1932

Abstract

Social networks are heavily implicated in large-scale social transformations. They are both transformed and transformative. We review the ways in which social networks act as agents of change in macrohistorical processes, stressing two distinct theoretical approaches. Formalism analyzes the structure of networks. Relationalism evaluates the linking properties of networks. Using these two approaches to organize the literature, we present the current state of knowledge on the effects of social networks for four central macrohistorical outcomes: civil uprising, state formation, global and national policy formation and diffusion, and economic development and increasing inequality. We then consider new theoretical advances in institutional emergence and methodological innovations in computational modeling and their potential for reconciling and advancing existing findings and approaches on the effects of social networks on macrosocial change.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-060116-053633
2017-07-31
2024-04-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/soc/43/1/annurev-soc-060116-053633.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-060116-053633&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Adams J. 1994. The familial state: elite family practices and state-making in the early modern Netherlands. Theory Soc 23:505–39 [Google Scholar]
  2. Adams J. 1996. Principals and agents, colonialists and company men: the decay of colonial control in the Dutch East Indies. Am. Sociol. Rev. 61:12–28 [Google Scholar]
  3. Adams J. 2005. The Familial State: Ruling Families and Merchant Capitalism in Early Modern Europe Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
  4. Adams J, Charrad MM. 2011. Patrimonial power in the modern world. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 6361 Philadelphia: Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. [Google Scholar]
  5. Ahnert R. 2013. The Rise of Prison Literature in the Sixteenth Century Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  6. Alcacer J, Ingram P. 2013. Spanning the institutional abyss: the intergovernmental network and the governance of foreign direct investment. Am. J. Sociol. 118:1055–98 [Google Scholar]
  7. Banfield EC. 1958. The Moral Basis of a Backward Society New York: Free Press
  8. Barkey K. 1991. Rebellious alliances: the state and peasant unrest in early seventeenth-century France and the Ottoman empire. Am. Sociol. Rev. 56:699–715 [Google Scholar]
  9. Barkey K. 2008. Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  10. Barkey K, Van Rossem R. 1997. Networks of contention: villages and regional structure in the seventeenth-century Ottoman empire. Am. J. Sociol. 102:1345–82 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bearman P. 1993. Relations into Rhetorics: Local Elite Social Structure in Norfolk, England, 1540–1640 New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press
  12. Bernstein L. 1992. Opting out of the legal system: extralegal contractual relations in the diamond industry. J. Leg. Stud. 21:115–57 [Google Scholar]
  13. Blok A. 1974. The Mafia of a Sicilian Village, 1860–1960: A Study of Violent Peasant Entrepreneurs Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell
  14. Böhm T, Hillmann H. 2015. A closed elite? Bristol's society of merchant venturers and the abolition of slave trading. Political Power and Social Theory, Vol. 29: Chartering Capitalism: Organizing Markets, States, and Publics E Erikson 147–75 Bingly, UK: Emerald Group Publ. [Google Scholar]
  15. Boorman SA, Levitt PR. 1980. The Genetics of Altruism Cambridge, MA: Academic
  16. Brooks SM. 2005. Interdependent and domestic foundations of policy change: the diffusion of pension privatization around the world. Int. Stud. Q. 49:273–94 [Google Scholar]
  17. Bruch EE. 2014. How population structure shapes neighborhood segregation. Am. J. Sociol. 119:1221–78 [Google Scholar]
  18. Brym R, Godbout M, Hoffbauer A, Menard G, Zhang TH. 2014. Social media in the 2011 Egyptian uprising. Br. J. Sociol. 65:266–92 [Google Scholar]
  19. Burris V. 2005. Interlocking directorates and political cohesion among corporate elites. Am. J. Sociol. 111:249–83 [Google Scholar]
  20. Carpenter DP. 2001. The Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy: Reputations, Networks, and Policy Innovation in Executive Agencies, 1862–1928 Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  21. Centola D. 2013. Homophily, networks, and critical mass: solving the start-up problem in large group collective action. Ration. Soc. 25:3–40 [Google Scholar]
  22. Centola D, Macy M. 2007. Complex contagions and the weakness of long ties. Am. J. Sociol. 113:702–34 [Google Scholar]
