As the proverbial creatures of habit, people tend to repeat the same behaviors in recurring contexts. This review characterizes habits in terms of their cognitive, motivational, and neurobiological properties. In so doing, we identify three ways that habits interface with deliberate goal pursuit: First, habits form as people pursue goals by repeating the same responses in a given context. Second, as outlined in computational models, habits and deliberate goal pursuit guide actions synergistically, although habits are the efficient, default mode of response. Third, people tend to infer from the frequency of habit performance that the behavior must have been intended. We conclude by applying insights from habit research to understand stress and addiction as well as the design of effective interventions to change health and consumer behaviors.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Aarts H, Verplanken B, Van Knippenberg A. 1997. Habit and information use in travel mode choices. Acta Psychol. 96:1–14 [Google Scholar]
  2. Adriaanse MA, Oettingen G, Gollwitzer PM, Hennes EP, de Ridder DTD, de Wit JBF. 2010. When planning is not enough: fighting unhealthy snacking habits by mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 40:1277–93 [Google Scholar]
  3. Armitage CJ. 2005. Can the theory of planned behavior predict the maintenance of physical activity?. Health Psychol. 24:235–45 [Google Scholar]
  4. Atallah HE, Lopez-Paniagua D, Rudy JW, O'Reilly RC. 2007. Separate neural substrates for skill learning and performance in the ventral and dorsal striatum. Nat. Neurosci. 10:126–31 [Google Scholar]
  5. Avni-Babad D. 2011. Routine and feelings of safety, confidence, and well-being. Br. J. Psychol. 102:223–44 [Google Scholar]
  6. Baldwin AS, Rothman AJ, Hertel AW, Linde JA, Jeffery RW. et al. 2006. Specifying the determinants of the initiation and maintenance of behavior change: an examination of self-efficacy, satisfaction, and smoking cessation. Health Psychol. 25:626–34 [Google Scholar]
  7. Balleine BW, O'Doherty JP. 2010. Human and rodent homologies in action control: corticostriatal determinants of goal-directed and habitual action. Neuropsychopharmacology 35:48–69 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bayley PJ, Frascino JC, Squire LR. 2005. Robust habit learning in the absence of awareness and independent of the medial temporal lobe. Nature 436:550–53 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bem DJ. 1972. Constructing cross-situational consistencies in behavior: some thoughts on Alker's critique of Mischel. J. Personal. 40:17–26 [Google Scholar]
  10. Berridge KC. 2007. The debate over dopamine's role in reward: the case for incentive salience. Psychopharmacology 191:391–431 [Google Scholar]
  11. Betsch T, Haberstroh S, Glöckner A, Haar T, Fiedler K. 2001. The effects of routine strength on adaptation and information search in recurrent decision making. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 84:23–53 [Google Scholar]
  12. Botvinick MM, Bylsma LM. 2005. Distraction and action slips in an everyday task: evidence for a dynamic representation of task context. Psychol. Bull. Rev. 12:1011–17 [Google Scholar]
  13. Botvinick MM, Niv Y, Barto AC. 2009. Hierarchically organized behavior and its neural foundations: a reinforcement learning perspective. Cognition 113:262–80 [Google Scholar]
  14. Botvinick MM, Plaut DC. 2004. Doing without schema hierarchies: a recurrent connectionist approach to normal and impaired routine sequential action. Psychol. Rev. 111:395–429 [Google Scholar]
  15. Botvinick MM, Weinstein A. 2014. Model-based hierarchical reinforcement learning and human action control. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 369:20130480 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bouton ME, Todd TP, Vurbic D, Winterbauer NE. 2011. Renewal after the extinction of free operant behavior. Learn. Behav. 39:57–67 [Google Scholar]
  17. Burns RJ, Donovan AS, Ackermann RT, Finch EA, Rothman AJ, Jeffery RW. 2012. A theoretically grounded systematic review of material incentives for weight loss: implications for interventions. Ann. Behav. Med. 44:375–88 [Google Scholar]
