1932

Abstract

We examine a vast, interdisciplinary, and increasingly global literature concerning skin color and colorism, which are related to status throughout the world. The vast majority of research has investigated Western societies, where color and colorism have been closely related to race and racism. In Latin America, the two sets of concepts have particularly overlapped. In the rest of the world, particularly in Asia, color and colorism have also been important but have evolved separately from the relatively new concepts of race and racism. In recent years, however, color consciousness and white supremacy appear to have been increasingly united, globalized, and commodified, as exemplified by the global multibillion-dollar skin-lightening industry. Finally, we document the growing methodological attention to measurements of skin color and social science data that incorporate skin color measures.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-060116-053315
2017-07-31
2024-04-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/soc/43/1/annurev-soc-060116-053315.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-060116-053315&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abdulrahim S, James SA, Yamout R, Baker W. 2012. Discrimination and psychological distress: Does Whiteness matter for Arab Americans?. Soc. Sci. Med. 75:122116–23 [Google Scholar]
  2. Al-Azmeh A. 1992. Barbarians in Arab eyes. Past Present 1343–18 [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson C, Cromwell RL. 1977. “Black is beautiful” and the color preferences of Afro-American youth. J. Negro Educ. 46:176–88 [Google Scholar]
  4. Andrews GR. 2004. Afro-Latin America, 1800–2000. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  5. Arce CH, Murguia E, Frisbie WP. 1987. Phenotype and life chances among Chicanos. Hisp. J. Behav. Sci. 9:119–32 [Google Scholar]
  6. Arudou D. 2013. An introduction to Japanese society's attitudes toward race and skin color. See Hall 2013 49–69
  7. Ayyar V, Khandare L. 2013. Mapping color and caste discrimination in Indian society. See Hall 2013 71–95
  8. Bailey S, Fialho FM, Penner AM. 2016. Interrogating race color, racial categories, and class across the Americas. Am. Behav. Sci. 60:4538–55 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bailey S, Loveman M, Muniz JO. 2013. Measures of “race” and the analysis of racial inequality in Brazil. Soc. Sci. Res. 42:1106–19 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bailey S, Saperstein A, Penner A. 2014. Race, color, and income inequality across the Americas. Demogr. Res. 31:24735–56 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bakken D, Branden K. 2013. Skin color and blood quantum: getting the red out. The Melanin Millennium RE Hall 207–18 New York: Springer [Google Scholar]
  12. Banks TL. 2009. Multilayered racism: courts’ continued resistance to colorism claims. See Glenn 2009 213–22
  13. Banton M. 2012. The colour line and the colour scale in the twentieth century. Ethn. Racial Stud. 35:71109–31 [Google Scholar]
  14. Barkey K. 2008. Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  15. Blair IV, Judd CM, Chapleau KM. 2004. The influence of Afrocentric facial features in criminal sentencing. Psychol. Sci. 15:10674–79 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bodenhorn H. 2006. Colorism, complexion homogamy, and household wealth: some historical evidence. Am. Econ. Rev. 96:2256–60 [Google Scholar]
  17. Bond S, Cash TF. 1992. Black beauty: skin color and body images among African-American college women. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 22:11874–88 [Google Scholar]
  18. Bonilla-Silva E. 2004. From bi-racial to tri-racial: towards a new system of racial stratification in the USA. Ethn. Racial Stud. 27:6931–50 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bonilla-Silva E, Dietrich D. 2011. The sweet enchantment of color-blind racism in Obamerica. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 634:1190–206 [Google Scholar]
