk MPCM, Roisman GI, Haltigan JD, Tiemeier H, Booth-LaForce C. et al. 2011. Dopaminergic, serotonergic, oxytonergic candidate genes associated with infant attachment security and disorganization? In search of man and interaction effects. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 52:1295–307 [Google Scholar]
  57. Luthar SS, Cicchetti D. 2000. The construct of resilience: implications for intervention and social policy. Dev. Psychopathol. 12:857–85 [Google Scholar]
  58. Luthar SS, Cicchetti D, Becker B. 2000. The construct of resilience: a critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Dev. 71:543–62 [Google Scholar]
  59. Macfie J, Cicchetti D, Toth SL. 2001a. Dissociation in maltreated versus nonmaltreated preschool-aged children. Child Abuse Negl. 25:1253–67 [Google Scholar]
  60. Macfie J, Cicchetti D, Toth SL. 2001b. The development of dissociation in maltreated preschool-aged children. Dev. Psychopathol. 13:233–54 [Google Scholar]
  61. Manly JT. 2005. Advances in research definitions of child maltreatment. Child Abuse Negl. 29:5425–39 [Google Scholar]
  62. Masten AS. 2014. Ordinary Magic: Resilience in Development New York: Guilford [Google Scholar]
  63. Masten AS, Cicchetti D. 2016. Resilience in development: progress and transformation. Developmental Psychopathology 4 D Cicchetti New York: Wiley, 3rd. In press [Google Scholar]
  64. Maughan A, Cicchetti D. 2002. The impact of child maltreatment and interadult violence on children's emotion regulation abilities. Child Dev. 7:1525–42 [Google Scholar]
  65. McCrory E, De Brito SA, Viding E. 2010. The neurobiology and genetics of maltreatment and adversity. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 51:1079–95 [Google Scholar]
  66. Moutsiana C, Fearon P, Murray L, Cooper P, Goodyer I. et al. 2014. Making an effort to feel positive: Insecure attachment in infancy predicts the neural underpinnings of emotion regulation in adulthood. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 55:999–1008 [Google Scholar]
  67. Pechtel P, Lyons-Ruth K, Anderson CM, Teicher MH. 2014. Sensitive periods of amygdala development: the role of maltreatment in preadolescence. NeuroImage 97:236–44 [Google Scholar]
  68. Pellmar TC, Eisenberg L. 2000. Bridging Disciplines in the Brain, Behavioral, and Clinical Sciences Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press [Google Scholar]
  69. Pickreign-Stronach ES, Toth SL, Rogosch FA, Cicchetti D. 2013. Preventive interventions and sustained attachment security in maltreated children: a 12-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Dev. Psychopathol. 26:919–30 [Google Scholar]
  70. Pollak SD. 2008. Mechanisms linking early experience and the emergence of emotions: illustrations from the study of maltreated children. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 17:370–75 [Google Scholar]
  71. Pollak SD, Cicchetti D, Hornung K, Reed A. 2000. Recognizing emotion in faces: developmental effects of child abuse and neglect. Dev. Psychol. 36:679–88 [Google Scholar]
  72. Pollak SD, Cicchetti D, Klorman R, Brumaghim J. 1997. Cognitive brain event-related potentials and emotion processing in maltreated children. Child Dev. 68:773–87 [Google Scholar]
  73. Pollak SD, Kistler DJ. 2002. Early experience is associated with the development of categorical representations for facial expressions of emotion. PNAS 99:9072–76 [Google Scholar]
  74. Pollak SD, Klorman R, Thatcher JE, Cicchetti D. 2001. P3b reflects maltreated children's reactions to facial displays of emotion. Psychophysiology 38:267–74 [Google Scholar]
  75. Pollak SD, Messner M, Kistler DJ, Cohn JF. 2009. Development of perceptual expertise in emotion recognition. Cognition 110:242–47 [Google Scholar]
  76. Pollak SD, Sinha P. 2002. Effects of early experience on children's recognition of facial displays of emotion. Dev. Psychol. 38:784–91 [Google Scholar]
  77. Pollak SD, Tolley-Schell SA. 2003. Selective attention to facial emotion in physically abused children. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 112:3323–38 [Google Scholar]
  78. Rieder C, Cicchetti D. 1989. Organizational perspective on cognitive control functioning and cognitive-affective balance in maltreated children. Dev. Psychol. 25:382–93 [Google Scholar]
  79. Rinne-Albers MA, van der Wee NJ, Lamers-Winkelman F, Vermeiren RR. 2013. Neuroimaging in children, adolescents and young adults with psychological trauma. Eur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 22:12745–55 [Google Scholar]
  80. Rogosch FA, Cicchetti D. 2004. Child maltreatment and emergent personality organization: perspectives from the five-factor model. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 32:123–45 [Google Scholar]