  23. Chiang Y. 2007. Birds of moderately different feathers: bandwagon dynamics and the threshold heterogeneity of network neighbors. J. Math. Sociol. 31:47–69 [Google Scholar]
  24. Chwe MS. 1999. Structure and strategy in collective action. Am. J. Sociol. 105:128–56 [Google Scholar]
  25. Clark R. 2008. Dependency, network integration, and development. Sociol. Perspect. 51:629–48 [Google Scholar]
  26. Clark R. 2010. World-system mobility and economic growth, 1980–2000. Soc. Forces 88:1123–51 [Google Scholar]
  27. Combes P, Lafourcade M, Mayer T. 2005. The trade-creating effects of business and social networks: evidence from France. J. Int. Econ. 66:1–29 [Google Scholar]
  28. Curtis RL, Zurcher LA. 1973. Stable resources of protest movements: the multi-organizational field. Soc. Forces 52:53–61 [Google Scholar]
  29. Diani M. 2015. The Cement of Civil Society: Studying Networks in Localities Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  30. Diani M, McAdam D. 2003. Social Movements and Networks: Relational Approaches to Collective Action Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  31. DiMaggio P, Garip F. 2012. Network effects and social inequality. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 38:93–118 [Google Scholar]
  32. Dreiling M, Darves D. 2011. Corporate unity in American trade policy: a network analysis of corporate-dyad political action. Am. J. Sociol. 116:1514–63 [Google Scholar]
  33. Edwards J, Ogilvie S. 2012. Contract enforcement, institutions, and social capital: the Maghribi traders reappraised. Econ. Hist. Rev. 65:421–44 [Google Scholar]
  34. Emirbayer M. 1997. Manifesto for a relational sociology. Am. J. Sociol. 103:281–317 [Google Scholar]
  35. Emirbayer M, Goodwin J. 1994. Network analysis, culture, and the problem of agency. Am. J. Sociol. 99:1411–54 [Google Scholar]
  36. Erikson E. 2013. Formalist and relationalist theory in social network analysis. Sociol. Theory 31:219–42 [Google Scholar]
  37. Erikson E. 2014. Between Monopoly and Free Trade: The English East India Company, 1600–1757 Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  38. Erikson E, Samila S. 2015. Social networks and port traffic in early modern overseas trade. Soc. Sci. Hist. 39:151–73 [Google Scholar]
  39. Erikson E, Samila S. 2016. Networks, institutions, and encounters: information exchange in early-modern markets Work. Pap., Dep. Sociol., Yale Univ.
  40. Fernandez RM, McAdam D. 1988. Social networks and social movements: multi-organizational fields and recruitment to Mississippi freedom summer. Sociol. Forum 3:441–60 [Google Scholar]
  41. Foran J, Goodwin J. 1993. Revolutionary outcomes in Iran and Nicaragua: coalition fragmentation, war, and the limits of social transformation. Theory Soc 22:209–47 [Google Scholar]
  42. Gerlach LP, Hine VH. 1970. People, Power, Change: Movements of Social Transformation Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill
  43. Gerlach ML. 1992. Alliance Capitalism: The Social Organization of Japanese Business Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  44. Goldberg J. 2005. Geographies of trade and traders in the eleventh century Mediterranean: a study based on documents from the Cairo Geniza Ph.D. Thesis Columbia Univ. New York:
  45. Goldstone JA. 2003. Revolutions: Theoretical, Comparative, and Historical Studies New York: Cengage Learn.
  46. Goldstone JA. 2011. Cross-class coalitions and the making of the Arab revolts of 2011. Swiss Political Sci. Rev. 17:457–62 [Google Scholar]
  47. Goodwin J. 1997. The libidinal constitution of a high-risk social movement: affectual ties and solidarity in the Huk rebellion, 1946 to 1954. Am. Sociol. Rev. 62:53–69 [Google Scholar]
  48. Gould DM. 1994. Immigrant links to the home country: empirical implications for US bilateral trade flows. Rev. Econ. Stat. 76:302–16 [Google Scholar]
  49. Gould RV. 1991. Multiple networks and mobilization in the Paris Commune. Am. Sociol. Rev. 56:716–29 [Google Scholar]
  50. Gould RV. 1993. Trade cohesion, class unity, and urban insurrection: artisanal activism in the Paris Commune. Am. J. Sociol. 98:721–54 [Google Scholar]
  51. Gould RV. 1995. Insurgent Identities: Class, Community, and Protest in Paris from 1848 to the Commune Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  52. Granovetter MS. 1973. The strength of weak ties. Am. J. Sociol. 78:1360–80 [Google Scholar]
  53. Gray V. 1973. Innovation in the states: a diffusion study. Am. Political Sci. Rev. 67:1174–85 [Google Scholar]
  54. Greif A. 1993. Contract enforceability and economic institutions in early trade: the Maghribi traders' coalition. Am. Econ. Rev. 83:525–48 [Google Scholar]
