1932

Abstract

During the last few years a number of articles and books have appeared that signal the emergence of a novel approach to the role of theory in sociology. Instead of equating theory with important studies, the main focus of this approach is how to use theory in ongoing empirical research and especially what happens before the presentation of the results. The key task is to empower the individual researcher to do better research. A word that keeps recurring, and that can also be said to summarize this approach, is theorizing. Three core ideas of this approach are discussed: Theorizing is of a practical nature, it draws on a number of basic theorizing tools (such as abduction, abstraction, and analogy), and the area covered by theorizing is considerably larger than that of conventional theory. If successful, the approach of theorizing would demand a much more active and central role for the theoretician in sociology.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-060116-053604
2017-07-31
2024-06-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/soc/43/1/annurev-soc-060116-053604.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-060116-053604&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abbott A. 2001. Time Matters: On Theory and Method Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  2. Abbott A. 2004. Methods of Discovery: Heuristics for the Social Sciences New York: W.W. Norton & Co. [Google Scholar]
  3. Abbott A. 2011. Andrew Abbott's short list of rules for theorizing Presented at the Jr. Theorists’ Semin., Am. Sociol. Assoc. Las Vegas: Aug. 19 [Google Scholar]
  4. Abbott A. 2014. Digital Paper: A Manual for Research and Writing with Library and Internet Materials Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  5. Becker H. 1998. Tricks of the Trade: How to Think About Your Research While You're Doing It Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  6. Becker H. 2014. What About Mozart? What About Murder? Reasoning From Cases Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  7. Berger J, Zelditch M. 2002. New Directions in Contemporary Sociological Theory Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield [Google Scholar]
  8. Berger J, Zelditch M, Anderson B. 1989. Sociological Theories in Progress: New Formulations Boston: Houghton Mifflin [Google Scholar]
  9. Bergesen A. 2004. Chomsky versus Mead. Sociol. Theory 22:3357–70 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bertilsson M. 2004. The elementary forms of pragmatism: on different types of abduction. Eur. J. Soc. Theory 7:3371–89 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bertilsson M. 2009. Peirce's Theory of Inquiry and Beyond: Towards a Social Reconstruction of Science Frankfurt, Ger.: Peter Lang [Google Scholar]
  12. Berwick R, Chomsky N. 2015. Why Only Us: Language and Evolution Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  13. Black M. 1962. Models and Metaphors: Studies in Language and Philosophy Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  14. Black M. 1979. More about metaphor. Metaphor & Thought A. Ortony 19–43 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  15. Blau P. 1979. Elements of sociological theorizing. Humboldt J. Soc. Relat. 7:1103–22 [Google Scholar]
  16. Blumer H. 1931. Science without concepts. Am. J. Sociol. 36:515–33 [Google Scholar]
  17. Blumer H. 1954. What is wrong with social theory?. Am. Sociol. Rev. 19:4–10 [Google Scholar]
  18. Blumer H. 1969. Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  19. Bourdieu P. 1999. Language and Symbolic Power Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  20. Bourdieu P, Chamboredon J-C, Passeron J-C. 1991. Sociology as a Craft: Epistemological Preliminaries New York: Walter de Gruyter [Google Scholar]
  21. Bourdieu P, Wacquant L. 1992. An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  22. Brint S, Lavalle J. 2000. DuBois ascendant and other findings from the Brint-Lavalle survey of theorists. Perspectives 22:137 [Google Scholar]
  23. Camic C, Gross N. 1998. Contemporary developments in sociological theory: current projects and conditions of possibility. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 24:453–76 [Google Scholar]
  24. Cerulo K. 2014. What should a sociology of culture and cognition look like?. Soc. Forum 29:4982–1019 [Google Scholar]