  81. Rogosch FA, Cicchetti D. 2005. Child maltreatment, attention networks, and potential precursors to borderline personality disorder. Dev. Psychopathol. 17:41071–89 [Google Scholar]
  82. Romens SE, Pollak SD. 2012. Emotion regulation predicts attention bias in maltreated children at-risk for depression. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 53:2120–27 [Google Scholar]
  83. Rutter M. 2013. Developmental psychopathology: a paradigm shift or just a relabeling?. Dev. Psychopathol. 25:1201–13 [Google Scholar]
  84. Schneider-Rosen K, Cicchetti D. 1991. Early self-knowledge and emotional development: visual self-recognition and affective reactions to mirror self-image in maltreated and nonmaltreated toddlers. Dev. Psychol. 27:481–88 [Google Scholar]
  85. Shackman JE, Pollak SD. 2014. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression. Dev. Psychopathol. 26:4 Pt. 11021–33 [Google Scholar]
  86. Shields A, Cicchetti D. 1998. Reactive aggression among maltreated children: the contributions of attention and emotion dysregulation. J. Clin. Child Psychol. 27:381–95 [Google Scholar]
  87. Shields A, Cicchetti D. 2001. Parental maltreatment and emotion dysregulation as risk factors for bullying and victimization in middle childhood. J. Clin. Child Psychol. 30:349–63 [Google Scholar]
  88. Shields A, Ryan RM, Cicchetti D. 2001. Narrative representations of caregivers and emotion dysregulation as predictors of maltreated children's rejection by peers. Dev. Psychol. 37:321–37 [Google Scholar]
  89. Shonk SM, Cicchetti D. 2001. Maltreatment, competency deficits, and risk for academic and behavioral maladjustment. Dev. Psychol. 37:3–14 [Google Scholar]
  90. Southwick SM, Bonanno GA, Masten AS, Panter-Brick C, Yehuda R. 2014. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives. Eur. J. Psychotraumatol. 5:25338 [Google Scholar]
  91. Sroufe LA. 1990. An organizational perspective on the self. The Self in Transition: Infancy to Childhood D Cicchetti, M Beeghly 281–307 Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  92. Sroufe LA. 1996. Emotional Development: The Organization of Emotional Life in the Early Years New York: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  93. Sroufe LA. 2013. The promise of developmental psychopathology: past and present. Dev. Psychopathol. 25:1215–24 [Google Scholar]
  94. Stiles J. 2008. The Fundamentals of Brain Development: Integrating Nature and Nurture Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  95. Stronach EP, Toth SL, Rogosch FA, Oshri A, Manly JT, Cicchetti D. 2011. Child maltreatment, attachment organization and internal representations of mother and mother-child relationships. Child Maltreat. 16:137–45 [Google Scholar]
  96. Teicher MN, Anderson CM, Polcari A. 2012. Childhood maltreatment is associated with reduced volume in the hippocampal subfields CA3, dentate gyrus, and subiculum. PNAS 109:9E563–72 [Google Scholar]
  97. Teicher MN, Dumont N, Ito Y, Vaituzis AC, Giedd J, Andersen S. 2004. Childhood neglect is associated with reduced corpus callosum area. Biol. Psychiatry 15:80–85 [Google Scholar]
  98. Teisl M, Cicchetti D. 2008. Physical abuse, cognitive and emotional processes, and aggressive/disruptive behavior problems. Soc. Dev. 16:11–23 [Google Scholar]
  99. Thelen E, Smith LB. 1998. Dynamic systems theories. Handbook of Child Psychology, Vol. 1: Theoretical Models of Human Development W Damon, R Lerner 563–634 New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  100. Thompson RA, Lewis MD, Calkins SD. 2008. Reassessing emotion regulation. Child Dev. Perspect. 2:124–31 [Google Scholar]
  101. Toth SL, Gravener-Davis JA, Guild DJ, Cicchetti D. 2013. Relational interventions for child maltreatment: past, present, future perspectives. Dev. Psychopathol. 25:4 Pt. 21601–17 [Google Scholar]
  102. Toth SL, Pickreign-Stronach ES, Rogosch FA, Caplan R, Cicchetti D. 2011. Illogical thinking and thought disorder in maltreated children. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 50:659–68 [Google Scholar]
  103. Valentino K, Cicchetti D, Toth SL, Rogosch FA. 2008. True and false recall and dissociation among maltreated children: the role of self-schema. Dev. Psychopathol. 20:213–32x [Google Scholar]
  104. von Bertalanffy L. 1968. General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications New York: George Braziller [Google Scholar]
  105. Weder N, Yang BZ, Douglas-Palumberi H, Massey J, Krystal JH. et al. 2009. MAOA genotype, maltreatment, and aggressive behavior: the changing impact of genotype at varying levels of trauma. Biol. Psychiatry 65:417–24 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-psych-122414-033259
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error