1932

Abstract

Research on wealth inequality and accumulation and the data upon which it relies have expanded substantially in the twenty-first century. Although the field has experienced rapid growth, conceptual and methodological challenges remain. We begin by discussing two major unresolved methodological concerns facing wealth research: how to address challenges to causal inference posed by wealth's cumulative nature and how to operationalize net worth given its highly skewed distribution. Next, we provide an overview of data sources available for wealth research. To underscore the need for continued empirical attention to net worth, we review trends in wealth levels and inequality and evaluate wealth's distinctiveness as an indicator of social stratification. We then review recent empirical evidence on the effects of wealth on other social outcomes, as well as research on the determinants of wealth. We close with a list of promising avenues for future research on wealth, its causes, and its consequences.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-060116-053331
2017-07-31
2024-06-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/soc/43/1/annurev-soc-060116-053331.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-060116-053331&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Acemoglu D, Robinson JA. 2015. The rise and decline of general laws of capitalism. J. Econ. Perspect. 29:13–28 [Google Scholar]
  2. Adams P, Hurd MD, McFadden D, Merrill A, Ribeiro T. 2003. Healthy, wealthy, and wise? Tests for direct causal paths between health and socioeconomic status. J. Econom. 112:13–56 [Google Scholar]
  3. Addo FR. 2014. Debt, cohabitation, and marriage in young adulthood. Demography 51:51677–701 [Google Scholar]
  4. Addo FR, Lichter DT. 2013. Marriage, marital history, and black-white wealth differentials among older women. J. Marriage Fam. 75:2342–62 [Google Scholar]
  5. Akresh IR. 2011. Wealth accumulation among U.S. immigrants: a study of assimilation and differentials. Soc. Sci. Res. 40:51390–401 [Google Scholar]
  6. Altonji JG, Doraszelski U. 2005. The role of permanent income and demographics in black/white differences in wealth. J. Hum. Resour. 40:11–30 [Google Scholar]
  7. Attanasio OP, Hoynes HW. 2000. Differential mortality and wealth accumulation. J. Hum. Resour. 35:11–29 [Google Scholar]
  8. Avery RB, Rendall MS. 2002. Lifetime inheritances of three generations of whites and blacks. Am. J. Sociol. 107:51300–46 [Google Scholar]
  9. Banks J, Muriel A, Smith JP. 2010. Disease prevalence, disease incidence, and mortality in the United States and in England. Demography 47:SS211–31 [Google Scholar]
  10. Barsky R, Bound J, Charles KK, Lupton JP. 2002. Accounting for the black-white wealth gap. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 97:459663–73 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bartels LM. 2005. Homer gets a tax cut: inequality and public policy in the American mind. Perspect. Polit. 3:115–31 [Google Scholar]
  12. Beckert J. 2008. Inherited Wealth Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  13. Blanchflower DG, Levine PB, Zimmerman DJ. 2003. Discrimination in the small-business credit market. Rev. Econ. Stat. 85:4930–43 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bond Huie SA, Krueger PM, Rogers RG, Hummer RA. 2003. Wealth, race, and mortality. Soc. Sci. Q. 84:3667–84 [Google Scholar]
  15. Boserup SH, Kopczuk W, Kreiner CT. 2016. The role of bequests in shaping wealth inequality: evidence from Danish wealth records. Am. Econ. Rev. 106:5656–61 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bosworth BP, Smart R. 2009. Evaluating micro-survey estimates of wealth and saving Work. Pap. 2009-4, Cent. Retire. Res., Boston College Chestnut Hill, MA: [Google Scholar]
  17. Campbell LA, Kaufman RL. 2006. Racial differences in household wealth: beyond black and white. Res. Soc. Stratif. Mobil. 24:2131–52 [Google Scholar]
