This review focuses on three topics that have dominated the sociological literature on HIV/AIDS in the United States: () the demographics of the epidemic and the dynamics of structural-, neighborhood-, and individual-level risk; () the lived experiences of HIV-positive people; and () the collective response to HIV/AIDS through community-based services, political activism and social movements, and public policy. Sociologists have pursued inquiry in all of these areas and have often advanced the implicit and explicit use of approaches that reveal the epidemic's embedded power relations. Previous research and the dynamics of the epidemic suggest a fundamental argument: HIV/AIDS is an epidemic of intersectional inequality that is fueled by racial, gender, class, and sexual inequities at the macro-structural, meso-institutional, and micro-interpersonal levels. These inequalities significantly shape the likelihood of exposure to the virus; the realities of living with the infection; and medical, programmatic, political, and social-scientific responses.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Adam B. 1989. The state, public policy, and AIDS discourse. Contemp. Crises 13:11–14 [Google Scholar]
  2. Adam B, Maticka-Tyndale E, Cohen J. 2003. Adherence practices among people living with HIV. AIDS Care 15:2263–74 [Google Scholar]
  3. Adam B, Murray J, Ross S, Oliver J, Lincoln S, Rynard V. 2011. Hivstigma.com, an innovative web-supported stigma reduction intervention for gay and bisexual men. Health Educ. Res. 26:5795–807 [Google Scholar]
  4. Adimora A, Ramirez C, Auerbach J, Aral S, Hodder S. et al. 2013. Preventing HIV infection in women. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 63:Suppl. 2S168–73 [Google Scholar]
  5. Adimora A, Schoenbach V. 2005. Social context, sexual networks, and racial disparities in rates of sexually transmitted infections. J. Infect. Dis. 191:S115–22 [Google Scholar]
  6. Alexander M. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness New York: New Press [Google Scholar]
  7. Altice F, Mostashari F, Friedland G. 2001. Trust and the acceptance of and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 28:147–58 [Google Scholar]
  8. Alvarez M, Jakhmola P, Painter T, Taillepierre J, Romaguera R. et al. 2009. Summary of comments and recommendations from the CDC consultation on the HIV/AIDS epidemic and prevention in the Hispanic/Latino community. AIDS Educ. Prev. 21:Suppl. B7–18 [Google Scholar]
  9. Arnold M, Hsu L, Pipkin S, McFarland W, Rutherford G. 2009. Race, place and AIDS: the role of socioeconomic context on racial disparities in treatment and survival in San Francisco. Soc. Sci. Med. 69:1121–28 [Google Scholar]
  10. Arreola S, Neilands T, Diaz R. 2009. Childhood sexual abuse and the sociocultural context of sexual risk among adult Latino gay and bisexual men. Am. J. Public Health 9:Suppl. 2S432–38 [Google Scholar]
  11. Arreola S, Neilands T, Pollack L, Paul J, Catania J. 2005. Higher prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Latino men who have sex with men than non-Latino men who have sex with men: data from the Urban Men's Health Study. Child Abuse Negl. 29:3285–90 [Google Scholar]
  12. Auerbach JD, Parkhurst JO, Cáceres CF, Keller KE. 2009. Addressing social drivers of HIV/AIDS: some conceptual, methodological, and evidentiary considerations. Work. Pap. No. 24. aids2031 Soc. Driv. Work. Group, New York. http://www.aids2031.org/working-groups/social-drivers?view=papers [Google Scholar]
  13. Auerbach JD, Wypijewska C, Brodie HK. 1994. AIDS and Behavior: An Integrated Approach Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Press [Google Scholar]
  14. Ayala G, Bingham T, Kim J, Wheeler D, Millett G. 2012. Modeling the impact of social discrimination and financial hardship on the sexual risk of HIV among Latino and Black men who have sex with men. Am. J. Public Health 102:Suppl. 2S242–49 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bailey M. 2013. Butch Queens Up in Pumps: Gender, Performance, and Ballroom Culture in Detroit Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press [Google Scholar]