  20. Borrell LN, Kiefe CI, Williams DR, Diez-Roux AV, Gordon-Larsen P. 2006. Self-reported health, perceived racial discrimination, and skin color in African Americans in the CARDIA study. Soc. Sci. Med. 63:61415–27 [Google Scholar]
  21. Branigan AR, Freese J, Patir A, McDade TW, Liu K, Kiefe CI. 2013. Skin color, sex, and educational attainment in the post–civil rights era. Soc. Sci. Res. 42:61659–74 [Google Scholar]
  22. Bratter JL, Campbell ME, Roth WD. 2014. Multiple components of race data library Online Database, Rice Institute for Urban Research, Houston. https://kinder.rice.edu/racedatasets/
  23. Canache D, Hayes M, Mondak JJ, Seligson MA. 2014. Determinants of perceived skin-color discrimination in Latin America. J. Polit. 76:2506–20 [Google Scholar]
  24. Candelario GEB. 2007. Black Behind the Ears: Dominican Racial Identity from Museums to Beauty Shops Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
  25. Clark K, Clark M. 1947. Racial identification and preference in Negro children. Readings in Social Psychology TM Newcomb, EL Hartley 169–78 New York: Holt [Google Scholar]
  26. Codina GE, Montalvo FF. 1994. Chicano phenotype and depression. Hisp. J. Behav. Sci. 16:3296–306 [Google Scholar]
  27. Costas R, Garcia-Palmieri MR, Sorlie P, Hertzmark E. 1981. Coronary heart disease risk factors in men with light and dark skin in Puerto Rico. Am. J. Public Health 71:6614–19 [Google Scholar]
  28. Cronin S. 2016. Islam, slave agency and abolitionism in Iran, the Middle East and North Africa. Middle East. Stud. 52:6953–77 [Google Scholar]
  29. Davis JS. 1991. Who Is Black? One Nation's Definition University Park: Pa. State Univ. Press
  30. Dikötter F. 2015. The Discourse of Race in Modern China Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  31. Dixon TL, Maddox KB. 2005. Skin tone, crime news, and social reality judgments: priming the stereotype of the dark and dangerous black criminal. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 35:81555–70 [Google Scholar]
  32. Drake SC, Cayton HR. 1993. Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  33. Eberhardt JL, Davies PG, Purdie-Vaughns VJ, Johnson SL. 2006. Looking deathworthy: Perceived stereotypicality of black defendants predicts capital-sentencing outcomes. Psychol. Sci. 17:5383–86 [Google Scholar]
  34. Eberhardt JL, Goff PA, Purdie VJ, Davies PG. 2004. Seeing black: race, crime, and visual processing. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 87:6876–93 [Google Scholar]
  35. Espino R, Franz MM. 2002. Latino phenotypic discrimination revisited: the impact of skin color on occupational status. Soc. Sci. Q. 83:2612–23 [Google Scholar]
  36. Flores R, Telles E. 2012. Social stratification in Mexico: disentangling color, ethnicity, and class. Am. Sociol. Rev. 77:3486–94 [Google Scholar]
  37. Frazier F. 1957. Black Bourgeoisie New York: Simon & Schuster
  38. Frost P. 1990. Fair women, dark men: the forgotten roots of colour prejudice. Hist. Eur. Ideas 12:5669–79 [Google Scholar]
  39. Garcia D, Abascal M. 2016. Colored perceptions: racially distinctive names and assessments of skin color. Am. Behav. Sci. 60:4420–41 [Google Scholar]
  40. Glenn EN. 2009. Shades of Difference: Why Skin Color Matters Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
  41. Goering JM. 1972. Changing perceptions and evaluations of physical characteristics among blacks: 1950–1970. Phylon 33:3231–41 [Google Scholar]
  42. Golash-Boza T. 2015. Race & Racisms: A Critical Approach New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  43. Golash-Boza T, Darity W. 2008. Latino racial choices: the effects of skin colour and discrimination on Latinos’ and Latinas’ racial self-identifications. Ethn. Racial Stud. 31:5899–934 [Google Scholar]
  44. Goldsmith AH, Hamilton D, Jr Darity W. 2006. Shades of discrimination: skin tone and wages. Am. Econ. Rev. 96:2242–45 [Google Scholar]
  45. Goldsmith AH, Hamilton D, Jr Darity W. 2007. From dark to light: skin color and wages among African-Americans. J. Hum. Resour. 42:4701–38 [Google Scholar]