  25. Chomsky N. 1988. Language and Problems of Knowledge: The Managua Lectures Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  26. Chomsky N. 2000. New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  27. Chomsky N. 2016. What Kind of Creatures Are We? New York: Columbia Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  28. Cohen B. 1984. Developing Sociological Knowledge: Theory and Method Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall [Google Scholar]
  29. Collier D, Gerring J. 2009. Concepts and Method in Social Science: The Tradition of Giovanni Sartori New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  30. Collier D, Mahon J Jr.. 1993. Conceptual “stretching” revisited: adapting categories in comparative analysis. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 87:4845–55 [Google Scholar]
  31. Colquett J, Zapata-Phelan C. 2007. Trends in theory-building and theory-testing: a five-decade study of the Academy of Management Journal. Acad. Manag. J. 50:61281–303 [Google Scholar]
  32. Cook TD. 2001. Generalization: conceptions in the social sciences. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences NJ Smelser, PB Baltes 6037–43 Oxford, UK: Elsevier [Google Scholar]
  33. Corballis M. 2015. The Wandering Mind Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  34. Costner H, Leik R. 1964. Deductions from axiomatic theory. Am. Sociol. Rev. 29:6819–35 [Google Scholar]
  35. Deville J, Guggenheim M, Hrdličková Z. 2016. Practising Comparison: Logics, Relations, Collaborations Manchester, UK: Mattering Press [Google Scholar]
  36. Dewey J. 1922. Human Nature and Conduct: An Introduction to Social Psychology New York: Henry Holt and Co. [Google Scholar]
  37. DiMaggio P. 1997. Culture and cognition. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 23:263–87 [Google Scholar]
  38. DiMaggio P. 2002. Why cognitive (and cultural) sociology needs cognitive psychology. Culture in Mind K Cerulo 274–81 London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  39. Donoghue D. 2014. Metaphor Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  40. Douglas M, Hull D. 1992. How Classification Works: Nelson Goodman Among the Social Sciences Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  41. Durkheim E. 1964. The Rules of Sociological Method New York: Free Press [Google Scholar]
  42. Durkheim E. 1970. La science sociale et l'action Paris: Presses Univ. Fr. [Google Scholar]
  43. Durkheim E. 1978. On Institutional Analysis Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  44. Ehn B, Löfgren O. 2013. Theory: a personal matter. What Is Theory? H Corvellec 159–80 Copenhagen: Liber/Copenhagen Bus. Sch. Press [Google Scholar]
  45. Evans JStBT. 2005. Deductive reasoning. The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning K Holyoak, RG Morrison 169–84 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  46. Fantl J. 2016. Knowledge how. Stanf. Encycl. Philos EN Zalta. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2016/entries/knowledge-how/ [Google Scholar]
  47. Fararo T. 1989. The Meaning of General Theoretical Sociology: Tradition and Formalization Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  48. Feeney A, Heit E. 2007. Inductive Reasoning: Experimental, Developmental, and Computational Approaches Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  49. Fine GA. 2004. The when of ethnographic theory. Perspect. Newsl. ASA Theory Sect. 27:14–511 [Google Scholar]
  50. Firebaugh G. 2008. Seven Rules for Social Research Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  51. Fleck L. 1979. The Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  52. Folger R, Turillo C. 1999. Theorizing as the thickness of thin abstraction. Acad. Manag. Rev. 24:4742–58 [Google Scholar]
  53. Freese L. 1980. Formal theorizing. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 6:187–212 [Google Scholar]
  54. Frickel S, Gross N. 2005. A general theory of scientific/intellectual movements. Am. Sociol. Rev. 70:2204–32 [Google Scholar]
  55. Gentner D. 1983. Structure-mapping: a theoretical framework for analogy. Cogn. Sci. 7:2155–70 [Google Scholar]
  56. Gentner D. 1999. Analogy. A Companion to Cognitive Science W Bechtel, G Graham 107–12 London: Blackwell [Google Scholar]
  57. Gentner D. 2003. Why are we so smart?. Language in Mind D Gentner, S Goldin-Meadow 195–235 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  58. Gentner D. 2010. Bootstrapping the mind: analogical processes and symbol systems. Cogn. Sci. 34:752–75 [Google Scholar]
  59. Gentner D, Loewenstein J. 2002. Relational language and relational thought. Language, Literacy, and Cognitive Development E Amsel, J Byrnes 87–120 Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. [Google Scholar]