  16. Baker S, Beadnell B, Stoner S, Morrison D, Gordon J. et al. 2003. Skills training versus health education to prevent STDs/HIV in heterosexual women: a randomized controlled trial utilizing biological outcomes. AIDS Educ. Prev. 15:11–14 [Google Scholar]
  17. Barnes SL. 2013. Live Long and Prosper: How Black Megachurches Address HIV/AIDS and Poverty in the Age of Prosperity Theology New York: Fordham Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  18. Barnshaw J, Letukas L. 2010. The low down on the down low: origins, risk identification and intervention. Health Sociol. Rev. 19:4478–90 [Google Scholar]
  19. Battle S. 1997. The bond is called blackness: black women and AIDS. See Goldstein & Manlowe 1997 282–91
  20. Bensley L, Van Eenwky J, Simmons K. 2000. Self-reported childhood sexual and physical abuse and adult HIV-risk behaviors and heavy drinking. Am. J. Prev. Med. 18:2151–58 [Google Scholar]
  21. Berger M. 2004. Workable Sisterhood: The Political Journey of Stigmatized Women with HIV/AIDS Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  22. Bingham TA, Harawa NT, Johnson DF, Secura GM, MacLellar DA, Valleroy LA. 2003. The effect of partner characteristics on HIV infection among African American men who have sex with men in the Young Men's Survey, Los Angeles, 1999–2000. AIDS Educ. Prev. 15:39–52 [Google Scholar]
  23. Blankenship K, Smoyer A, Bray S, Mattocks K. 2005. Black-white disparities in HIV/AIDS: the role of drug policy and the corrections system. J. Healthc. Poor Underserved 16:140–56 [Google Scholar]
  24. Boardman J. 2004. Stress and physical health: the role of neighborhoods as mediating and moderating mechanisms. Soc. Sci. Med. 58:122473–83 [Google Scholar]
  25. Bolan G, Ehrhardt AA, Wasserheit JN. 1999. Gender perspectives and STDs. Sexually Transmitted Diseases KK Holmes, PF Sparling, P-A Mårdh, SM Lemon, WE Stamm , et al., pp. 117–28 New York: McGraw-Hill [Google Scholar]
  26. Bowleg L, Raj A. 2012. Shared communities, structural contexts, and HIV risk: prioritizing the HIV risk and prevention needs of Black heterosexual men. Am. J. Public Health 102:S2S173–77 [Google Scholar]
  27. Bowser B. 1989. Crack and AIDS: an ethnographic impression. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 81:5538–40 [Google Scholar]
  28. Braithwaite R, Arriola K. 2003. Male prisoners and HIV prevention: a call for action ignored. Am. J. Public Health 93:759–63 [Google Scholar]
  29. Bredstrom A. 2006. Intersectionality: a challenge for feminist HIV/AIDS research?. Eur. J. Women's Stud. 13:3229–43 [Google Scholar]
  30. Brennan J, Kuhns LM, Johnson AK, Belzer M, Wilson EC, Garofalo R. 2012. Syndemic theory and HIV-related risk among young transgender women: the role of multiple, co-occurring health problems and social marginalization. Am. J. Public Health 102:91751–57 [Google Scholar]
  31. Brooks R, Martin D, Ortiz D, Veniegas R. 2004. Perceived barriers to employment among persons living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care 16:6756–66 [Google Scholar]
  32. Campbell C. 1999. Women, Families and HIV/AIDS: A Sociological Perspective on the Epidemic in America Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  33. Carbado D. 2013. Colorblind intersectionality. Signs: J. Women Cult. Soc. 38:4811–45 [Google Scholar]
  34. Carrillo H. 2004. Sexual migration, cross-cultural sexual encounters, and sexual health. Sex. Res. Soc. Policy 1:358–70 [Google Scholar]
  35. Catz S, Gore-Felton C, McClure J. 2002. Psychological distress among minority and low-income women living with HIV. Behav. Med. 28:53–60 [Google Scholar]