  46. Gonzales-Backen MA, Umaña-Taylor AJ. 2011. Examining the role of physical appearance in Latino adolescents’ ethnic identity. J. Adolesc. 34:1151–62 [Google Scholar]
  47. Gravlee CC. 2005. Ethnic classification in southeastern Puerto Rico: the cultural model of “color.”. Soc. Forces 83:3949–70 [Google Scholar]
  48. Gravlee CC, Dressler WW. 2005. Skin pigmentation, self-perceived color, and arterial blood pressure in Puerto Rico. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 17:2195–206 [Google Scholar]
  49. Gravlee CC, Dressler WW, Bernard HR. 2005. Skin color, social classification, and blood pressure in southeastern Puerto Rico. Am. J. Public Health 95:122191–97 [Google Scholar]
  50. Grewal ZA. 2009. Marriage in colour: race, religion and spouse selection in four American mosques. Ethn. Racial Stud. 32:2323–45 [Google Scholar]
  51. Gullickson A. 2005. The significance of color declines: a re-analysis of skin tone differentials in post–civil rights America. Soc. Forces 84:1157–80 [Google Scholar]
  52. Hall R. 1995. The bleaching syndrome: African Americans’ response to cultural domination vis-à-vis skin color. J. Black Stud. 26:2172–84 [Google Scholar]
  53. Hall RE. 2010. An Historical Analysis of Skin Color Discrimination in America: Victimism Among Victim Group Populations New York: Springer
  54. Hall RE. 2013. The Melanin Millennium Dordrecht, Neth: Springer
  55. Hamilton D, Goldsmith AH, Darity WJ. 2009. Shedding “light” on marriage: the influence of skin shade on marriage for black females. J. Econ. Behav. Organ. 72:130–50 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hannon L, DeFina R. 2014. Just skin deep? The impact of interviewer race on the assessment of African American respondent skin tone. Race Soc. Probl. 6:4356–64 [Google Scholar]
  57. Harburg E, Gleibermann L, Roeper P, Schork MA, Schull WJ. 1978. Skin color, ethnicity, and blood pressure I: Detroit blacks. Am. J. Public Health 68:121177–83 [Google Scholar]
  58. Harris M. 1956. Race and class. Town and Country in Brazil96–146 New York: Columbia Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  59. Harris M, Consorte JG, Lang J, Byrne B. 1993. Who are the Whites? Imposed census categories and the racial demography of Brazil. Soc. Forces 72:2451–62 [Google Scholar]
  60. Harris M, Kottak C. 1963. The structural significance of Brazilian racial categories. Sociologia 25:3203–8 [Google Scholar]
  61. Herring C, Keith V, Horton HD. 2004. Skin Deep: How Race and Complexion Matter in the “Color-Blind” Era Champaign: Univ. Ill. Press
  62. Hersch J. 2006. Skin-tone effects among African Americans: perceptions and reality. Am. Econ. Rev. 96:2251–55 [Google Scholar]
  63. Hersch J. 2008. Profiling the new immigrant worker: the effects of skin color and height. J. Labor Econ. 26:2345–86 [Google Scholar]
  64. Hersch J. 2011a. The persistence of skin color discrimination for immigrants. Soc. Sci. Res. 40:51337–49 [Google Scholar]
  65. Hersch J. 2011b. Skin color, physical appearance, and perceived discriminatory treatment. J. Socio-Econ. 40:5671–78 [Google Scholar]
  66. Hill ME. 2002a. Skin color and the perception of attractiveness among African Americans: Does gender make a difference?. Soc. Psychol. Q. 65:177–91 [Google Scholar]
  67. Hill ME. 2002b. Race of the interviewer and perception of skin color: evidence from the multi-city study of urban inequality. Am. Sociol. Rev. 67:199–108 [Google Scholar]
  68. Hochschild JL, Weaver V. 2007. The skin color paradox and the American racial order. Soc. Forces 86:2643–70 [Google Scholar]
  69. Hraba J, Grant G. 1970. Black is beautiful: a reexamination of racial preference and identification. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 16:3398–402 [Google Scholar]
  70. Hunter M. 2007. The persistent problem of colorism: skin tone, status, and inequality. Sociol. Compass 1:1237–54 [Google Scholar]
  71. Hunter M, Allen W, Telles EE. 2001. The significance of skin color among African Americans and Mexican Americans. Afr. Am. Perspect. 7:1173–84 [Google Scholar]
  72. Hunter ML. 2005. Race, Gender, and the Politics of Skin Tone New York: Routledge