  55. Grow A, Van Bavel J. 2015. Assortative mating and the reversal of gender inequality in education in Europe: an agent-based model. PLOS ONE 10:e0127806 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hedström P, Sandell R, Stern C. 2000. Mesolevel networks and the diffusion of social movements: the case of the Swedish Social Democratic Party. Am. J. Sociol. 106:145–172 [Google Scholar]
  57. Henisz WJ, Zelner BA, Guillén MF. 2005. The worldwide diffusion of market-oriented infrastructure reforms. Am. Sociol. Rev. 70:871–97 [Google Scholar]
  58. Hillmann H. 2008a. Localism and the limits of political brokerage: evidence from revolutionary Vermont. Am. J. Sociol. 114:287–331 [Google Scholar]
  59. Hillmann H. 2008b. Mediation in multiple networks: elite mobilization before the English civil war. Am. Sociol. Rev. 73:426–54 [Google Scholar]
  60. Hillmann H, Aven BL. 2011. Fragmented networks and entrepreneurship in late imperial Russia. Am. J. Sociol. 117:484–538 [Google Scholar]
  61. Ikegami E. 2005. Bonds of Civility: Aesthetic Networks and the Political Origins of Japanese Culture Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  62. Ingram P, Robinson J, Busch M. 2005. The intergovernmental network of world trade: IGO connectedness, governance and embeddedness. Am. J. Sociol. 111:824–58 [Google Scholar]
  63. Keister LA. 2001. Exchange structures in transition: lending and trade relations in Chinese business groups. Am. Sociol. Rev. 66:336–60 [Google Scholar]
  64. Keister LA. 2002. Guanxi in business groups: social ties and the formation of economic relations. Social Connections in China: Institutions, Culture, and the Changing Nature of Guanxi T Gold, D Guthrie, D Wank 77–96 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  65. Kettering S. 1986. Patrons, Brokers, and Clients in Seventeenth-Century France Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  66. Khanna T, Palepu K. 2013. Winning in Emerging Markets: A Road Map for Strategy and Execution Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  67. Kim H, Bearman PS. 1997. The structure and dynamics of movement participation. Am. Sociol. Rev. 62:70–93 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kim H, Pfaff S. 2012. Structure and dynamics of religious insurgency: students and the spread of the Reformation. Am. Sociol. Rev. 77:188–215 [Google Scholar]
  69. Kim JW, Kogut B, Yang J. 2015. Executive compensation, fat cats, and best athletes. Am. Sociol. Rev. 80:299–328 [Google Scholar]
  70. Kogut B, Macpherson JM. 2008. The decision to privatize: economists and the construction of ideas and policies. The Global Diffusion of Markets and Democracy BA Simmons, F Dobbin, G Garrett 104–40 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  71. Kong TY. 2012. Cooperation in unlikely settings: the rise of cooperative labor relations among leading South Korean firms. Politics Soc 40:425–52 [Google Scholar]
  72. Kroneberg C, Wimmer A. 2012. Struggling over the boundaries of belonging: a formal model of nation building, ethnic closure, and populism. Am. J. Sociol. 118:176–230 [Google Scholar]
  73. Landa JT. 1981. A theory of the ethnically homogeneous middleman group: an institutional alternative to contract law. J. Leg. Stud. 10:349–62 [Google Scholar]
  74. Lee CK, Strang D. 2006. The international diffusion of public-sector downsizing: network emulation and theory-driven learning. Int. Org. 60:883–909 [Google Scholar]
  75. Lincoln JR, Gerlach ML. 2004. Japan's Network Economy: Structure, Persistence, and Change Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  76. Lincoln JR, Gerlach ML, Ahmadjian CL. 1996. Keiretsu networks and corporate performance in Japan. Am. Sociol. Rev. 61:67–88 [Google Scholar]
  77. Lincoln JR, Gerlach ML, Takahashi P. 1992. Keiretsu networks in the Japanese economy: a dyad analysis of intercorporate ties. Am. Sociol. Rev. 57:561–85 [Google Scholar]
  78. Macy MW. 1991. Chains of cooperation: threshold effects in collective action. Am. Sociol. Rev. 56:730–47 [Google Scholar]
  79. Mahutga MC. 2006. The persistence of structural inequality? A network analysis of international trade, 1965–2000. Soc. Forces 84:1863–89 [Google Scholar]
  80. Maman D. 2002. The emergence of business groups: Israel and South Korea compared. Org. Stud. 23:737–58 [Google Scholar]
  81. Mann M. 1986. The Sources of Social Power 1 A History of Power from the Beginning to 1760 AD Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  82. Martin JL. 2009. Social Structures Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  83. Marwell G, Oliver PE, Prahl R. 1988. Social networks and collective action: a theory of the critical mass. Am. J. Sociol. 94:502–34 [Google Scholar]