  36. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2006. HIV transmission among male inmates in a state prison system—Georgia, 1992–2005. MMWR 55:421–26 [Google Scholar]
  37. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2010. New CDC analysis reveals strong link between poverty and HIV infection: New study in low-income heterosexuals in America's inner cities reveals high HIV rates Press Release, July 19. http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2010/povertyandhivpressrelease.html [Google Scholar]
  38. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2012. Estimated HIV incidence in the United States, 2007–2010. HIV Surveill. Suppl. Rep. 17:No. 41–26 [Google Scholar]
  39. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2013a. HIV among gay and bisexual men CDC HIV/AIDS Fact Sheet, Sept., CDC, Atlanta, GA. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/gender/msm/facts/index.html# [Google Scholar]
  40. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2013b. HIV among men in the United States CDC HIV/AIDS Fact Sheet, Dec., CDC, Atlanta, GA. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/gender/men/index.html [Google Scholar]
  41. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2013c. HIV among older Americans CDC HIV/AIDS Fact Sheet, Nov., CDC, Atlanta, GA. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/olderamericans/index.html [Google Scholar]
  42. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2013d. HIV among transgender people CDC HIV/AIDS Fact Sheet, Nov., CDC, Atlanta, GA. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/transgender/index.html [Google Scholar]
  43. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2013e. HIV among women CDC HIV/AIDS Fact Sheet, March, CDC, Atlanta, GA. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/gender/women/index.html [Google Scholar]
  44. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2013f. HIV in the United States: at a glance CDC HIV/AIDS Fact Sheet, Nov., CDC, Atlanta, GA. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/statistics_basics_factsheet.pdf [Google Scholar]
  45. CDC (Cent. Dis. Control Prev.) 2013g. HIV risk among adult sex workers in the United States CDC HIV/AIDS Fact Sheet, Sept., CDC, Atlanta, GA. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/other/sexworkers.html [Google Scholar]
  46. Chase S. 2011. Surviving HIV/AIDS in the Inner City: How Resourceful Latinas Beat the Odds Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  47. Cho S, Crenshaw K, McCall L. 2013. Toward a field of intersectionality studies: theory, applications, and praxis. Signs: J. Women Cult. Soc. 38:4785–810 [Google Scholar]
  48. Choo H, Ferree M. 2010. Practicing intersectionality in sociological research: a critical analysis of inclusions, interactions, and institutions in the study of inequalities. Sociol. Theory 28:2129–49 [Google Scholar]
  49. Chorev N. 2012. Changing global norms through reactive diffusion: the case of intellectual property protection of AIDS drugs. Am. Sociol. Rev. 77:5831–53 [Google Scholar]
  50. Chow J, Jaffee K, Snowden L. 2003. Racial/ethnic disparities in the use of mental health services in poverty areas. Am. J. Public Health 93:5792–97 [Google Scholar]
  51. Ciambrone D. 2003. Women's Experiences with HIV/AIDS: Mending Fractured Selves New York: Hawthorne [Google Scholar]
  52. Ciccarone D, Bourgois P. 2003. Explaining the geographical variation of HIV among injection drug users in the United States. Subst. Use Misuse 38:142049–63 [Google Scholar]
  53. Cohen CJ. 1997. Punks, bulldaggers, and welfare queens: the radical potential of queer politics. GLQ 3:437–65 [Google Scholar]
  54. Cohen CJ. 1999. The Boundaries of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of Black Politics Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  55. Cohen M, Deamant C, Barkan S, Richardson J, Young M. et al. 2000. Domestic violence and childhood sexual abuse in HIV-infected women and women at risk for HIV. Am. J. Public Health 90:4560–65 [Google Scholar]