  18. Cavalluzzo K, Wolken J. 2005. Small business loan turndowns, personal wealth, and discrimination. J. Bus. 78:62153–78 [Google Scholar]
  19. Chang ML. 2010. Shortchanged: Why Women Have Less Wealth and What Can Be Done about It New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  20. Charles KK, Hurst E. 2002. The transition to home ownership and the black-white wealth gap. Rev. Econ. Stat. 84:2281–97 [Google Scholar]
  21. Charles KK, Hurst E. 2003. The correlation of wealth across generations. J. Polit. Econ. 111:61155–82 [Google Scholar]
  22. Charles KK, Hurst E, Jr Stephens M. 2008. Rates for vehicle loans: race and loan source. Am. Econ. Rev. 98:2315–20 [Google Scholar]
  23. Conley D. 1999. Being Black, Living in the Red: Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  24. Conley D. 2001a. Capital for college: parental assets and postsecondary schooling. Sociol. Educ. 74:159–72 [Google Scholar]
  25. Conley D. 2001b. Decomposing the black-white wealth gap: the role of parental resources, inheritance, and investment dynamics. Sociol. Inq. 71:139–66 [Google Scholar]
  26. Conley D, Glauber R. 2008. Wealth Mobility and Volatility in Black and White Washington, DC: Cent. Am. Prog. [Google Scholar]
  27. Conley D, Ryvicker M. 2004. The price of female headship: gender, inheritance and wealth accumulation in the United States. J. Income Distrib. 13:3–441–56 [Google Scholar]
  28. Conley D, Thompson J. 2013. The effects of health and wealth shocks on retirement decisions. Fed. Reserve Bank St. Louis Rev 955389–404 [Google Scholar]
  29. Curtin RT, Juster FT, Morgan JN. 1989. Survey estimates of wealth: an assessment of quality. The Measurement of Saving, Investment, and Wealth RE Lipsey, HS Tice 473–552 Chicago, IL: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  30. Czajka JL, Jacobson JE, Cody S. 2003. Survey estimates of wealth: a comparative analysis and review of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Soc. Secur. Bull. 65:163–69 [Google Scholar]
  31. Davies JB. 2008. Personal Wealth from a Global Perspective New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  32. Devlin-Foltz S, Henriques A, Sabelhaus J. 2016. Is the U.S. retirement system contributing to rising wealth inequality?. Russell Sage Found. J. Soc. Sci. 2:659–85 [Google Scholar]
  33. Di ZX, Belsky E, Liu X. 2007. Do homeowners achieve more household wealth in the long run?. J. Hous. Econ. 16:3–4274–90 [Google Scholar]
  34. Di ZX, Liu X. 2007. The importance of wealth and income in the transition to homeownership. Cityscape 9:2137–51 [Google Scholar]
  35. Díaz-Giménez J, Quadrini V, Ríos-Rull J-V. 1997. Dimensions of inequality: facts on the U.S. distributions of earnings, income, and wealth. Fed. Reserve Bank Minneap. Q. Rev 2123–21 [Google Scholar]
  36. DiNardo J, Fortin NM, Lemieux T. 1996. Labor market institutions and the distribution of wages, 1973–1992: a semiparametric approach. Econometrica 64:51001–44 [Google Scholar]
  37. Doepke M, Schneider M. 2006. Inflation and the redistribution of nominal wealth. J. Polit. Econ. 114:61069–97 [Google Scholar]
  38. Doren C, Grodsky E. 2016. What skills can buy: transmission of advantage through cognitive and noncognitive skills. Sociol. Educ. 89:4321–42 [Google Scholar]
  39. Duflo E, Gale W, Liebman J, Orszag P, Saez E. 2006. Saving incentives for low- and middle-income families: evidence from a field experiment with H&R Block. Q. J. Econ. 121:41311–46 [Google Scholar]
  40. Ekerdt DJ, Hackney JK. 2002. Workers’ ignorance of retirement benefits. Gerontologist 42:4543–51 [Google Scholar]
  41. Fairlie RW, Krashinsky HA. 2012. Liquidity constraints, household wealth, and entrepreneurship revisited. Rev. Income Wealth 58:2279–306 [Google Scholar]
  42. Fed. Reserve. 2013. Survey of Consumer Finances full public dataset Updated Sept. 25. Board Gov. Fed. Reserve Syst. [Google Scholar]
  43. Firpo S, Fortin NM, Lemieux T. 2009. Unconditional quantile regressions. Econometrica 77:3953–73 [Google Scholar]