  73. Hunter ML. 2011. Buying racial capital: skin-bleaching and cosmetic surgery in a globalized world. J. Pan Afr. Stud. 4:4142–62 [Google Scholar]
  74. Jablonski NG. 2012. Living Color: The Biological and Social Meaning of Skin Color Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  75. Jha M. 2015. The Global Beauty Industry: Colorism, Racism, and the National Body New York: Routledge
  76. Jha S, Adelman M. 2009. Looking for love in all the white places: a study of skin color preferences on Indian matrimonial and mate-seeking websites. Stud. South Asian Film Media 1:165–83 [Google Scholar]
  77. Jiménez TR. 2004. Negotiating ethnic boundaries: multiethnic Mexican Americans and ethnic identity in the United States. Ethnicities 4:175–97 [Google Scholar]
  78. Jones T. 2009. The case for legal recognition of colorism claims. See Glenn 2009 223–35
  79. Keevak M. 2011. Becoming Yellow: A Short History of Racial Thinking Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  80. Keith VM, Herring C. 1991. Skin tone and stratification in the black community. Am. J. Sociol. 97:3760–78 [Google Scholar]
  81. Keith VM, Monroe CR. 2016. Histories of colorism and implications for education. Theory Pract 55:14–10 [Google Scholar]
  82. Kiang L, Takeuchi DT. 2009. Phenotypic bias and ethnic identity in Filipino Americans. Soc. Sci. Q. 90:2428–45 [Google Scholar]
  83. King RD, Johnson BD. 2016. A punishing look: skin tone and Afrocentric features in the halls of justice. Am. J. Sociol. 122:190–124 [Google Scholar]
  84. Klag MJ, Whelton PK, Coresh J, Grim CE, Kuller LH. 1991. The association of skin color with blood pressure in US blacks with low socioeconomic status. JAMA 265:5599–602 [Google Scholar]
  85. Knight A. 1990. The idea of race in Latin America, 1870–1940. Racism, Revolution, and Indigenismo: Mexico, 1910–1940 R Graham 71–114 Austin: Univ. Tex. Press [Google Scholar]
  86. Krieger N, Sidney S, Coakley E. 1998. Racial discrimination and skin color in the CARDIA study: implications for public health research. Coronary artery risk development in young adults. Am. J. Public Health 88:91308–13 [Google Scholar]
  87. Lasker GW. 1954. Photoelectric measurement of skin color in a Mexican Mestizo population. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 12:1115–22 [Google Scholar]
  88. Lee J, Bean FD. 2007. Reinventing the color line immigration and America's new racial/ethnic divide. Soc. Forces 86:2561–86 [Google Scholar]
  89. Lewis KM, Harris S, Camp C, Kalala W, Jones W. et al. 2013. The historical and cultural influences of skin bleaching in Tanzania. See Hall 2013 19–38
  90. Loveman M. 2014. National Colors: Racial Classification and the State in Latin America New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  91. Maddox KB, Gray SA. 2002. Cognitive representations of black Americans: reexploring the role of skin tone. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 28:2250–59 [Google Scholar]
  92. Martínez Casas R, Saldívar E, Flores RD, Sue CA. 2014. The different faces of mestizaje: ethnicity and race in Mexico. Pigmentocracies: Ethnicity, Race, and Color in Latin America E Telles, PERLA 36–80 Chapel Hill: Univ. N.C. Press [Google Scholar]
  93. Massey DS, Martin JA. 2003. The NIS skin color scale Off. Popul. Res., Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ. http://nis.princeton.edu/downloads/NIS-Skin-Color-Scale.pdf
  94. Monk EP. 2014. Skin tone stratification among black Americans, 2001–2003. Soc. Forces 92:41313–37 [Google Scholar]
  95. Monk EP. 2015. The cost of color: skin color, discrimination, and health among African-Americans. Am. J. Sociol. 121:2396–444 [Google Scholar]
  96. Monk EP. 2016. The consequences of “race and color” in Brazil. Soc. Probl. 63:3413–30 [Google Scholar]
  97. Montalvo FF, Codina GE. 2001. Skin color and Latinos in the United States. Ethnicities 1:3321–41 [Google Scholar]
  98. Murguia E, Telles EE. 1996. Phenotype and schooling among Mexican Americans. Sociol. Educ. 69:4276–89 [Google Scholar]