  18. Burton AC, Nakamura K, Roesch MR. 2015. From ventral-medial to dorsal-lateral striatum: neural correlates of reward-guided decision-making. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 117:51–59 [Google Scholar]
  19. Carels RA, Burmeister JM, Koball AM, Oehlhof MW, Hinman N. et al. 2014. A randomized trial comparing two approaches to weight loss: differences in weight loss maintenance. J. Health Psychol. 19:296–311 [Google Scholar]
  20. Colwill RM, Rescorla RA. 1985. Postconditioning devaluation of a reinforcer affects instrumental responding. J. Exp. Psychol.: Anim. Behav. Process. 11:120–32 [Google Scholar]
  21. Cooper RP, Ruh N, Mareschal D. 2014. The goal circuit model: a hierarchical multi-route model of the acquisition and control of routine sequential action in humans. Cogn. Sci. 38:244–74 [Google Scholar]
  22. Danner UN, Vries NK, Aarts H. 2007. Habit formation and multiple means to goal attainment: Repeated retrieval of target means causes inhibited access to competitors. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 33:1367–79 [Google Scholar]
  23. Daw ND, Gershman SJ, Seymour B, Dayan P, Dolan RJ. 2011. Model-based influences on humans' choices and striatal prediction errors. Neuron 69:1204–15 [Google Scholar]
  24. Daw ND, Niv Y, Dayan P. 2005. Uncertainty-based competition between prefrontal and dorsolateral striatal systems for behavioral control. Nat. Neurosci. 8:1704–11 [Google Scholar]
  25. de Ridder DTD, Lensvelt-Mulders G, Finkenauer C, Stok FM, Baumeister RF. 2012. Taking stock of self-control: a meta-analysis of how trait self-control relates to a wide range of behaviors. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 16:76–99 [Google Scholar]
  26. de Wit S, Corlett PR, Fletcher PC, Dickinson A, Aitken MR. 2009. Differential engagement of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex by goal-directed and habitual behavior toward food pictures in humans. J. Neurosci. 29:11330–38 [Google Scholar]
  27. de Wit S, Dickinson A. 2009. Associative theories of goal-directed behaviour: a case for animal-human translational models. Psychol. Res. 73:463–76 [Google Scholar]
  28. de Wit S, van de Vijver I, Ridderinkhof KR. 2014. Impaired acquisition of goal-directed action in healthy aging. Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 14:647–58 [Google Scholar]
  29. Desmurget M, Turner RS. 2010. Motor sequences and the basal ganglia: kinematics, not habits. J. Neurosci. 30:7685–90 [Google Scholar]
  30. Dezfouli A, Balleine BW. 2012. Habits, action sequences and reinforcement learning. Eur. J. Neurosci. 35:1036–51 [Google Scholar]
  31. Dezfouli A, Balleine BW. 2013. Actions, action sequences and habits: evidence that goal-directed and habitual action control are hierarchically organized. PLOS Comp. Biol. 9:e1003364 [Google Scholar]
  32. Dezfouli A, Lingawi NW, Balleine BW. 2014. Habits as action sequences: hierarchical action control and changes in outcome value. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 369:20130482 [Google Scholar]
  33. Dias-Ferreira E, Sousa JC, Melo I, Morgado P, Cerqueira JJ. 2009. Chronic stress causes frontostriatal reorganization and affects decision-making. Science 325:621–25 [Google Scholar]
  34. Dickinson A. 1985. Actions and habits: the development of behavioural autonomy. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 308:67–78 [Google Scholar]
  35. Dolan RJ, Dayan P. 2013. Goals and habits in the brain. Neuron 80:312–25 [Google Scholar]
  36. Doll BB, Simon DA, Daw ND. 2012. The ubiquity of model-based reinforcement learning. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 22:1075–81 [Google Scholar]
  37. Duhig C. 2012. The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business New York: Random House
  38. Evans J, Stanovich KE. 2013. Dual-process theories of higher cognition advancing the debate. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 8:223–41 [Google Scholar]
  39. Everitt BJ. 2014. Neural and psychological mechanisms underlying compulsive drug seeking habits and drug memories—indications for novel treatments of addiction. Eur. J. Neurosci. 40:2163–82 [Google Scholar]
  40. Everitt BJ, Robbins TW. 2005. Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction: from actions to habits to compulsion. Nat. Neurosci. 8:1481–89 [Google Scholar]