  44. Flippen CA. 2001. Racial and ethnic inequality in homeownership and housing equity. Sociol. Q. 42:2121–49 [Google Scholar]
  45. Flippen CA. 2004. Unequal returns to housing investments? A study of real housing appreciation among black, white, and Hispanic households. Soc. Forces 82:41523–51 [Google Scholar]
  46. Friedline T, Masa RD, Chowa GAN. 2015. Transforming wealth: using the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS) and splines to predict youth's math achievement. Soc. Sci. Res. 49:264–87 [Google Scholar]
  47. Gale WG, Scholz JK. 1994. Intergenerational transfers and the accumulation of wealth. J. Econ. Perspect. 8:4145–60 [Google Scholar]
  48. Gittleman M, Wolff EN. 2004. Racial differences in patterns of wealth accumulation. J. Hum. Resour. 39:1193–227 [Google Scholar]
  49. Grinstein-Weiss M, Shanks TRW, Beverly SG. 2014. Family assets and child outcomes: Evidence and directions. Future Child 24:1147–70 [Google Scholar]
  50. Gruber J, Yelowitz A. 1999. Public health insurance and private savings. J. Polit. Econ. 107:61249–74 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hall M, Crowder K. 2011. Extended-family resources and racial inequality in the transition to homeownership. Soc. Sci. Res. 40:61534–46 [Google Scholar]
  52. Hällsten M, Pfeffer FT. 2017. Grand advantage: family wealth and grandchildren's educational attainment in Sweden. Am. Sociol. Rev. 82:2328–60 [Google Scholar]
  53. Hanna SD, Wang C, Yuh Y. 2010. Racial/ethnic differences in high return investment ownership: A decomposition analysis. J. Financ. Couns. Plan. 21:244–59 [Google Scholar]
  54. Hansen MN. 2014. Self-made wealth or family wealth? Changes in intergenerational wealth mobility. Soc. Forces 93:2457–81 [Google Scholar]
  55. Hao L. 2004. Wealth of immigrant and native-born Americans. Int. Migr. Rev. 38:2518–46 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hao L. 2007. Color Lines, Country Lines: Race, Immigration, and Wealth Stratification in America New York, NY: Russell Sage Found. [Google Scholar]
  57. Hauser RM, Weir D. 2010. Recent developments in longitudinal studies of aging in the United States. Demography 47:SS111–30 [Google Scholar]
  58. Hurd M, Kapteyn A. 2003. Health, wealth, and the role of institutions. J. Hum. Resour. 38:2386–415 [Google Scholar]
  59. Hurst E, Luoh MC, Stafford FP. 1998. The wealth dynamics of American families, 1984–94. Brookings Pap. Econ. Act. 1998:1267–337 [Google Scholar]
  60. Hurst E, Lusardi A. 2004. Liquidity constraints, household wealth, and entrepreneurship. J. Polit. Econ. 112:2319–47 [Google Scholar]
  61. Hurst E, Ziliak JP. 2006. Do welfare asset limits affect household saving? Evidence from welfare reform. J. Hum. Resour. 41:146–71 [Google Scholar]
  62. Hwang J, Hankinson M, Brown KS. 2015. Racial and spatial targeting: segregation and subprime lending within and across metropolitan areas. Soc. Forces 93:31081–108 [Google Scholar]
  63. Jäntti M, Sierminska E, Smeeding TM. 2008. How is household wealth distributed? Evidence from the Luxembourg Wealth Study. Growing Unequal? Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries253–78 Paris: OECD Publ. [Google Scholar]
  64. Jez SJ. 2014. The differential impact of wealth versus income in the college-going process. Res. High. Educ. 55:7710–34 [Google Scholar]
  65. Johnson HB. 2006. The American Dream and the Power of Wealth: Choosing Schools and Inheriting Inequality in the Land of Opportunity New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  66. Juster FT, Smith JP, Stafford F. 1999. The measurement and structure of household wealth. Labour Econ 6:2253–75 [Google Scholar]
  67. Karagiannaki E. 2017. The impact of inheritance on the distribution of wealth: evidence from Great Britain. Rev. Income Wealth. 63:394–408 [Google Scholar]
  68. Keister LA. 2000. Race and wealth inequality: the impact of racial differences in asset ownership on the distribution of household wealth. Soc. Sci. Res. 29:4477–502 [Google Scholar]