  56. Colfax G, Buchbinder S, Cornelisse P, Vittinghoff E, Mayer K. et al. 2002. Sexual risk behaviors and implications for secondary HIV transmission during and after HIV seroconversion. AIDS 16:1529–35 [Google Scholar]
  57. Collins P. 1990. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  58. Collins P, von Unger H, Armbrister A. 2008. Church ladies, good girls, and locas: stigma and the intersection of gender, ethnicity, mental illness, and sexuality in relation to HIV risk. Soc. Sci. Med. 67:389–97 [Google Scholar]
  59. Comfort M, Grinstead O, Faigeles B, Zack B. 2000. Reducing HIV risk among women visiting their incarcerated male partners. Crim. Justice Behav. 27:157–71 [Google Scholar]
  60. Crane J, Quirk K, van der Straten A. 2002. “Come back when you're dying”: the commodification of AIDS among California's urban poor. Soc. Sci. Med. 55:71115–27 [Google Scholar]
  61. Crenshaw K. 1991. Mapping the margins: intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Rev. 43:61241–99 [Google Scholar]
  62. Cummins S, Curtis S, Diez-Roux A, Macintyre S. 2007. Understanding and representing ‘place’ in health research: a relational approach. Soc. Sci. Med. 65:91825–38 [Google Scholar]
  63. De Cock J, Jaffe H, Curran J. 2013. The evolving epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. AIDS 26:1205–13 [Google Scholar]
  64. Decoteau C. 2013. Ancestors and Antiretrovirals: The Biopolitics of HIV/AIDS in Post-Apartheid South Africa Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  65. Derlega V, Barbee AP. 1998. HIV Social Interaction Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  66. Diaz R, Ayala G, Bein E. 2004. Sexual risk as an outcome of social oppression: data from a probability sample of Latino gay men in three US cities. Cult. Divers. Ethn. Minor. Psychol. 10:3255–67 [Google Scholar]
  67. Dickson-Gomez J, McAuliffe T, Convey M, Weeks M, Owczarzak J. 2011. Access to housing subsidies, housing status, drug use and HIV risk among low-income U.S. urban residents. Subst. Abuse Treat. Prev. Policy 6:311–12 [Google Scholar]
  68. Ellen I, Mijanovich T, Dillman K. 2001. Neighborhood effects on health: exploring the links and assessing the evidence. J. Urban Aff. 23:3/4391–408 [Google Scholar]
  69. Epstein S. 1996. Impure Science: AIDS, Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
  70. Espinoza L, Hall H, Hardnett F, Selik R, Ling Q. et al. 2007. Characteristics of persons with heterosexually acquired HIV infection, United States 1999–2004. Am. J. Public Health 97:1144–49 [Google Scholar]
  71. Ezzy D, DeVisser R, Bartos M. 1999. Poverty, disease progression and employment among people living with HIV/AIDS in Australia. AIDS Care 11:4405–14 [Google Scholar]
  72. Farmer P, Connors M, Simmons J. 1996. Women, Poverty, and AIDS: Sex, Drugs and Structural Violence Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press [Google Scholar]
  73. Ferrier S, Lavis J. 2003. With health comes work? People living with HIV/AIDS consider returning to work. AIDS Care 15:3423–35 [Google Scholar]
  74. Fiore T, Flanigan T, Hogan J, Cram R, Schuman P. et al. 2001. HIV infection in families of HIV-positive and ‘at-risk’ HIV-negative women. AIDS Care 13:2209–14 [Google Scholar]
  75. Fontdevila J. 2009. Framing dilemmas during sex: a micro-sociological approach to HIV risk. Soc. Theory Health 7:3241–63 [Google Scholar]
  76. Foote-Ardah CE. 2003. The meaning of complementary and alternative medicine practices among people with HIV in the United States: strategies for managing everyday life. Sociol. Health Illn. 25:5481–500 [Google Scholar]
  77. Forbes A. 1993. Crack cocaine and HIV: How national drug-addiction-treatment deficits fan the pandemic's flames. AIDS Public Policy J. 8:144–52 [Google Scholar]