  41. Faure A, Haberland U, Condé F, El Massioui N. 2005. Lesion to the nigrostriatal dopamine system disrupts stimulus-response habit formation. J. Neurosci. 25:2771–80 [Google Scholar]
  42. FitzGerald THB, Dolan RJ, Friston KJ. 2014. Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 8:457 [Google Scholar]
  43. Foerde K, Knowlton BJ, Poldrack RA. 2006. Modulation of competing memory systems by distraction. PNAS 103:11778–83 [Google Scholar]
  44. Friedel E, Koch SP, Wendt J, Heinz A, Deserno L, Schlagenhauf F. 2014. Devaluation and sequential decisions: linking goal-directed and model-based behavior. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 8:587 [Google Scholar]
  45. Galla BM, Duckworth AL. 2015. More than resisting temptation: Beneficial habits mediate the relationship between self-control and positive life outcomes. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 109:508–25 [Google Scholar]
  46. Gardner B. 2015. A review and analysis of the use of “habit” in understanding, predicting and influencing health-related behaviour. Health Psychol. Rev. 9277–95
  47. Gardner B, Abraham C, Lally P, de Bruijn GJ. 2012. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 9:102 [Google Scholar]
  48. Gardner B, de Bruijn GJ, Lally P. 2011. A systematic review and meta-analysis of applications of the Self-Report Habit Index to nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Ann. Behav. Med. 42:174–87 [Google Scholar]
  49. Gardner B, Sheals K, Wardle J, McGowan L. 2014. Putting habit into practice, and practice into habit: a process evaluation and exploration of the acceptability of a habit-based dietary behaviour change intervention. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 11:135 [Google Scholar]
  50. Gershman SJ, Markman AB, Otto AR. 2014. Retrospective revaluation in sequential decision making: a tale of two systems. J. Exp. Psychol.: Gen. 143:182–94 [Google Scholar]
  51. Gillan CM, Otto AR, Phelps EA, Daw ND. 2015. Model-based learning protects against forming habits. Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 15:523–36 [Google Scholar]
  52. Gillan CM, Robbins TW. 2014. Goal-directed learning and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 369:20130475 [Google Scholar]
  53. Gollwitzer PM, Brandstätter V. 1997. Implementation intentions and effective goal pursuit. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 73:186–99 [Google Scholar]
  54. Gollwitzer PM, Sheeran P. 2006. Implementation intentions and goal achievement: a meta-analysis of effects and processes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 38 MP Zanna 69–119 San Diego, CA: Elsevier [Google Scholar]
  55. Graybiel AM. 1998. The basal ganglia and chunking of action repertoires. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 70:119–36 [Google Scholar]
  56. Gremel CM, Costa RM. 2013. Orbitofrontal and striatal circuits dynamically encode the shift between goal-directed and habitual actions. Nat. Commun. 4:2264 [Google Scholar]
  57. Guenzel FM, Wolf OT, Schwabe L. 2014a. Glucocorticoids boost stimulus-response memory formation in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology 45:21–30 [Google Scholar]
  58. Guenzel FM, Wolf OT, Schwabe L. 2014b. Sex differences in stress effects on response and spatial memory formation. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 109:46–55 [Google Scholar]
  59. Haber SN, Fudge JL, McFarland NR. 2000. Striatonigrostriatal pathways in primates form an ascending spiral from the shell to the dorsolateral striatum. J. Neurosci. 20:2369–82 [Google Scholar]
  60. Hay JF, Jacoby LL. 1996. Separating habit and recollection: memory slips, process dissociations, and probability matching. J. Exp. Psychol.: Learn. Mem. Cogn. 22:1323–35 [Google Scholar]
  61. Hofmann W, Baumeister RF, Förster G, Vohs KD. 2012. Everyday temptations: an experience sampling study of desire, conflict, and self-control. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 102:1318–35 [Google Scholar]
  62. Hogarth L, Attwood AS, Bate HA, Munafò MR. 2012a. Acute alcohol impairs human goal-directed action. Biol. Psychol. 90:154–60 [Google Scholar]