  69. Keister LA. 2003a. Religion and wealth: the role of religious affiliation and participation in early adult asset accumulation. Soc. Forces 82:1175–207 [Google Scholar]
  70. Keister LA. 2003b. Sharing the wealth: the effect of siblings on adults’ wealth ownership. Demography 40:3521–42 [Google Scholar]
  71. Keister LA. 2004. Race, family structure, and wealth: the effect of childhood family on adult asset ownership. Sociol. Perspect. 47:2161–87 [Google Scholar]
  72. Keister LA. 2007. Upward wealth mobility: exploring the Roman Catholic advantage. Soc. Forces 85:31195–225 [Google Scholar]
  73. Keister LA. 2008. Conservative Protestants and wealth: how religion perpetuates asset poverty. Am. J. Sociol. 113:51237–71 [Google Scholar]
  74. Keister LA. 2014. The one percent. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 40:347–67 [Google Scholar]
  75. Keister LA, Borelli EP. 2015. Enduring advantages: Asian Indian and Chinese immigrant wealth. Bus. Econ. J. 6:188 https://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2151-6219.1000188 [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  76. Keister LA, Moller S. 2000. Wealth inequality in the United States. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 26:63–81 [Google Scholar]
  77. Keister LA, Vallejo JA, Borelli EP. 2015. Mexican American mobility: early life processes and adult wealth ownership. Soc. Forces 93:31015–46 [Google Scholar]
  78. Killewald A. 2013. Return to Being Black, Living in the Red: a race gap in wealth that goes beyond social origins. Demography 50:41177–95 [Google Scholar]
  79. Killewald A, Bearak J. 2014. Is the motherhood penalty larger for low-wage women? A comment on quantile regression. Am. Sociol. Rev. 79:2350–57 [Google Scholar]
  80. Killewald A, Bryan B. 2016. Does your home make you wealthy. Russell Sage Found. J. Soc. Sci. 2:6110–28 [Google Scholar]
  81. Kim EJ, Hanna SD, Chatterjee S, Lindamood S. 2012. Who among the elderly owns stocks? The role of cognitive ability and bequest motive. J. Fam. Econ. Issues 33:3338–52 [Google Scholar]
  82. Kochhar R, Fry R, Taylor P. 2011. Wealth Gaps Rise to Record Highs Between Whites, Blacks and Hispanics Washington, DC: Pew Res. Cent. [Google Scholar]
  83. Kopczuk W, Saez E. 2004. Top wealth shares in the United States, 1916–2000: evidence from estate tax returns. Natl. Tax J. 57:2445–87 [Google Scholar]
  84. Kotlikoff LJ, Summers LH. 1981. The role of intergenerational transfers in aggregate capital accumulation. J. Polit. Econ. 89:4706–32 [Google Scholar]
  85. Krivo LJ, Kaufman RL. 2004. Housing and wealth inequality: racial-ethnic differences in home equity in the United States. Demography 41:3585–605 [Google Scholar]
  86. Lerman DL, Mikesell JJ. 1988. Rural and urban poverty: an income/net worth approach. Policy Study Rev 7:4765–81 [Google Scholar]
  87. Lovenheim MF, Reynolds CL. 2013. The effect of housing wealth on college choice: evidence from the housing boom. J. Hum. Resour. 48:11–35 [Google Scholar]
  88. Maroto M. 2016. Growing farther apart: racial and ethnic inequality in household wealth across the distribution. Sociol. Sci. 3:801–24 [Google Scholar]
  89. Maroto ML. 2015. The absorbing status of incarceration and its relationship with wealth accumulation. J. Quant. Criminol. 31:2207–36 [Google Scholar]
  90. Massey DS, Denton NA. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  91. Massey DS, Rugh JS, Steil JP, Albright L. 2016. Riding the stagecoach to hell: a qualitative analysis of racial discrimination in mortgage lending. City Community 15:2118–36 [Google Scholar]
  92. McKernan S-M, Ratcliffe C, Simms M, Zhang S. 2014. Do racial disparities in private transfers help explain the racial wealth gap? New evidence from longitudinal data. Demography 51:3949–74 [Google Scholar]
  93. Menchik PL, Jianakoplos NA. 1997. Black-white wealth inequality: is inheritance the reason?. Econ. Inq. 35:2428–42 [Google Scholar]
