This review analyzes trends and commonalities among prominent theories of media effects. On the basis of exemplary meta-analyses of media effects and bibliometric studies of well-cited theories, we identify and discuss five features of media effects theories as well as their empirical support. Each of these features specifies the conditions under which media may produce effects on certain types of individuals. Our review ends with a discussion of media effects in newer media environments. This includes theories of computer-mediated communication, the development of which appears to share a similar pattern of reformulation from unidirectional, receiver-oriented views, to theories that recognize the transactional nature of communication. We conclude by outlining challenges and promising avenues for future research.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Alba JW, Hutchinson JW. 1987. Dimensions of consumer expertise. J. Consum. Res. 13:411–54 [Google Scholar]
  2. Allen M, D'Alessio D, Brezgel K. 1995. A meta-analysis summarizing the effects of pornography II: aggression after exposure. Hum. Commun. Res. 22:258–83 [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson CA, Bushman BJ. 2001. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychol. Sci. 12:353–59 [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderson CA, Bushman BJ. 2002. Human aggression. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 53:27–51 [Google Scholar]
  5. Anderson CA, Shibuya A, Ihori N, Swing EL, Bushman BJ. et al. 2010. Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in eastern and western countries: a meta-analytic review. Psychol. Bull. 136:151–73 [Google Scholar]
  6. Atkin C. 1973. Instrumental utilities and information seeking. New Models for Mass Communication Research P Clarke 205–42 Oxford, UK: Sage [Google Scholar]
  7. Bandura A. 2002. Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research J Bryant, D Zillmann 121–53 Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  8. Bandura A. 2009. Social cognitive theory of mass communication. See Bryant & Oliver 2009 94–124
  9. Barlett CP, Vowels CL, Saucier DA. 2008. Meta-analyses of the effects of media images on men's body-image concerns. J. Soc. Clin. Psychol. 27:279–310 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bauer R. 1964. The obstinate audience: the influence process from the point of view of social communication. Am. Psychol. 19:319–28 [Google Scholar]
  11. Beentjes JWJ, van der Voort THA. 1988. Television's impact on children's reading skills: a review of research. Read. Res. Q. 23:389–413 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bem DJ. 1972. Self-perception theory. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology L Berkowitz 1–62 New York: Academic [Google Scholar]
  13. Berkowitz L. 1984. Some effects of thoughts on antisocial and pro-social influences of media events: a cognitive-neoassociation analysis. Psychol. Bull. 95:410–27 [Google Scholar]
  14. Berkowitz L, Powers PC. 1979. Effects of timing and justification of witnessed aggression on the observers punitiveness. J. Res. Personal. 13:71–80 [Google Scholar]
  15. Blumler JG. 1985. The social character of media gratifications. Media Gratifications Research KE Rosengren, LA Wenner, P Palmgreen 41–60 Beverly Hills, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  16. Boerman SC, Smit EG, van Meurs A. 2011. Attention battle: the abilities of brand, visual, and text characteristics of the ad to draw attention versus the diverting power of the direct magazine context. Advances in Advertising Research: Breaking New Ground in Theory and Practice S Okazaki 295–310 Wiesbaden, Ger: Gabler Verlag [Google Scholar]
  17. Boulianne S. 2009. Does internet use affect engagement? A meta-analysis of research. Pol. Commun. 26:193–211 [Google Scholar]
  18. Bradley MM. 2009. Natural selective attention: orienting and emotion. Psychophysiology 46:1–11 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bryant J, Miron D. 2004. Theory and research in mass communication. J. Commun. 54:662–704 [Google Scholar]
  20. Bryant J, Oliver MB. 2009. Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research New York: Routledge, 3rd ed..