  60. Gentner D, Wolff P. 2000. Metaphor and knowledge change. Cognitive Dynamics: Conceptual Change in Humans and Machines E Dietrich, A Markman 295–342 Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. [Google Scholar]
  61. Glaeser A. 2015. Theorizing the present ethnographically. Theory Can Be More than It Used to Be D Boyer, J Faubion, G Marcus 65–103 Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  62. Gleick J. 2011. The Information: A History, A Theory, A Flood New York: Vintage [Google Scholar]
  63. Goertz G. 2006. Social Science Concepts: A User's Guide Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  64. Goertz G, Mahoney J. 2012a. Concepts and measurement: ontology and epistemology. Soc. Sci. Inf. 51:2205–16 [Google Scholar]
  65. Goertz G, Mahoney J. 2012b. A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  66. Goodman N. 1976. Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols Indianapolis: Hackett Publ. Co. [Google Scholar]
  67. Gopnik A. 2012. Scientific thinking in young children: theoretical advances, empirical research, and policy implications. Science 337:623–27 [Google Scholar]
  68. Gorski P. 2004. The poverty of deductivism: a constructive realist model of sociological explanation. Sociol. Methodol. 34:11–33 [Google Scholar]
  69. Gouldner A. 1970. The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology New York: Basic Books [Google Scholar]
  70. Gouldner A. 1973. For Sociology: Renewal and Critique in Sociology Today London: Allen Lane [Google Scholar]
  71. Hansen NR. 1958. Patterns of Discovery: An Inquiry into the Conceptual Foundations of Science Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  72. Heilbron J. 2011. Practical foundations of theorizing in sociology: the case of Pierre Bourdieu. Social Knowledge Making C Camic, N Gross, M Lamont 181–205 Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  73. Helmes-Hayes R. 1998. Everett Hughes: theorist of the second Chicago School. Int. J. Polit. Cult. Sociol. 11:4621–73 [Google Scholar]
  74. Hempel C. 1965. Aspects of Scientific Explanation and Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science New York: Free Press [Google Scholar]
  75. Henshilwood CS, d'Errico F. 2011. Homo symbolicus: The Dawn of Language, Imagination and Spirituality Amsterdam: John Benjamins [Google Scholar]
  76. Henshilwood CS, d'Errico F, Yates R, Jacobs Z, Tribolo C. et al. 2002. Emergence of modern human behavior: middle stone engravings from South Africa. Science 295:55581278–80 [Google Scholar]
  77. Henshilwood CS, Marean CW. 2003. The origin of modern human behavior: a review and critique of models and test implications. Curr. Anthropol. 44:627–65 [Google Scholar]
  78. Hogarth R. 2001. Educating Intuition Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  79. Katz J. 2001. Analytic induction. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences NJ Smelser, PB Baltes 480–84 Oxford, UK: Elsevier [Google Scholar]
  80. Khan S, Fisher D. 2013. The Practice of Research New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  81. Knorr Cetina K. 2014. Intuitionist theorizing. See Swedberg 2014b 29–60
  82. Lamont M. 2004. The theory section and theory satellites. Perspect. Newsl. ASA Theory Sect. 27:11101416–17 [Google Scholar]
  83. Lamont M. 2010. How Professors Think: Inside the Curious World of Academic Judgment Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  84. Lau J, Deutsch M. 2014. Externalism about mental content. Stanf. Encycl. Philos EN Zalta. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2014/entries/content-externalism/ [Google Scholar]
  85. Lazarsfeld P. 1962. The sociology of empirical research. Am. Sociol. Rev. 27:6757–67 [Google Scholar]
  86. Leahey E. 2008. Methodological memes and mores: toward a sociology of social research. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 34:33–53 [Google Scholar]
  87. Lieberson S. 1985. Making It Count: The Improvement of Social Research and Theory Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  88. Lizardo O. 2012a. The conceptual bases of metaphors of dirt and cleanliness in moral and non-moral reasoning. Cogn. Linguist. 23:2367–94 [Google Scholar]
  89. Lizardo O. 2012b. What young people should know about theory and theorizing. Perspect. Newsl. ASA Theory Sect. 34:26–8 [Google Scholar]
  90. Lizardo O. 2014a. Beyond the Comtean schema: the sociology of culture and cognition versus cognitive social science. Sociol. Forum 29:4983–89 [Google Scholar]