  94. Mills G, Gale WG, Patterson R, Engelhardt GV, Eriksen MD, Apostolov E. 2008. Effects of individual development accounts on asset purchases and saving behavior: evidence from a controlled experiment. J. Public Econ. 92:5–61509–30 [Google Scholar]
  95. Mulligan CB. 1997. Parental Priorities and Economic Inequality Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  96. Nau M, Dwyer RE, Hodson R. 2015. Can't afford a baby? Debt and young Americans. Res. Soc. Stratif. Mobil. 42:114–22 [Google Scholar]
  97. O'Brien RL. 2012. Depleting capital? Race, wealth and informal financial assistance. Soc. Forces 91:2375–95 [Google Scholar]
  98. Oliver ML, Shapiro TM. 2006. Black Wealth, White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  99. Orr AJ. 2003. Black-white differences in achievement: the importance of wealth. Sociol. Educ. 76:4281–304 [Google Scholar]
  100. II Painter MA. 2013. Immigrant and native financial well-being: the roles of place of education and race/ethnicity. Soc. Sci. Res. 42:51375–89 [Google Scholar]
  101. II Painter MA, Holmes MD, Bateman J. 2016. Skin tone, race/ethnicity, and wealth inequality among new immigrants. Soc. Forces 94:31153–85 [Google Scholar]
  102. Panel Study Income Dyn. 2013. Panel Study of Income Dynamics: public use dataset and restricted use data 2013 data release. Surv. Res. Cent., Inst. Soc. Res., Univ. Mich., Ann Arbor [Google Scholar]
  103. Pence KM. 2006. The role of wealth transformations: an application to estimating the effect of tax incentives on saving. B.E. J. Econ. Anal. Policy 5:1 https://doi.org/10.1515/1538-0645.1430 [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  104. Pfeffer FT. 2011. Status attainment and wealth in the United States and Germany. Persistence, Privilege, and Parenting: The Comparative Study of Intergenerational Mobility TM Smeeding, R Erikson, M Jäntti 109–37 New York: Russell Sage Found. [Google Scholar]
  105. Pfeffer FT, Danziger S, Schoeni RF. 2013. Wealth disparities before and after the Great Recession. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 650:98–123 [Google Scholar]
  106. Pfeffer FT, Killewald A. 2015. How rigid is the wealth structure and why? Inter‐ and multigenerational associations in family wealth Rep. No. 15-845, Pop. Stud. Cent., Univ. Mich Ann Arbor, MI: [Google Scholar]
  107. Pfeffer FT, Schoeni R. 2016. How wealth inequality shapes our future. Russell Sage Found. J. Soc. Sci. 2:62–22 [Google Scholar]
  108. Pfeffer FT, Schoeni RF, Kennickell A, Andreski P. 2016. Measuring wealth and wealth inequality: comparing two U.S. surveys. J. Econ. Soc. Meas. 41:2103–20 [Google Scholar]
  109. Piketty T. 2014. Capital in the Twenty-First Century Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  110. Prix I, Pfeffer FT. 2017. Does Donald need Uncle Scrooge? Extended family's wealth and children's educational attainment in the United States. Social Inequality Across Generations: The Role of Compensation and Multiplication in Resource Accumulation J Erola, E Kilpi-Jakonen 112–35 Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar [Google Scholar]
  111. Robins JM, Hernán , Brumback B. 2000. Marginal structural models and causal inference in epidemiology. Epidemiology 11:5550–60 [Google Scholar]
  112. Ruel E, Hauser RM. 2013. Explaining the gender wealth gap. Demography 50:41155–76 [Google Scholar]
  113. Rugh JS. 2015. Double jeopardy: why Latinos were hit hardest by the US foreclosure crisis. Soc. Forces 93:31139–84 [Google Scholar]
  114. Rugh JS, Albright L, Massey DS. 2015. Race, space, and cumulative disadvantage: a case study of the subprime lending collapse. Soc. Probl. 62:2186–218 [Google Scholar]
  115. Rugh JS, Massey DS. 2010. Racial segregation and the American foreclosure crisis. Am. Sociol. Rev. 75:5629–51 [Google Scholar]
  116. Saez E, Zucman G. 2016. Wealth inequality in the United States since 1913: evidence from capitalized income tax data. Q. J. Econ. 131:2519–78 [Google Scholar]