  84. McAdam D. 1986. Recruitment to high-risk activism: the case of freedom summer. Am. J. Sociol. 92:64–90 [Google Scholar]
  85. McAdam D. 1988. Freedom Summer Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  86. McLean PD. 2004. Widening access while tightening control: office-holding, marriages, and elite consolidation in early modern Poland. Theory Soc 33:167–212 [Google Scholar]
  87. McLean PD. 2005. Patronage, citizenship, and the stalled emergence of the modern state in Renaissance Florence. Comp. Stud. Soc. Hist. 47:638–64 [Google Scholar]
  88. McLean PD. 2007. The Art of the Network: Strategic Interaction and Patronage in Renaissance Florence Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
  89. McLean PD. 2011. Patrimonialism, elite networks, and reform in late-eighteenth-century Poland. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 636:88–110 [Google Scholar]
  90. Meseguer C. 2004. What role for learning? The diffusion of privatisation in OECD and Latin American countries. J. Public Policy 24:299–325 [Google Scholar]
  91. Mische A. 2011. Relational sociology, culture, and agency. The Sage Handbook of Social Network Analysis J Scott, P Carrington 80–97 London: Sage Publ. [Google Scholar]
  92. Mizruchi MS. 1992. The Structure of Corporate Political Action Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  93. Mizruchi MS. 2013. The Fracturing of the American Corporate Elite Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  94. Mohr JW, White HC. 2008. How to model an institution. Theory Soc 37:485–512 [Google Scholar]
  95. Nee V, Opper S. 2012. Capitalism from Below: Markets and Institutional Change in China Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  96. Nee V, Opper S. 2015. Economic institutions from networks. Re-Imagining Economic Sociology P Aspers, N Dodd 146–73 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  97. Nemeth RJ, Smith DA. 1985. International trade and world system structure: a multiple network analysis. Review 8:517–60 [Google Scholar]
  98. Olson AG. 1992. Making the Empire Work: London and American Interest Groups, 1690–1790 Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  99. Opp K, Gern C. 1993. Dissident groups, personal networks, and spontaneous cooperation: the East German revolution of 1989. Am. Sociol. Rev. 58:659–80 [Google Scholar]
  100. Padgett JF, Ansell C. 1993. Robust action and the rise of the Medici, 1400–1434. Am. J. Sociol. 98:1259–319 [Google Scholar]
  101. Padgett JF, Powell WW. 2012. The Emergence of Organizations and Markets Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  102. Pfaff S. 1996. Collective identity and informal groups in revolutionary mobilization: East Germany in 1989. Soc. Forces 75:91–118 [Google Scholar]
  103. Polillo S, Guillén MF. 2005. Globalization pressures and the state: the worldwide spread of central bank independence. Am. J. Sociol. 110:1764–802 [Google Scholar]
  104. Powell WW, Packalen K, Whittington K. 2012. Organizational and institutional genesis: the emergence of high-tech clusters in the life sciences. The Emergence of Organizations and Markets JF Padgett, WW Powell 434–65. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  105. Rao H, Dutta S. 2012. Free spaces as organizational weapons of the weak: religious festivals and regimental mutinies in the 1857 Bengal native army. Adm. Sci. Q. 57:625–68 [Google Scholar]
  106. Rauch JE. 2001. Business and social networks in international trade. J. Econ. Lit. 39:1177–203 [Google Scholar]
  107. Rauch JE, Trindade V. 2002. Ethnic Chinese networks in international trade. Rev. Econ. Stat. 84:116–30 [Google Scholar]
  108. Richman BD. 2006. How community institutions create economic advantage: Jewish diamond merchants in New York. Law Soc. Inq. 31:383–420 [Google Scholar]
  109. Riley D. 2005. Civic associations and authoritarian regimes in interwar Europe: Italy and Spain in comparative perspective. Am. Sociol. Rev. 70:288–310 [Google Scholar]
  110. Safford S. 2009. Why the Garden Club Couldn't Save Youngstown: The Transformation of the Rust Belt Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  111. Schofer E, Meyer JW. 2005. The worldwide expansion of higher education in the twentieth century. Am. Sociol. Rev. 70:898–920 [Google Scholar]
  112. Shepard A, Withington P. 2000. Communities in Early Modern England: Networks, Place, Rhetoric Manchester, UK: Manchester Univ. Press
  113. Simmel G. 1950. The Sociology of Georg Simmel New York: Simon and Schuster
  114. Skocpol T. 1982. Rentier state and Shi'a Islam in the Iranian revolution. Theory Soc 11:265–83 [Google Scholar]