  63. Hogarth L, Balleine BW, Corbit LH, Killcross S. 2013. Associative learning mechanisms underpinning the transition from recreational drug use to addiction. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1282:12–24 [Google Scholar]
  64. Hogarth L, Chase HW, Baess K. 2012b. Impaired goal-directed behavioural control in human impulsivity. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 65:305–16 [Google Scholar]
  65. Holland PC. 2004. Relations between Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and reinforcer devaluation. J. Exp. Psychol.: Anim. Behav. Proc. 30:104–17 [Google Scholar]
  66. Hommel B. 2009. Action control according to TEC (theory of event coding). Psychol. Res. 73:512–26 [Google Scholar]
  67. Hull CL. 1943. Principles of Behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory New York: Appleton-Century
  68. James W. 1890. The Principles of Psychology New York: H. Holt
  69. Ji MF, Wood W. 2007. Purchase and consumption habits: not necessarily what you intend. J. Consum. Psychol. 17:261–76 [Google Scholar]
  70. Judah G, Gardner B, Aunger R. 2013. Forming a flossing habit: an exploratory study of the psychological determinants of habit formation. Br. J. Health Psychol. 18:338–53 [Google Scholar]
  71. Kaushal N, Rhodes RE. 2015. Exercise habit formation in new gym members: a longitudinal study. J. Behav. Med. 38:652–63 [Google Scholar]
  72. Keramati M, Dezfouli A, Piray P. 2011. Speed/accuracy trade-off between the habitual and the goal-directed processes. PLOS Comp. Biol. 7:e1002055 [Google Scholar]
  73. Khare A, Inman JJ. 2006. Habitual behavior in American eating patterns: the role of meal occasions. J. Consum. Res. 32:567–75 [Google Scholar]
  74. Killcross S, Coutureau E. 2003. Coordination of actions and habits in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats. Cereb. Cortex 13:400–8 [Google Scholar]
  75. Labrecque JS, Wood W. 2015. What measures of habit strength to use? Comment on Gardner 2014. Health Psychol. Rev. 9303–10
  76. Lally P, Chipperfield A, Wardle J. 2008. Healthy habits: efficacy of simple advice on weight control based on a habit-formation model. Int. J. Obes. 32:700–7 [Google Scholar]
  77. Lally P, Gardner B. 2013. Promoting habit formation. Health Psychol. Rev. 7:S137–58 [Google Scholar]
  78. Lally P, Van Jaarsveld CHM, Potts HWW, Wardle J. 2010. How are habits formed: modelling habit formation in the real world. Eur. J. Neurosci. 40:998–1009 [Google Scholar]
  79. Lee SW, Shimojo S, O'Doherty JP. 2014. Neural computations underlying arbitration between model-based and model-free learning. Neuron 81:687–99 [Google Scholar]
  80. Lehéricy S, Benali H, Van de Moortele PF, Pélégrini-Issac M, Waechter T. et al. 2005. Distinct basal ganglia territories are engaged in early and advanced motor sequence learning. PNAS 102:12566–71 [Google Scholar]
  81. Liljeholm M, Dunne S, O'Doherty JP. 2015. Differentiating neural systems mediating the acquisition versus expression of goal-directed and habitual behavioral control. Eur. J. Neurosci. 41:1358–71 [Google Scholar]
  82. Lingawi NW, Balleine BW. 2012. Amygdala central nucleus interacts with dorsolateral striatum to regulate the acquisition of habits. J. Neurosci. 32:1073–81 [Google Scholar]
  83. Liu JL, Han B, Cohen DA. 2015. Associations between eating occasions and places of consumption among adults. Appetite 87:199–204 [Google Scholar]
  84. Lungu OL, Monchi O, Albouy G, Jubault T, Ballarin E. et al. 2014. Striatal and hippocampal involvement in motor sequence chunking depends on the learning strategy. PLOS ONE 9:e103885 [Google Scholar]
  85. Maher JP, Conroy DE. 2015. Habit strength moderates the effects of daily action planning prompts on physical activity but not sedentary behavior. J. Sport Exerc. Psychol. 37:97–107 [Google Scholar]
  86. Marchette SA, Bakker A, Shelton AL. 2011. Cognitive mappers to creatures of habit: differential engagement of place and response learning mechanisms predicts human navigational behavior. J. Neurosci. 31:15264–68 [Google Scholar]
  87. Marteau TM, Hollands GJ, Fletcher PC. 2012. Changing human behavior to prevent disease: the importance of targeting automatic processes. Science 337:1492–95 [Google Scholar]