  99. Myrdal G. 1944. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy New York: Harper & Brothers Publ.
  100. Nobles M. 2000. Shades of Citizenship: Race and the Census in Modern Politics Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
  101. Nogueira O. 1955. Os estudos de comunidades no Brasil. Rev. Antropol. 3:295–103 [Google Scholar]
  102. Norwood KJ. 2013. Color Matters: Skin Tone Bias and the Myth of a Postracial America New York: Routledge
  103. Painter MA, Holmes MD, Bateman J. 2015. Skin tone, race/ethnicity, and wealth inequality among new immigrants. Soc. Forces 94:31153–85 [Google Scholar]
  104. Perreira KM, Telles EE. 2014. The color of health: skin color, ethnoracial classification, and discrimination in the health of Latin Americans. Soc. Sci. Med. 116:241–50 [Google Scholar]
  105. Pizzi WT, Blair IV, Judd CM. 2004. Discrimination in sentencing on the basis of Afrocentric features. Mich. J. Race Law 10:327–53 [Google Scholar]
  106. Reuter EB. 1917. The superiority of the mulatto. Am. J. Sociol. 23:183–106 [Google Scholar]
  107. Rondilla JL. 2009. Filipinos and the color complex: ideal Asian beauty. See Glenn 2009 63–80
  108. Rondilla JL, Spickard P. 2007. Is Lighter Better? Skin-Tone Discrimination Among Asian Americans Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
  109. Rosenblum A, Darity W, Harris AL, Hamilton TG. 2016. Looking through the shades: the effect of skin color on earnings by region of birth and race for immigrants to the United States. Sociol. Race Ethn. 2:187–105 [Google Scholar]
  110. Roth WD. 2010. Racial mismatch: the divergence between form and function in data for monitoring racial discrimination of Hispanics. Soc. Sci. Q. 91:51288–311 [Google Scholar]
  111. Roth WD. 2012. Race Migrations: Latinos and the Cultural Transformation of Race Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
  112. Roth WD. 2016. The multiple dimensions of race. Ethn. Racial Stud. 39:81310–38 [Google Scholar]
  113. Russell K, Wilson M, Hall RE. 1992. The Color Complex: The Politics of Skin Color Among African Americans New York: Anchor Books
  114. Saperstein A, Penner AM. 2012. Racial fluidity and inequality in the United States. Am. J. Sociol. 118:3676–727 [Google Scholar]
  115. Saraswati LA. 2013. Seeing Beauty, Sensing Race in Transnational Indonesia Honolulu: Univ. Hawai`i Press
  116. Seltzer R, Smith RC. 1991. Color differences in the Afro-American community and the differences they make. J. Black Stud. 21:3279–86 [Google Scholar]
  117. Sen M, Wasow O. 2014. Race as a “bundle of sticks”: designs that estimate effects of seemingly immutable characteristics. Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci. 19:499–522 [Google Scholar]
  118. Sorokowski P, Sorokowska A, Kras D. 2013. Face color and sexual attractiveness preferences of Yali people of Papua. Cross-Cult. Res. 47:4415–27 [Google Scholar]
  119. South SJ, Crowder K, Chavez E. 2005. Migration and spatial assimilation among US Latinos: classical versus segmented trajectories. Demography 42:3497–521 [Google Scholar]
  120. Stokes-Brown AK. 2012. America's shifting color line? Reexamining determinants of Latino racial self-identification. Soc. Sci. Q. 93:2309–32 [Google Scholar]
  121. Sue CA. 2013. Land of the Cosmic Race: Race Mixture, Racism, and Blackness in Mexico New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  122. Telles E. 2004. Race in Another America: The Significance of Skin Color in Brazil Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  123. Telles E. 2012. The overlapping concepts of race and colour in Latin America. Ethn. Racial Stud. 35:71163–68 [Google Scholar]