  115. Slater D. 2010. Ordering Power: Contentious Politics and Authoritarian Leviathans in Southeast Asia Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  116. Small ML. 2009. Villa Victoria: The Transformation of Social Capital in a Boston Barrio Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  117. Snyder D, Kick EL. 1979. Structural position in the world system and economic growth, 1955–1970: a multiple-network analysis of transnational interactions. Am. J. Sociol. 84:1096–126 [Google Scholar]
  118. Somers MR. 1993. Citizenship and the place of the public sphere: law, community, and political culture in the transition to democracy. Am. Sociol. Rev. 58:587–620 [Google Scholar]
  119. Stark D, Bruszt L. 1998. Postsocialist Pathways: Transforming Politics and Property in East Central Europe Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  120. Stark D, Vedres B. 2006. Social times of network spaces: network sequences and foreign investment in Hungary. Am. J. Sociol. 111:1367–411 [Google Scholar]
  121. Terpstra N. 2015. Religious Refugees in the Early Modern World: An Alternative History of the Reformation Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  122. Thomas RJ, Mark NP. 2013. Population size, network density, and the emergence of inherited inequality. Soc. Forces 92:521–44 [Google Scholar]
  123. Tilly C. 1978. From Mobilization to Revolution New York: Random House
  124. Tilly C. 2004. Trust and rule. Theory Soc 33:1–30 [Google Scholar]
  125. Tilly C. 2005. Trust and Rule Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  126. Tönnies F. 1887. Community and Society Mineola, NY: Dover Publ.
  127. Torfason MT, Ingram P. 2010. The global rise of democracy: a network account. Am. Sociol. Rev. 75:355–77 [Google Scholar]
  128. Trapido D. 2013. Counterbalances to economic homophily: microlevel mechanisms in a historical setting. Am. J. Sociol. 119:444–85 [Google Scholar]
  129. Van Doosselaere Q. 2009. Commercial Agreements and Social Dynamics in Medieval Genoa Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  130. Viterna JS. 2006. Pulled, pushed, and persuaded: explaining women's mobilization into the Salvadoran guerrilla army. Am. J. Sociol. 112:1–45 [Google Scholar]
  131. Vogus TJ, Davis GF. 2005. Elite mobilizations for antitakeover legislation, 1982–1990. Social Movements and Organization Theory G Davis, D McAdam, R Scott, M Zald 96–121 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  132. Wagner D, Head K, Ries J. 2002. Immigration and the trade of provinces. Scott. J. Political Econ. 49:507–25 [Google Scholar]
  133. Wallerstein I. 1974. The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Centenary Cambridge, MA: Academic
  134. Wank D. 2002. Business-state clientelism in China: decline or evolution?. Social Connections in China: Institutions, Culture, and the Changing Nature of Guanxi T Gold, D Guthrie, D Wank 77–96 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  135. Warner J, Ivis F. 2001. Informers and their social networks in eighteenth-century London: a comparison of two communities. Soc. Sci. Hist. 25:563–87 [Google Scholar]
  136. Watts DJ. 2002. A simple model of global cascades on random networks. PNAS 99:5766–71 [Google Scholar]
  137. Wejnert B. 2005. Diffusion, development, and democracy, 1800–1999. Am. Sociol. Rev. 70:53–81 [Google Scholar]
  138. White HC. 1992. Identity and Control: A Structural Theory of Social Action Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  139. White HC. 2008. Identity and Control: How Social Formations Emerge Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  140. Wimmer A. 2011. A Swiss anomaly? A relational account of national boundary-making. Nations Natl 17:718–37 [Google Scholar]
  141. Wimmer A. 2015. Nation building: a long-term perspective and global analysis. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 31:30–47 [Google Scholar]
  142. Wotipka CM, Ramirez FO. 2008. World society and human rights: an event history analysis of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. The Global Diffusion of Markets and Democracy B Simmons, F Dobbin, G Garrett 303–43 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  143. Zhao D. 1998. Ecologies of social movements: student mobilization during the 1989 pro-democracy movement in Beijing. Am. J. Sociol. 103:1493–529 [Google Scholar]
  144. Zhou M. 2010. Multidimensionality and gravity in global trade, 1950–2000. Soc. Forces 88:1619–43 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-060116-053633
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-060116-053633
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error