  88. Miller GA, Galanter E, Pribram KH. 1960. Plans and the Structure of Behavior New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston
  89. Murray KB, Häubl G. 2007. Explaining cognitive lock-in: the role of skill-based habits of use in consumer choice. J. Consum. Res. 34:77–88 [Google Scholar]
  90. Neal DT, Wood W, Drolet A. 2013. How do people adhere to goals when willpower is low? The profits (and pitfalls) of strong habits. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 104:959–75 [Google Scholar]
  91. Neal DT, Wood W, Labrecque JS, Lally P. 2012. How do habits guide behavior? Perceived and actual triggers of habits in daily life. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 48:492–98 [Google Scholar]
  92. Neal DT, Wood W, Wu M, Kurlander D. 2011. The pull of the past: When do habits persist despite conflict with motives?. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 37:1428–37 [Google Scholar]
  93. Newell A. 1990. Unified Theories of Cognition Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  94. Norman DA. 1981. Categorization of action slips. Psychol. Rev. 88:1–15 [Google Scholar]
  95. Orbell S, Verplanken B. 2010. The automatic component of habit in health behavior: habit as cue-contingent automaticity. Health Psychol. 29:374–83 [Google Scholar]
  96. Ostlund SB, Maidment NT, Balleine BW. 2010. Alcohol-paired contextual cues produce an immediate and selective loss of goal-directed action in rats. Front. Integr. Neurosci. 4:19 [Google Scholar]
  97. Otto AR, Gershman SJ, Markman AB, Daw ND. 2013a. The curse of planning: dissecting multiple reinforcement-learning systems by taxing the central executive. Psychol. Sci. 24:751–61 [Google Scholar]
  98. Otto AR, Raio CM, Chiang A. 2013b. Working-memory capacity protects model-based learning from stress. PNAS 52:20941–46 [Google Scholar]
  99. Otto AR, Skatova A, Madlon-Kay S, Daw ND. 2015. Cognitive control predicts use of model-based reinforcement learning. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 27:319–33 [Google Scholar]
  100. Ouellette JA, Wood W. 1998. Habit and intention in everyday life: the multiple processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior. Psychol. Bull. 124:54–74 [Google Scholar]
  101. Packard MG, Goodman J. 2013. Factors that influence the relative use of multiple memory systems. Hippocampus 23:1044–52 [Google Scholar]
  102. Patsenko EG, Altmann EM. 2010. How planful is routine behavior? A selective-attention model of performance in the Tower of Hanoi. J. Exp. Psychol.: Gen. 139:95–116 [Google Scholar]
  103. Penhune VB, Steele CJ. 2012. Parallel contributions of cerebellar, striatal and M1 mechanisms to motor sequence learning. Behav. Brain Res. 226:579–91 [Google Scholar]
  104. Pezzulo G, Rigoli F, Chersi F. 2013. The mixed instrumental controller: using value of information to combine habitual choice and mental simulation. Front. Psychol. 4:92 [Google Scholar]
  105. Quinn JM, Pascoe A, Wood W, Neal DT. 2010. Can't control yourself? Monitor those bad habits. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 36:499–511 [Google Scholar]
  106. Radenbach C, Reiter AMF, Engert V, Sjoerds Z, Villringer A. et al. 2015. The interaction of acute and chronic stress impairs model-based behavioral control. Psychoneuroendocrinology 53:268–80 [Google Scholar]
  107. Reason JT. 1979. Actions not as planned: the price of automatization. Aspects of Consciousness G Underwood, R Stevens 67–89 London: Academic [Google Scholar]
  108. Rebar AL, Elavsky S, Maher JP, Doerksen SE, Conroy DE. 2014. Habits predict physical activity on days when intentions are weak. J. Sport Exerc. Psychol. 36:157–65 [Google Scholar]
  109. Reber R, Schwarz N, Winkielman P. 2004. Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: Is beauty in the perceiver's processing experience?. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 8:364–82 [Google Scholar]
  110. Redish AD, Jensen S, Johnson A. 2008. A unified framework for addiction: vulnerabilities in the decision process. Behav. Brain Sci. 31:415–37 [Google Scholar]
  111. Rothman AJ, Gollwitzer PM, Grant AM, Neal DT, Sheeran P, Wood W. 2015. Hale and hearty policies: how psychological science can create and maintain healthy habits. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. In press