  124. Telles E, Flores RD, Urrea-Giraldo F. 2015. Pigmentocracies: educational inequality, skin color and census ethnoracial identification in eight Latin American countries. Res. Soc. Stratif. Mobil. 40:39–58 [Google Scholar]
  125. Telles E, Murguia E. 1990. Phenotypic discrimination and income differences among Mexican Americans. Soc. Sci. Q. 71:4682–96 [Google Scholar]
  126. Telles E, Paschel T. 2014. Who is black, white, or mixed race? How skin color, status, and nation shape racial classification in Latin America. Am. J. Sociol. 120:3864–907 [Google Scholar]
  127. Telles E. PERLA (Proj. Ethn. Race Lat. Am.) 2014. Pigmentocracies: Ethnicity, Race, and Color in Latin America Chapel Hill: Univ. N.C. Press
  128. Telles E, Sue CA. 2009. Race mixture: boundary crossing in comparative perspective. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 35:1129–46 [Google Scholar]
  129. Thomas LM. 2009. Skin lighteners in South Africa: transnational entanglements and technologies of the self. See Glenn 2009 188–210
  130. Thompson C. 2009. Skin tone and the persistence of biological race in egg donation for assisted reproduction. See Glenn 2009 131–47
  131. Thompson MS, Keith VM. 2001. The blacker the berry: gender, skin tone, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Gend. Soc. 15:3336–57 [Google Scholar]
  132. Travassos C, Laguardia J, Marques PM, Mota JC, Szwarcwald CL. 2011. Comparison between two race/skin color classifications in relation to health-related outcomes in Brazil. Int. J. Equity Health 10:135 [Google Scholar]
  133. Udry JR, Bauman KE, Chase C. 1971. Skin color, status, and mate selection. Am. J. Sociol. 76:4722–33 [Google Scholar]
  134. Urrea Giraldo F, La Furcia A. 2014. Pigmentocracy of desire in the trans sexual market in Cali, Colombia. Sex. Salud Soc. Rio Jan.16121–51 [Google Scholar]
  135. Vaid J. 2009. Fair enough? Color and the commodification of self in Indian matrimonials. See Glenn 2009 148–65
  136. Van den Berghe PL, Frost P. 1986. Skin color preference, sexual dimorphism and sexual selection: a case of gene culture co‐evolution. Ethn. Racial Stud. 9:187–113 [Google Scholar]
  137. Viglione J, Hannon L, DeFina R. 2011. The impact of light skin on prison time for black female offenders. Soc. Sci. J. 48:1250–58 [Google Scholar]
  138. Villarreal A. 2010. Stratification by skin color in contemporary Mexico. Am. Sociol. Rev. 75:5652–78 [Google Scholar]
  139. Wade P. 2009. Race and Sex in Latin America London: Pluto Press
  140. Wade TJ. 2008. Skin color biases: attractiveness and halo effects in the evaluation of African Americans. Racism in the 21st Century RE Hall 135–50 New York: Springer [Google Scholar]
  141. Wagatsuma H. 1967. The social perception of skin color in Japan. Daedalus 96:2407–43 [Google Scholar]
  142. Weaver VM. 2012. The electoral consequences of skin color: the “hidden” side of race in politics. Polit. Behav. 34:1159–92 [Google Scholar]
  143. White KM. 2015. The salience of skin tone: effects on the exercise of police enforcement authority. Ethn. Racial Stud. 38:6993–1010 [Google Scholar]
  144. WHO (World Health Organ.). 2011. Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments: Mercury in Skin Lightening Products Geneva, Switz.: World Health Organ.
  145. Xie Q, Zhang M. 2013. White or tan? A cross-cultural analysis of skin beauty advertisements between China and the United States. Asian J. Commun. 23:5538–54 [Google Scholar]
  146. Yancey GA. 2003. Who Is White? Latinos, Asians, and the New Black/Nonblack Divide Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publ.
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-060116-053315
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error