  21. Bushman BJ. 1995. Moderating role of trait aggressiveness in the effects of violent media on aggression. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 69:950–60 [Google Scholar]
  22. Cacioppo JT, Petty RE, Feinstein JA, Blair W, Jarvis G. 1996. Dispositional differences in cognitive motivation: the life and times of individuals varying in need for cognition. Psychol. Bull. 119:197–253 [Google Scholar]
  23. Castells M. 2007. Communication, power and counter-power in the network society. Int. J. Commun. 1:238–66 [Google Scholar]
  24. Clark R. 2012. Learning from Media: Arguments, Analysis, and Evidence Charlotte, NC: Inf. Age Publ.
  25. Corbetta M, Shulman GL. 2002. Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3:201–15 [Google Scholar]
  26. Craig RT. 1999. Communication theory as a field. Commun. Theory 9:119–61 [Google Scholar]
  27. Culnan MJ, Markus ML. 1987. Information technologies. Handbook of Organizational Communication: An Interdisciplinary Perspective FM Jablin, LL Putnam, KH Roberts, LW Porter 420–43 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  28. Daft RL, Lengel RH. 1986. Organizational information requirements, media richness and structural design. Manag. Sci. 32:554–71 [Google Scholar]
  29. Desmond RJ, Garveth R. 2007. The effects of advertising on children and adolescents. Mass Media Effects Research: Advances Through Meta-Analysis R Preiss, B Gayle, N Burrell, M Allen, J Bryant 169–79 Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  30. Donsbach W. 2009. Cognitive dissonance theory—roller coaster career: how communication research adapted the theory of cognitive dissonance. Media Choice: A Theoretical and Empirical Overview T Hartmann 128–49 New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  31. Entman RM. 1993. Framing: toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. J. Commun. 43:51–58 [Google Scholar]
  32. Eveland WP, Shah DV, Kwak N. 2003. Assessing causality in the cognitive mediation model: a panel study of motivations, information processing, and learning during campaign 2000. Commun. Res. 30:359–86 [Google Scholar]
  33. Ferguson CJ, Kilburn J. 2009. The public health risks of media violence: a meta-analytic review. J. Pediatr. 154:759–63 [Google Scholar]
  34. Festinger L. 1957. A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
  35. Fikkers K, Piotrowski JT, Weeda W, Vossen HGM, Valkenburg PM. 2013. Double dose: high family conflict enhances the effect of media violence exposure on adolescents' aggression. Societies 3:280–92 [Google Scholar]
  36. Fishbein M, Cappella JN. 2006. The role of theory in developing effective health communications. J. Commun. 56:S1–17 [Google Scholar]
  37. Fiske ST. 2002. Five core social motives, plus or minus five. Social Perception: The Ontario Symposium SJ Spencer, S Fein, MP Zanna, JM Olson 233–46 Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  38. Früh W, Schönbach K. 1982. Der dynamisch-transaktionale Ansatz: Ein neues Paradigma der Medienwirkungen [The dynamic-transactional approach: a new paradigm of media effects]. Publizistik 27:74–88 [Google Scholar]
  39. Gerbner G, Gross L, Morgan M, Signorielli N. 1980. The mainstreaming of America: violence profile no 11. J. Commun. 30:10–29 [Google Scholar]
  40. Gonzales AL, Hancock JT. 2008. Identity shift in computer-mediated environments. Media Psychol. 11:167–85 [Google Scholar]
  41. Grabe S, Ward LM, Hyde JS. 2008. Role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychol. Bull. 134:460–76 [Google Scholar]
  42. Green MC, Brock TC. 2000. The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 79:701–21 [Google Scholar]
  43. Green MC, Brock TC, Kaufman GE. 2004. Understanding media enjoyment: the role of transportation into narrative worlds. Commun. Theory 14:311–27 [Google Scholar]
  44. Greenfield P, Farrar D, Beagles-Roos J. 1986. Is the medium the message? An experimental comparison of the effects of radio and television on imagination. J. Appl. Dev. Psychol. 7:201–18 [Google Scholar]
  45. Hall S. 1980. Encoding/decoding. Culture, Media, Language: Working Papers in Cultural Studies S Hall, D Hobson, A Lowe, P Willis 128–38 London: Hutchinson [Google Scholar]
  46. Hart W, Albarracin D, Eagly AH, Brechan I, Lindberg MJ, Merrill L. 2009. Feeling validated versus being correct: a meta-analysis of selective exposure to information. Psychol. Bull. 135:555–88 [Google Scholar]
  47. Hartmann T. 2009. Media Choice: A Theoretical and Empirical Overview New York: Routledge
  48. Harwood J. 1999. Age identification, social identity gratifications, and television viewing. J. Broadcast. Electron. Media 43:123–36 [Google Scholar]
  49. Holbert RL, Stephenson MT. 2003. The importance of indirect effects in media effects research: testing for mediation in structural equation modeling. J. Broadcast. Electron. Media 47:556–72 [Google Scholar]
  50. Holmstrom AJ. 2004. The effects of the media on body image: a meta-analysis. J. Broadcast. Electron. Media 48:196–217 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hornik R. 2003. Public Health Communication: Evidence for Behavior Change Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
  52. Hovland CI, Janis IL, Kelley HH. 1953. Communication and Persuasion: Psychological Studies of Opinion Change New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
  53. Karutz CO, Bailenson JN. 2015. Immersive virtual environments and the classrooms of tomorrow. The Handbook of the Psychology of Communication Technology SS Sundar 290–310 New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  54. Katz E. 1959. Mass communications research and the study of popular culture: an editorial note on a possible future for this journal. Stud. Public Commun. 2:1–6 [Google Scholar]
  55. Katz E, Blumler JG, Gurevitch M. 1973. Uses and gratifications research. Public Opin. Q. 37:509–23 [Google Scholar]
  56. Katz E, Lazarsfeld PF. 1955. Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications Piscataway, NJ: Trans. Publ.