  112. Rubin G. 2015. Better than Before New York: Random House
  113. Ruh N, Cooper RP, Mareschal D. 2010. Action selection in complex routinized sequential behaviors. J. Exp. Psychol.: Hum. Percept. Perform. 36:955–75 [Google Scholar]
  114. Rünger D, Wood W. 2015. Maintenance of healthy behaviors: forming and changing habits. Behavioral Economics and Public Health C Roberto, I Kawachi Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press In press [Google Scholar]
  115. Schwabe L, Tegenthoff M, Höffken O, Wolf OT. 2012. Simultaneous glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity disrupts the neural basis of goal-directed action in the human brain. J. Neurosci. 32:10146–55 [Google Scholar]
  116. Schwabe L, Wolf OT. 2010. Socially evaluated cold pressor stress after instrumental learning favors habits over goal-directed action. Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:977–86 [Google Scholar]
  117. Schwabe L, Wolf OT. 2012. Stress modulates the engagement of multiple memory systems in classification learning. J. Neurosci. 32:11042–49 [Google Scholar]
  118. Schwabe L, Wolf OT. 2013. Stress and multiple memory systems: from “thinking” to “doing.”. Trends Cogn. Sci. 17:60–68 [Google Scholar]
  119. Seger CA, Spiering BJ. 2011. A critical review of habit learning and the basal ganglia. Front. Syst. Neurosci. 5:1–9 [Google Scholar]
  120. Sheeran P, Webb TL, Gollwitzer PM. 2005. The interplay between goal intentions and implementation intentions. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 31:87–98 [Google Scholar]
  121. Shiffrin RM, Schneider W. 1977. Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending and a general theory. Psychol. Rev. 84:127–90 [Google Scholar]
  122. Sjoerds Z, de Wit S, van den Brink W, Robbins TW, Beekman ATF. et al. 2013. Behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for overreliance on habit learning in alcohol-dependent patients. Transl. Psychiatry 3:e337 [Google Scholar]
  123. Skinner BF. 1938. The Behavior of Organisms New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts
  124. Smith KS, Graybiel AM. 2013. A dual operator view of habitual behavior reflecting cortical and striatal dynamics. Neuron 79:361–74 [Google Scholar]
  125. Sobal J, Wansink B. 2007. Kitchenscapes, tablescapes, platescapes, and foodscapes: influences of microscale built environments on food intake. Environ. Behav. 39:124–42 [Google Scholar]
  126. Squire LR, Zola-Morgan S. 1991. The medial temporal lobe memory system. Science 253:1380–86 [Google Scholar]
  127. Stawarz K, Cox AL, Blandford A. 2015. Beyond self-tracking and reminders: designing smartphone apps that support habit formation. Proc. 33rd annu. ACM Conf. Hum. Factors Comput.2653–62 New York: ACM [Google Scholar]
  128. Steele CJ, Penhune VB. 2010. Specific increases within global decreases: a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of five days of motor sequence learning. J. Neurosci. 30:8332–41 [Google Scholar]
  129. Sun R, Merrill E, Peterson T. 2001. From implicit skills to explicit knowledge: a bottom-up model of skill learning. Cogn. Sci. 25:203–44 [Google Scholar]
  130. Taatgen NA, Huss D, Dickison D, Anderson JR. 2008. The acquisition of robust and flexible cognitive skills. J. Exp. Psychol.: Gen. 137:548–65 [Google Scholar]
  131. Tappe K, Tarves E, Oltarzewski J, Frum D. 2013. Habit formation among regular exercisers at fitness centers: an exploratory study. J. Phys. Act. Health 10:607–13 [Google Scholar]
  132. Thøgersen J. 2012. The importance of timing for breaking commuters' car driving habits. Collegium 12:130–40 [Google Scholar]
  133. Thorndike EL. 1898. Animal intelligence: an experimental study of the associative processes in animals. Psychol. Monogr. Gen. Appl. 2:1–109 [Google Scholar]
  134. Thrailkill EA, Bouton ME. 2015. Contextual control of instrumental actions and habits. J. Exp. Psychol.: Anim. Learn. Cogn. 41:69–80 [Google Scholar]
  135. Tobias R. 2009. Changing behavior by memory aids: a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development tested with dynamic field data. Psychol. Rev. 116:408–38 [Google Scholar]