  78. Foster G, Williamson J. 2000. A review of current literature on the impact of HIV/AIDS on children in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS 14:S275–84 [Google Scholar]
  79. Freudenberg N, Ramaswamy M. 2009. The impact of incarceration on the health of African Americans. Health Issues in the Black Community R Braithwaite, S Taylor, H Treadwell 209–29 San Francisco: Wiley [Google Scholar]
  80. Fullilove M, Golden E, Fullilove R, Lennon R, Porterfield D. et al. 1993. Crack cocaine use and high-risk behaviors among sexually active black adolescents. J. Adolesc. Health 14:4295–300 [Google Scholar]
  81. Gamson J. 1989. Silence, death, and the invisible enemy: AIDS activism and social movement “newness.”. Soc. Probl. 36:4351–67 [Google Scholar]
  82. Ghaziani A. 2004. Anticipatory and actualized identities: a cultural analysis of the transition from AIDS disability to work. Sociol. Q. 45:2273–301 [Google Scholar]
  83. Ghaziani A, Cook T. 2005. Reducing HIV infections at circuit parties: from description to explanation and principles of intervention design. J. Int. Assoc. Phys. AIDS Care 4:232–46 [Google Scholar]
  84. Gilbert D, Wright E. 2003. African American Women and HIV/AIDS: Critical Responses Westport, CT: Praeger [Google Scholar]
  85. Glenn E. 2000. The social construction and institutionalization of gender and race: an integrative framework. Revisioning Gender MM Ferre, J Lorber, BB Hess 3–43 New York: AltaMira [Google Scholar]
  86. Goldstein N, Manlowe J. 1997. The Gender Politics of HIV/AIDS in Women: Perspectives on the Pandemic in the United States New York: NYU Press [Google Scholar]
  87. Gould D. 2009. Moving Politics: Emotion and ACT UP's Fight Against AIDS Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  88. Grinstead O, Zack B, Faigeles B. 2001. Reducing postrelease risk behavior among HIV seropositive prison inmates: the health promotion program. AIDS Educ. Prev. 13:2109–19 [Google Scholar]
  89. Gupta G. 2004. Globalization, women, and the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Peace Rev. 16:179–83 [Google Scholar]
  90. Hader S, Smith D, Moore S, Holmberg S. 2001. HIV infection in women in the United States: status at the millennium. JAMA 285:91186–92 [Google Scholar]
  91. Hammonds E. 1995. Missing persons: African American women, AIDS, and the history of disease. Words of Fire: An Anthology of African-American Feminist Thought B Guy-Sheftall 434–49 New York: New Press [Google Scholar]
  92. Hankivsky O. 2012. Women's health, men's health, and gender and health: implications of intersectionality. Soc. Sci. Med. 74:111712–20 [Google Scholar]
  93. Heimer CA. 2007. Old inequalities, new disease: HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 33:6551–77 [Google Scholar]
  94. Herbst JH, Jacobs ED, Finlayson TJ, McKleroy VS, Neumann MS, Crepaz N. 2008. Estimating HIV prevalence and risk behaviors of transgender persons in the United States: a systematic review. AIDS Behav. 12:11–17 [Google Scholar]
  95. Higgins J, Hoffman S, Dworkin S. 2010. Rethinking gender, heterosexual men, and women's vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Am. J. Public Health 100:3435–45 [Google Scholar]
  96. Holtgrave D, Crosby R. 2003. Social capital, poverty, and income inequality as predictors of gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, and AIDS case rates in the United States. Sex. Transm. Infect. 79:62–64 [Google Scholar]
  97. Hong Y, Li X. 2009. HIV/AIDS behavioral interventions in China: a literature review and recommendation for future research. AIDS Behav. 13:3603–13 [Google Scholar]
  98. Hoppe T. 2013a. Controlling sex in the name of “public health” social control and Michigan HIV law. Soc. Probl. 60:127–49 [Google Scholar]
  99. Hoppe T. 2013b. From sickness to badness: the criminalization of HIV in Michigan. Soc. Sci. Med. 101:139–47 [Google Scholar]