  57. Kim S. 2004. Rereading David Morley's The “Nationwide” Audience. Cult. Stud. 18:84–108 [Google Scholar]
  58. Klapper JT. 1960. The Effects of Mass Communication Glencoe, IL: Free Press
  59. Knobloch-Westerwick S. 2006. Mood management: theory, evidence, and advancements. Psychology of Entertainment J Bryant, P Vorderer 230–54 Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  60. Knobloch-Westerwick S. 2015. Choice and Preference in Media Use New York: Routledge
  61. Krcmar M. 2009. Individual differences in media effects. The Sage Handbook of Media Processes and Effects RL Nabi, MB Oliver 237–50 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  62. Lang A. 2000. The limited capacity model of mediated message processing. J. Commun. 50:46–70 [Google Scholar]
  63. Lazarsfeld PF, Berelson B, Gaudet H. 1948. The People's Choice: How the Voter Makes Up His Mind in a Presidential Campaign New York: Columbia Univ. Press
  64. Liebert RM, Schwartzberg NS. 1977. Effects of mass-media. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 28:141–73 [Google Scholar]
  65. Mangen A, Walgermo BR, Brønnick K. 2013. Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: effects on reading comprehension. Int. J. Educ. Res. 58:61–68 [Google Scholar]
  66. Mares M-L, Oliver MB, Cantor J. 2008. Age differences in adults' emotional motivations for exposure to films. Media Psychol. 11:488–511 [Google Scholar]
  67. Mares M-L, Sun Y. 2010. The multiple meanings of age for television content preferences. Hum. Commun. Res. 36:372–96 [Google Scholar]
  68. Mares M-L, Woodard E. 2005. Positive effects of television on children's social interactions: a meta-analysis. Media Psychol. 7:301–22 [Google Scholar]
  69. Mares M-L, Woodard EH. 2006. In search of the older audience: adult age differences in television viewing. J. Broadcast. Electron. Media 50:595–614 [Google Scholar]
  70. Marshall SJ, Biddle SJH, Gorely T, Cameron N, Murdey I. 2004. Relationships between media use, body fatness and physical activity in children and youth: a meta-analysis. Int. J. Obes. 28:1238–46 [Google Scholar]
  71. Matlin MW, Stang DJ. 1978. The Pollyanna Principle: Selectivity in Language, Memory, and Thought Cambridge, MA: Schenkman
  72. McClelland DC, Atkinson JW. 1948. The projective expression of needs: I. The effect of different intensities of the hunger drive on perception. J. Psychol. 26:205–22 [Google Scholar]
  73. McCombs ME, Reynolds A. 2009. How the news shapes our civic agenda. See Bryant & Oliver 2009 1–16
  74. McCombs ME, Shaw DL. 1972. The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opin. Q. 36:176–87 [Google Scholar]
  75. McDonald DG. 2009. Media use and the social environment. Media Processes and Effects RL Nabi, MB Oliver 251–68 Los Angeles, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  76. McGuire WJ. 1986. The myth of massive media impact: savagings and salvagings. Public Communication and Behavior 1 G Comstock 173–257 Orlando, FL: Academic [Google Scholar]
  77. McLeod DM, Kosicki GM, McLeod JM. 2009. Political communication effects. See Bryant & Oliver 2009 228–51
  78. McLuhan M. 1964. Understanding Media: The Extension of Man London: Sphere Books
