The burgeoning field of gene-by-environment (G×E) interactions has revealed fascinating biological insights, particularly in the realm of stress-, anxiety-, and depression-related disorders. In this review we present an integrated view of the study of G×E interactions in stress and anxiety disorders, including the evolution of genetic association studies from genetic epidemiology to contemporary large-scale genome-wide association studies and G×E studies. We convey the importance of consortia efforts and collaboration to gain the large sample sizes needed to move the field forward. Finally, we discuss several robust and well-reproduced G×E interactions and demonstrate how epidemiological identification of G×E interactions has naturally led to a plethora of basic research elucidating the mechanisms of high-impact genetic variants.


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