  91. Lizardo O. 2014b. Theorizing and cognitive science. Perspect. Newsl. ASA Theory Sect. 36:11216–17 [Google Scholar]
  92. Lizardo O. 2015. The end of theorists: the relevance, opportunities, and pitfalls of theorizing in sociology today Drawn from 2014 Lewis A. Coser Meml Award Lect., Am. Sociol. Assoc. San Francisco: Open Book 010. http://akgerber.com/OpenBook010.pdf [Google Scholar]
  93. Lizardo O, Pirkey MF. 2012. How organizational theory can help network theorizing: linking structure and dynamics via cross-level analogies. Res. Sociol. Organ. 40:33–56 [Google Scholar]
  94. Lounsbury M, Carberry E. 2005. From king to court jester? Weber's fall from grace in organization studies. Organ. Stud. 26:501–25 [Google Scholar]
  95. Lury C, Wakeford N. 2012. Inventive Methods: The Happening of the Social London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  96. Margolis E, Laurence S. 1999. Concepts: Core Readings Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  97. Margolis E, Laurence S. 2015. The Conceptual Mind: New Directions in the Study of Concepts Cambridge, MA: MIT Press [Google Scholar]
  98. Markovsky B. 2008. Graduate training in sociological theory and theory construction. Sociol. Perspect. 51:2423–45 [Google Scholar]
  99. Markovsky B, Webster M Jr.. 2015. Theory construction. Revised version. Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology Online G Ritzer Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell [Google Scholar]
  100. Martin JL. 2015. Thinking Through Theory New York: W.W. Norton & Co. [Google Scholar]
  101. McDuff E. 2012. Collaborative learning in an undergraduate theory course: an assessment of goals and outcomes. Teach. Sociol. 40:2166–76 [Google Scholar]
  102. Merton RK. 1968. Social Theory and Social Structure New York: Free Press Enlarged ed. [Google Scholar]
  103. Merton RK. 1987. Three fragments from a sociologist's notebooks: establishing the phenomenon, specified ignorance, and strategic research materials. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 3:1–29 [Google Scholar]
  104. Mill JS. 1952 (1843). A System of Logic: Ratiocinative and Inductive London: Longmans, Green and Co. [Google Scholar]
  105. Paget H. 1995. Sociology: after the linguistic and multicultural turns. Sociol. Forum 10:4633–52 [Google Scholar]
  106. Peirce CS. 1929. Guessing. Hound Horn 2:3267–85 [Google Scholar]
  107. Peirce CS. 1934. Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce 5 Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press [Google Scholar]
  108. Peirce CS. 1992. Reasoning and the Logic of Things Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  109. Poovey M. 1998. A History of the Modern Fact: Problems of Knowledge in the Sciences of Wealth and Society Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  110. Pryke M, Rose G, Whatmore S. 2003. Using Social Theory: Thinking Through Research London: SAGE [Google Scholar]
  111. Reed I. 2004. The beginning of an era: sociological theory a generation after the cultural turn (a response to Seidman). Perspect. Newsl. ASA Theory Sect. 27:1312–1318 [Google Scholar]
  112. Reed I, Zald M. 2014. The unsettlement of inquiry in communities. See Swedberg 2014b 85–105
  113. Richards IA. 1936. The Philosophy of Rhetoric Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  114. Rinehart J. 1999. Turning theory into theorizing: collaborative learning in a sociological theory course. Teach. Sociol. 27:July216–32 [Google Scholar]
  115. Ryle G. 1945. Knowing how and knowing that. Proc. Aristot. Soc. 46:11–16 [Google Scholar]
  116. Ryle G. 1949. The Concept of Mind Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  117. Sartori G. 1970. Concept misformation in comparative politics. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 64:41033–53 [Google Scholar]
  118. Scott WR. 2010. Stanford Sociology celebrates 50th anniversary of its renewal. ASA Footnotes 38:18 http://www.asanet.org/sites/default/files/savvy/footnotes/jan10/stanford_0110.html [Google Scholar]
  119. Sen A. 1980. Description as choice. Oxf. Econ. Pap. 32:3353–69 [Google Scholar]
  120. Shannon C. 1948. A mathematical theory of communication. Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 27:July, Oct.379–423623–56 [Google Scholar]
  121. Simmel G. 1997. Sociology of the senses. Simmel on Culture D Frisby, M Featherstone 109–19 London: SAGE [Google Scholar]
  122. Somers M. 1995. What's political or cultural about political culture and the public sphere? Toward an historical sociology of concept formation. Sociol. Theory 13:2113–44 [Google Scholar]