  79. McQuail D. 2010. McQuail's Mass Communication Theory London: Sage
  80. Nathanson AI. 2001. Parents versus peers: exploring the significance of peer mediation of antisocial television. Commun. Res. 28:251–74 [Google Scholar]
  81. Nikkelen SWC, Valkenburg PM, Huizinga M, Bushman BJ. 2014. Media use and ADHD-related behaviors in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Dev. Psychol. 50:2228–41 [Google Scholar]
  82. O'Keefe DJ. 2003. Message properties, mediating states, and manipulation checks: claims, evidence, and data analysis in experimental persuasive message effects research. Commun. Theory 13:251–74 [Google Scholar]
  83. Oliver MB. 2008. Tender affective states as predictors of entertainment preference. J. Commun. 58:40–61 [Google Scholar]
  84. Oliver MB, Kim J, Sanders MS. 2006. Personality. Psychology of Entertainment329–41 Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  85. Oliver MB, Krakowiak KM. 2009. Individual differences in media effects. See Bryant & Oliver 2009 517–31
  86. Paik H, Comstock G. 1994. The effects of television violence on antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis. Commun. Res. 21:516–46 [Google Scholar]
  87. Pearce LJ, Field AP. 2015. The impact of “scary” TV and film on children's internalizing emotions: a meta-analysis. Hum. Commun. Res.In press
  88. Peter J, Valkenburg PM. 2009. Adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit internet material and notions of women as sex objects: assessing causality and underlying processes. J. Commun. 59:407–33 [Google Scholar]
  89. Petty RE, Cacioppo JT. 1986. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology L Berkowitz 123–205 New York: Academic [Google Scholar]
  90. Pingree RJ. 2007. How messages affect their senders: a more general model of message effects and implications for deliberation. Commun. Theory 17:439–61 [Google Scholar]
  91. Postmes T, Lea M, Spears R, Reicher SD. 2000. SIDE Issues Centre Stage: Recent Developments in Studies of De-individuation in Groups Amsterdam: KNAW
  92. Potter WJ. 2012. Media Effects Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
  93. Potter WJ, Riddle K. 2007. A content analysis of the media effects literature. J. Mass Commun. Q. 84:90–104 [Google Scholar]
  94. Powers KL, Brooks PJ, Aldrich NJ, Palladino MA, Alfieri L. 2013. Effects of video-game play on information processing: a meta-analytic investigation. Psychonom. Bull. Rev. 20:1055–79 [Google Scholar]
  95. Pratto F, John OP. 1991. Automatic vigilance: the attention-grabbing power of negative social information. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 61:380–91 [Google Scholar]
  96. Prior M. 2005. News versus entertainment: how increasing media choice widens gaps in political knowledge and turnout. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 49:577–92 [Google Scholar]
  97. Raykov T, Marcoulides GA. 2012. A First Course in Structural Equation Modeling New York: Routledge
  98. Reber R, Schwarz N, Winkielman P. 2004. Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: Is beauty in the perceiver's processing experience?. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 8:364–82 [Google Scholar]