  100. Inrig SJ. 2011. North Carolina and the Problem of AIDS: Advocacy, Politics, & Race in the South Chapel Hill: Univ. N.C. Press [Google Scholar]
  101. Ironson G, Balbin E, Stieren E, Detz K, Fletcher M. et al. 2008. Perceived stress and norepinephrine predict the effectiveness of response to protease inhibitors in HIV. Int. J. Behav. Med. 15:3221–26 [Google Scholar]
  102. Jenkins C. 2007. Private Lives, Proper Relations: Regulating Black Intimacy Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press [Google Scholar]
  103. Johnson R, Raphael S. 2006. The effects of male incarceration dynamics on AIDS infection rates among African American women and men Work. Pap. 22, Natl. Poverty Cent., Univ. Mich., Ann Arbor [Google Scholar]
  104. Kim A, Page-Shafer K, Ruiz J, Reyes L, Delgado V. et al. 2002. Vulnerability to HIV among women formerly incarcerated and women with incarcerated sexual partners. AIDS Behav. 6:331–38 [Google Scholar]
  105. King D. 1988. Multiple jeopardy, multiple consciousness: the context of a black feminist ideology. Signs: J. Women Cult. Soc. 14:142–72 [Google Scholar]
  106. King W, Wong M, Shapiro M, Landon B, Cunningham W. 2004. Does racial concordance between HIV-positive patients and their physicians affect the time to receipt of protease inhibitors?. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 19:111146–53 [Google Scholar]
  107. Kirby J, Kaneda T. 2005. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and access to health care. J. Health Soc. Behav. 46:115–31 [Google Scholar]
  108. Kramer K, Comfort M. 2011. Considerations in HIV prevention for women affected by the criminal justice system. Women's Health Issues 21:6S272–77 [Google Scholar]
  109. Lancet 2012. The beginning of the end of AIDS?. Lancet 380:98581967 [Google Scholar]
  110. Laumann E, Ellingson D, Mahay J, Paik A, Youm Y. 2004. The Sexual Organization of the City Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  111. Laumann E, Gagnon J, Michael R, Michaels S. 1994. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  112. Laumann E, Youm Y. 1999. Racial/ethnic group differences in the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States: a network explanation. Sex. Transm. Dis. 26:5250–61 [Google Scholar]
  113. Laws M, Beach M, Lee Y, Rogers W, Saha S. et al. 2013. Provider-patient adherence dialogue in HIV care: results of a multisite study. AIDS Behav. 17:1148–59 [Google Scholar]
  114. Levine M. 1989. The motives of gay men for taking or not taking the HIV antibody test. Soc. Probl. 36:4368–83 [Google Scholar]
  115. Lichtenstein B. 2000. Secret encounters: black men, bisexuality, and AIDS in Alabama. Med. Anthropol. Q. 14:3374–93 [Google Scholar]
  116. Lichtenstein B. 2001. The AIDS epidemic and sociological enquiry. Footnotes Newsl. Am. Sociol. Assoc. April. http://www.asanet.org/footnotes/apr01/fn18.html [Google Scholar]
  117. Lichtenstein B, Hook E, Sharma A. 2005. Public tolerance, private pain: stigma and sexually transmitted infections in the American Deep South. Cult. Health Sex. 7:143–57 [Google Scholar]
  118. Linnan L, Ferguson Y. 2007. Beauty salons: a promising health promotion setting for reaching and promoting health among African-American women. Health Educ. Behav. 34:3517–30 [Google Scholar]
  119. Mackenzie S. 2013. Structural Intimacies: Sexual Stories in the Black AIDS Epidemic New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  120. Mahajan A, Sayles J, Patel V, Remien R, Ortiz D. et al. 2008. Stigma in the HIV/AIDS epidemic: a review of the literature and recommendations for the way forward. AIDS 22:Suppl. 2S67 [Google Scholar]
  121. Marín BV. 2003. HIV prevention in the Hispanic community: sex, culture, and empowerment. J. Transcult. Nurs. 14:3186–192 [Google Scholar]
  122. Marmor M, Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, Lyden M, el-Sadr W. 1984. The epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and suggestions for its control in drug abusers. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 1:4237–47 [Google Scholar]