  123. Speaks J. 2016. Theories of meaning. Stanf. Encycl. Philos EN Zalta. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2016/entries/meaning/ [Google Scholar]
  124. Stenner P. 2012. Pattern. Inventive Methods C Lury, N Wakeford 137–46 London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  125. Stinchcombe A. 1968. Constructing Social Theories Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  126. Stjernfelt F. 2007. Diagrammatology: An Investigation on the Borderlines of Phenomenology, Ontology, and Semiotics Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer [Google Scholar]
  127. Sutton RI, Staw BM. 1995. What theory is not. Admin. Sci. Q. 40:751–67 [Google Scholar]
  128. Swedberg R. 2014a. The Art of Social Theory Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  129. Swedberg R. 2014b. Theorizing in Social Science: The Context of Discovery Stanford, CA: Stanf. Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  130. Swedberg R. 2016a. Before theory comes theorizing or how to make social science more interesting. Br. J. Sociol. 67:15–70 [Google Scholar]
  131. Swedberg R. 2016b. Can you visualize theory? On the use of visual thinking in theory pictures, theorizing diagrams and visual sketches. Sociol. Theory 34:3250–75 [Google Scholar]
  132. Swedberg R. 2017a. On the heuristic role of concepts in theorizing. Theory in Action 1 H Leiulfsrud, P Sohlberg 23–38 Leiden, Neth.: Brill. [Google Scholar]
  133. Swedberg R. 2017b. The near disappearance of concepts in mainstream sociology. Theory in Action 2 H Leiulfsrud, P Sohlberg Leiden, Neth.: Brill. In press [Google Scholar]
  134. Tattersall I. 2013. Masters of the Planet: The Search for Our Human Origins New York: St. Martin's Press [Google Scholar]
  135. Tattersall I. 2015. The Strange Case of the Rickety Cossack: And Other Cautionary Tales from Human Evolution New York: St. Martin's Press [Google Scholar]
  136. Tavory I, Timmermans S. 2014. Abductive Analysis: Theorizing Quantitative Research Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  137. Timmermans S, Tavory I. 2012. Theory construction in qualitative research: from grounded theory to abductive analysis. Sociol. Theory 30:3167–86 [Google Scholar]
  138. Timmermans S, Tavory I. 2016. Abduction and signification: a pragmatic theory of problem solving Presented at Annu. Meet. Am. Sociol. Assoc. Aug. 22 Seattle: [Google Scholar]
  139. Turner C. 2010. Investigating Sociological Theory Los Angeles: SAGE [Google Scholar]
  140. Turner S. 2004. Why should sociology (or social theory) care about cognitive science?. Perspectives 27:49–11 [Google Scholar]
  141. Turner S. 2007. Social theory as cognitive neuroscience. Eur. J. Soc. Theory 10:3357–74 [Google Scholar]
  142. Urry J. 2000. Metaphor. Sociology Beyond Societies J Urry 21–48 London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  143. Vaughan D. 2004. Theorizing disaster: analogy, historical ethnography and the Challenger accident. Ethnography 5:3313–45 [Google Scholar]
  144. Vaughan D. 2006. NASA revisited: theory, analogy, and public sociology. Am. J. Sociol. 112:2353–93 [Google Scholar]
  145. Vaughan D. 2014. Analogy, cases, and comparative social organization. See Swedberg 2014b 61–84
  146. Weber M. 1946. Science as a vocation. From Max Weber H Gerth, C Wright Mills 129–56 New York: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  147. Weber M. 1978. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology 2 Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  148. Weber M. 2013. Collected Methodological Writings London: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  149. Weick K. 2014. The work of theorizing. See Swedberg 2014b 177–94
  150. Whewell W. 1847. History of the Inductive Sciences 2 London: John W. Parker and Son, 3rd ed.. [Google Scholar]
  151. Willer D. 1996. The promise of formal theory in sociology. Sociol. Forum 11:319–31 [Google Scholar]
  152. Zerubavel E. 2007. Generally speaking: the logic and mechanics of social pattern analysis. Sociol. Forum 22:2131–45 [Google Scholar]
  153. Zhao S. 1996. The beginning of the end or the end of the beginning? The theory construction movement revisited. Sociol. Forum 11:2305–18 [Google Scholar]
  154. Zuckerman H. 2010. On sociological semantics as an evolving research program. Sociology of Science and Sociology as Science C Calhoun, RK Merton 253–72 New York: Columbia Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-060116-053604
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error