  99. Rideout VJ, Foehr UG, Roberts DF. 2010. Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Found.
  100. Roberts DF, Bachen CM. 1981. Mass-communication effects. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 32:307–56 [Google Scholar]
  101. Rockinson-Szapkiw AJ, Courduff J, Carter K, Bennett D. 2013. Electronic versus traditional print textbooks: a comparison study on the influence of university students' learning. Comput. Educ. 63:259–66 [Google Scholar]
  102. Rosengren KE. 1974. Uses and gratifications: a paradigm outlined. The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research JG Blumler, E Katz 269–86 Beverly Hills, NJ: Sage [Google Scholar]
  103. Rubin A. 2009. Uses-and-gratifications perspective on media effects. See Bryant & Oliver 2009 165–84
  104. Savage J, Yancey C. 2008. The effects of media violence exposure on criminal aggression: a meta-analysis. Crim. Justice Behav. 35:772–91 [Google Scholar]
  105. Scheufele DA. 1999. Framing as a theory of media effects. J. Commun. 49:103–22 [Google Scholar]
  106. Schramm W. 1962. Mass communication. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 13:251–84 [Google Scholar]
  107. Schultz D, Izard CE, Ackerman BP, Youngstrom EA. 2001. Emotion knowledge in economically disadvantaged children: self-regulatory antecedents and relations to social difficulties and withdrawal. Dev. Psychopathol. 13:53–67 [Google Scholar]
  108. Shah DV, Cho J, Eveland WP, Kwak N. 2005. Information and expression in a digital age: modeling Internet effects on civic participation. Commun. Res. 32:531–65 [Google Scholar]
  109. Sherry JL. 2001. The effects of violent video games on aggression: a meta-analysis. Hum. Commun. Res. 27:409–31 [Google Scholar]
  110. Shoemaker PJ. 1996. Hardwired for news: using biological and cultural evolution to explain the surveillance function. J. Commun. 46:32–47 [Google Scholar]
  111. Short J, Williams E, Christie B. 1976. The Social Psychology of Telecommunications London: Wiley
  112. Shrum LJ. 2009. Media consumption and perception of social reality. See Bryant & Oliver 2009 50–73
  113. Slater MD. 2007. Reinforcing spirals: the mutual influence of media selectivity and media effects and their impact on individual behavior and social identity. Commun. Theory 17:281–303 [Google Scholar]
  114. Slater MD. 2015. Reinforcing spirals model: conceptualizing the relationship between media content exposure and the development and maintenance of attitudes. Media Psychol. 18370–95
  115. Slater MD, Henry KL, Swaim RC, Anderson LL. 2003. Violent media content and aggressiveness in adolescents: a downward spiral model. Commun. Res. 30:713–36 [Google Scholar]
  116. Slater MD, Peter J, Valkenburg PM. 2015. Message variability and heterogeneity: a core challenge for communication research. Communication Yearbook 39 EL Cohen 3–32 New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  117. Slater MD, Rouner D. 2002. Entertainment-education and elaboration likelihood: understanding the processing of narrative persuasion. Commun. Theory 12:173–91 [Google Scholar]
  118. Small GW, Moody TD, Siddarth P, Bookheimer SY. 2009. Your brain on Google: patterns of cerebral activation during Internet searching. Am. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 17:116–26 [Google Scholar]
  119. Smith SM, Fabrigar LR, Powell DM, Estrada M-J. 2007. The role of information-processing capacity and goals in attitude-congruent selective exposure effects. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 33:948–60 [Google Scholar]
  120. Snyder LB, Hamilton MA, Mitchell EW, Kiwanuka-Tondo J, Fleming-Milici F, Proctor D. 2004. A meta-analysis of the effect of mediated health communication campaigns on behavior change in the United States. J. Health Commun. 9:71–96 [Google Scholar]
  121. Song H, Zmyslinski-Seelig A, Kim J, Drent A, Victor A. et al. 2014. Does Facebook make you lonely? A meta analysis. Comput. Hum. Behav. 36:446–52 [Google Scholar]
  122. Sproull L, Kiesler S. 1986. Reducing social-context cues: electronic mail in organizational communication. Manag. Sci. 32:1492–512 [Google Scholar]
  123. Stoolmiller M, Gerrard M, Sargent JD, Worth KA, Gibbons FX. 2010. R-rated movie viewing, growth in sensation seeking and alcohol initiation: reciprocal and moderation effects. Prev. Sci. 11:1–13 [Google Scholar]
  124. Sundar SS, Jia H, Waddell TF, Huang Y. 2015. Toward a theory of interactive media effects (TIME). The Handbook of the Psychology of Communication Technology SS Sundar 47–86 New York: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  125. Swanson DL. 1987. Gratification seeking, media exposure, and audience interpretations—some directions for research. J. Broadcast. Electron. Media 31:237–54 [Google Scholar]