  136. Tolman EC. 1948. Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychol. Rev. 55:189–208 [Google Scholar]
  137. Triandis HC. 1977. Interpersonal Behavior Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Publ.
  138. Tricomi E, Balleine BW, O'Doherty JP. 2009. A specific role for posterior dorsolateral striatum in human habit learning. Eur. J. Neurosci. 29:2225–32 [Google Scholar]
  139. Valentin VV, Dickinson A, O'Doherty JP. 2007. Determining the neural substrates of goal-directed learning in the human brain. J. Neurosci. 27:4019–26 [Google Scholar]
  140. Verplanken B, Aarts H. 1999. Habit, attitude, and planned behaviour: Is habit an empty construct or an interesting case of goal-directed automaticity?. Eur. Rev. Soc. Psychol. 10:101–34 [Google Scholar]
  141. Verplanken B, Aarts H, Van Knippenberg A. 1997. Habit, information acquisition, and the process of making travel mode choices. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 27:539–60 [Google Scholar]
  142. Verplanken B, Orbell S. 2003. Reflections on past behavior: a self-report index of habit strength. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 33:1313–30 [Google Scholar]
  143. Verplanken B, Walker I, Davis A, Jurasek M. 2008. Context change and travel mode choice: combining the habit discontinuity and self-activation hypotheses. J. Environ. Psychol. 28:121–27 [Google Scholar]
  144. Vishwanath A. 2015. Examining the distinct antecedents of e-mail habits and its influence on the outcomes of a phishing attack. J. Comput. -Mediat. Commun doi: 10.1111/jcc4.12126
  145. Vohs KD, Baumeister RF, Ciarocco NJ. 2005. Self-regulation and self-presentation: regulatory resource depletion impairs impression management and effortful self-presentation depletes regulatory resources. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 88:632–57 [Google Scholar]
  146. Voon V, Derbyshire K, Rück C, Irvine MA, Worbe Y. et al. 2015. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits. Mol. Psychiatry 20:345–52 [Google Scholar]
  147. Walker I, Thomas GO, Verplanken B. 2014. Old habits die hard: travel habit formation and decay during an office relocation. Environ. Behav. doi: 10.1177/0013916514549619
  148. Wansink B, Payne CR. 2012. Eating behavior and obesity at Chinese buffets. Obesity 16:1957–60 [Google Scholar]
  149. Wason PC, Evans J. 1975. Dual processes in reasoning?. Cognition 3:141–54 [Google Scholar]
  150. Webb TL, Sheeran P. 2006. Does changing behavioral intentions engender behavior change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychol. Bull. 132:249–68 [Google Scholar]
  151. Webb TL, Sheeran P, Luszczynska A. 2009. Planning to break unwanted habits: Habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change. Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 48:507–23 [Google Scholar]
  152. Wise RA. 2004. Dopamine, learning and motivation. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5:483–94 [Google Scholar]
  153. Wood W, Labrecque JS, Lin PY, Rünger D. 2014. Habits in dual process models. Dual Process Theories of the Social Mind JW Sherman, B Gawronski, Y Trope 371–85 New York: Guilford [Google Scholar]
  154. Wood W, Neal DT. 2007. A new look at habits and the habit-goal interface. Psychol. Rev. 114:843–63 [Google Scholar]
  155. Wood W, Neal DT. 2009. The habitual consumer. J. Consum. Psychol. 19:579–92 [Google Scholar]
  156. Wood W, Quinn JM, Kashy DA. 2002. Habits in everyday life: thought, emotion, and action. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 83:1281–87 [Google Scholar]
  157. Wood W, Tam L, Witt MG. 2005. Changing circumstances, disrupting habits. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 88:918–33 [Google Scholar]
  158. Wunderlich K, Dayan P, Dolan RJ. 2012. Mapping value based planning and extensively trained choice in the human brain. Nat. Neurosci. 15:786–91 [Google Scholar]
  159. Wymbs NF, Grafton ST. 2014. The human motor system supports sequence-specific representations over multiple training-dependent timescales. Cereb. Cortex. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhu144
  160. Yin HH, Knowlton BJ. 2006. The role of the basal ganglia in habit formation. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 7:464–76 [Google Scholar]
  161. Yin HH, Knowlton BJ, Balleine BW. 2004. Lesions of dorsolateral striatum preserve outcome expectancy but disrupt habit formation in instrumental learning. Eur. J. Neurosci. 19:181–89 [Google Scholar]
  162. Yin HH, Knowlton BJ, Balleine BW. 2006. Inactivation of dorsolateral striatum enhances sensitivity to changes in the action-outcome contingency in instrumental conditioning. Behav. Brain Res. 166:189–96 [Google Scholar]
  163. Yin HH, Ostlund SB, Knowlton BJ, Balleine BW. 2005. The role of the dorsomedial striatum in instrumental conditioning. Eur. J. Neurosci. 22:513–23 [Google Scholar]
  164. Zapata A, Minney VL, Shippenberg TS. 2010. Shift from goal-directed to habitual cocaine seeking after prolonged experience in rats. J. Neurosci. 30:15457–63 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error