  117. Schneider D. 2011. Wealth and the marital divide. Am. J. Sociol. 117:2627–67 [Google Scholar]
  118. Schreiner M, Sherraden M. 2007. Can the Poor Save? Saving & Asset Building in Individual Development Accounts New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers [Google Scholar]
  119. Semyonov M, Lewin-Epstein N. 2013. Ways to richness: determination of household wealth in 16 countries. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 29:61134–48 [Google Scholar]
  120. Semyonov M, Lewin-Epstein N, Maskileyson D. 2013. Where wealth matters more for health: The wealth-health gradient in 16 countries. Soc. Sci. Med. 81:10–17 [Google Scholar]
  121. Shapiro TM. 2004. The Hidden Cost of Being African American: How Wealth Perpetuates Inequality New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  122. Sharp G, Hall M. 2014. Emerging forms of racial inequality in homeownership exit, 1968–2009. Soc. Probl. 61:3427–47 [Google Scholar]
  123. Shlay AB. 2006. Low-income homeownership: American dream or delusion. Urban Stud 43:3511–31 [Google Scholar]
  124. Sierminska EM, Frick JR, Grabka MM. 2010. Examining the gender wealth gap. Oxf. Econ. Pap. 62:4669–90 [Google Scholar]
  125. Skopek N, Buchholz S, Blossfeld H-P. 2014. National patterns of income and wealth inequality. Int. J. Comp. Sociol. 55:6463–88 [Google Scholar]
  126. Smith JP. 2007. The impact of socioeconomic status on health over the life-course. J. Hum. Resour. 42:4739–64 [Google Scholar]
  127. Soskice D. 2014. Capital in the Twenty-First Century: A critique. Br. J. Sociol. 65:4650–66 [Google Scholar]
  128. Spilerman S. 2000. Wealth and stratification processes. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 26:497–524 [Google Scholar]
  129. Spilerman S, Wolff F-C. 2012. Parental wealth and resource transfers: how they matter in France for home ownership and living standards. Soc. Sci. Res. 41:2207–23 [Google Scholar]
  130. Sullivan JX. 2006. Welfare reform, saving, and vehicle ownership. J. Hum. Resour. 41:172–105 [Google Scholar]
  131. Szydlik M. 2004. Inheritance and inequality: theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 20:131–45 [Google Scholar]
  132. Vespa J. 2012. Union formation in later life: economic determinants of cohabitation and remarriage among older adults. Demography 49:31103–25 [Google Scholar]
  133. Wilhelm MO. 2001. The role of intergenerational transfers in spreading asset ownership. Assets for the Poor: The Benefits of Spreading Asset Ownership TM Shapiro, EN Wolff 132–61 New York: Russell Sage Found. [Google Scholar]
  134. Wolff EN. 1998. Recent trends in the size distribution of household wealth. J. Econ. Perspect. 12:3131–50 [Google Scholar]
  135. Wolff EN. 2011. The Transformation of the American Pension System: Was It Beneficial for Workers? Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Inst. [Google Scholar]
  136. Wolff EN. 2015. U.S. pensions in the 2000s: the lost decade?. Rev. Income Wealth 61:4599–629 [Google Scholar]
  137. Wolff EN. 2016. Household wealth trends in the United States, 1962 to 2013: What happened over the Great Recession?. Russell Sage Found. J. Soc. Sci. 2:624–43 [Google Scholar]
  138. Wu S. 2003. The effects of health events on the economic status of married couples. J. Hum. Resour. 38:1219–30 [Google Scholar]
  139. Xie Y, Jin Y. 2015. Household wealth in China. Chin. Sociol. Rev 47:3203–29 [Google Scholar]
  140. Yamokoski A, Keister LA. 2006. The wealth of single women: marital status and parenthood in the asset accumulation of young baby boomers in the United States. Fem. Econ. 12:1–2167–94 [Google Scholar]
  141. Yeung WJ, Conley D. 2008. Black-white achievement gap and family wealth. Child Dev 79:2303–24 [Google Scholar]
  142. Zagorsky JL. 2005. Marriage and divorce's impact on wealth. J. Sociol. 41:4406–24 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-060116-053331
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-060116-053331
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error