  126. Taifel H. 1978. Social categorization, social identity, and social comparison. Differentiation Between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Group Relations H Taifel 61–76 London: Academic [Google Scholar]
  127. Taifel H, Turner JC. 1979. The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. Psychology of Intergroup Relations S Worchel, WC Austin 7–24 Chicago: Nelson Hall [Google Scholar]
  128. Tannenbaum PH, Greenberg BS. 1968. Mass communications. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 19:351–86 [Google Scholar]
  129. Tichenor PJ, Donohue GA, Olien CN. 1970. Mass media flow and differential growth in knowledge. Public Opin. Q. 34:159–70 [Google Scholar]
  130. Toffler A. 1980. The Third Wave: The Classic Study of Tomorrow New York: Bantam
  131. Valkenburg PM. 2014. Schermgaande jeugd[Youth and Screens] Amsterdam: Prometheus [Google Scholar]
  132. Valkenburg PM, Cantor J. 2001. The development of a child into a consumer. J. Appl. Dev. Psychol. 22:61–72 [Google Scholar]
  133. Valkenburg PM, Peter J. 2009. The effects of instant messaging on the quality of adolescents' existing friendships: a longitudinal study. J. Commun. 59:79–97 [Google Scholar]
  134. Valkenburg PM, Peter J. 2011. Online communication among adolescents: an integrated model of its attraction, opportunities, and risks. J. Adolesc. Health 48:121–27 [Google Scholar]
  135. Valkenburg PM, Peter J. 2013a. The differential susceptibility to media effects model. J. Commun. 63:221–43 [Google Scholar]
  136. Valkenburg PM, Peter J. 2013b. Five challenges for the future of media-effects research. Int. J. Commun. 7:197–215 [Google Scholar]
  137. Valkenburg PM, Peter J, Schouten AP. 2006. Friend networking sites and their relationship to adolescents' well-being and social self-esteem. Cyberpsychol. Behav. 9:584–90 [Google Scholar]
  138. Valkenburg PM, Vroone M. 2004. Developmental changes in infants' and toddlers' attention to television entertainment. Commun. Res. 31:288–311 [Google Scholar]
  139. Van Der Heide B, Schumaker EM, Peterson AM, Jones EB. 2013. The Proteus effect in dyadic communication: examining the effect of avatar appearance in computer-mediated dyadic interaction. Commun. Res. 40:838–60 [Google Scholar]
  140. Walther JB. 1992. Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction: a relational perspective. Commun. Res. 19:52–90 [Google Scholar]
  141. Walther JB. 1996. Computer-mediated communication: impersonal, interpersonal, and hyperpersonal interaction. Commun. Res. 23:3–43 [Google Scholar]
  142. Walther JB, Liang YH, DeAndrea DC, Tong ST, Carr CT. et al. 2011a. The effect of feedback on identity shift in computer-mediated communication. Media Psychol. 14:1–26 [Google Scholar]
  143. Walther JB, Tong ST, DeAndrea DC, Carr C, Van Der Heide B. 2011b. A juxtaposition of social influences: Web 2.0 and the interaction of mass, interpersonal, and peer sources online. Strategic Uses of Social Technology: An Interactive Perspective of Social Psychology Z Birchmeier, B Dietz-Uhler, G Stasser 172–94 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  144. Webster JG. 2009. The role of structure in media choice. Media Choice: A Theoretical and Empirical Overview T Hartmann 221–33 New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  145. Weiss W. 1971. Mass communication. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 22:309–36 [Google Scholar]
  146. Wellman RJ, Sugarman DB, DiFranza JR, Winickoff JP. 2006. The extent to which tobacco marketing and tobacco use in films contribute to children's use of tobacco: a meta-analysis. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 160:1285–96 [Google Scholar]
  147. Wood W, Wong FY, Chachere JG. 1991. Effects of media violence on viewers' aggression in unconstrained social interaction. Psychol. Bull. 109:371–83 [Google Scholar]
  148. Yee N, Bailenson JN, Ducheneaut N. 2009. The Proteus effect: implications of transformed digital self-representation on online and offline behavior. Commun. Res. 36:285–312 [Google Scholar]
  149. Zillmann D. 1996. Sequential dependencies in emotional experience and behavior. Emotion: Interdisciplinary Perspectives RD Kavanaugh, B Zimmerberg, S Fein 243–72 Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  150. Zillmann D, Bryant J. 1985. Affect, mood, and emotion as determinants of selective exposure. Selective Exposure to Communication D Zillmann, J Bryant 157–90 Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum [Google Scholar]
  151. Zillmann D, Chen L, Knobloch S, Callison C. 2004. Effects of lead framing on selective exposure to Internet news reports. Commun. Res. 31:58–81 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error