  123. Massagli M, Weissman J, Seage G III, Epstein A. 1994. Correlates of employment after AIDS diagnosis in the Boston Health Study. Am. J. Public Health 84:121976–81 [Google Scholar]
  124. Massey DS, Denton NA. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  125. McCall L. 2005. The complexity of intersectionality. Signs: J. Women Cult. Soc. 30:1771–800 [Google Scholar]
  126. McClelland G, Teplin L, Abram K, Jacobs N. 2002. HIV and AIDS risk behaviors among female jail detainees: implications for public health policy. Am. J. Public Health 92:5818–25 [Google Scholar]
  127. McCune J. 2014. Sexual Discretion: Black Masculinity and the Politics of Passing Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  128. McDonnell TE. 2010. Cultural objects as objects: materiality, urban space, and the interpretation of AIDS campaigns in Accra, Ghana. Am. J. Sociol. 115:61800–52 [Google Scholar]
  129. McKechnie M, Bavington B, Zablotska I. 2013. Understanding of norms regarding sexual practices among gay men: literature review. AIDS Behav. 17:1245–54 [Google Scholar]
  130. McMahon J, Tortu S, Pouget E, Hamid R, Neaigus A. 2006. Contextual determinants of condom use among female sex exchangers in East Harlem, NYC: an event analysis. AIDS Behav. 10:6731–41 [Google Scholar]
  131. Meade C, Sikkema K. 2005. HIV risk behavior among adults with severe mental illness: a systematic review. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 25:433–57 [Google Scholar]
  132. Millett G, Malebranche D, Mason B, Spikes P. 2005. Focusing “down low”: bisexual black men, heterosexual black women, and HIV risk. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 97:7S52–59 [Google Scholar]
  133. Millett GA, Peterson JL, Flores SA, Hart TA, Wilson PA. et al. 2012. Comparisons of disparities and risks of HIV infection in black and other men who have sex with men in Canada, UK, and USA: a meta-analysis. Lancet 380:9839341–48 [Google Scholar]
  134. Millett GA, Peterson JL, Wolitski RJ, Stall R. 2006. Greater risk for HIV infection of black men who have sex with men: a critical literature review. Am. J. Public Health 96:61007–19 [Google Scholar]
  135. Mizuno Y, Borkowf C, Millett G, Bingham T, Ayala G, Stueve A. 2012. Homophobia and racism experienced by Latino men who have sex with men in the United States: correlates of exposure and associations with HIV risk behaviors. AIDS Behav. 16:3724–35 [Google Scholar]
  136. Mojola S. 2011. Fishing in dangerous waters: ecology, gender and economy in HIV risk. Soc. Sci. Med. 722149–56 [Google Scholar]
  137. Mojola S. 2013. The HIV epidemic among African Americans in Washington, DC Presented at Annu. Meet. Am. Sociol. Assoc., Aug. 11–13, New York [Google Scholar]
  138. Mojola S, Everett B. 2012. STD and HIV risk factors among US young adults: variations by gender, race, ethnicity and sexual orientation. Perspect. Sex. Reprod. Health 44:2125–33 [Google Scholar]
  139. Moore MR. 2012. Intersectionality and the study of black, sexual minority women. Gender Soc. 26:133–39 [Google Scholar]
  140. Morris M, Kurth A, Hamilton D, Moody J, Wakefield S. 2009. Concurrent partnerships and HIV prevalence disparities by race: linking science and public health practice. Am. J. Public Health 99:61023–31 [Google Scholar]
  141. Mustanski B. 2001. Getting wired: exploiting the Internet for the collection of valid sexuality data. J. Sex Res. 38:4292–301 [Google Scholar]
  142. Mutchler M, Bogart L, Elliott M, McKay T, Suttorp M, Schuster M. 2008. Psychosocial correlates of unprotected sex without disclosure of HIV-positivity among African-American, Latino, and White men who have sex with men and women. Arch. Sex. Behav. 37:5736–47 [Google Scholar]
  143. Nicolosi A, Corrêa Leite ML, Musicco M, Arid C, Gavazzeni G, Lazzarin A. 1994. The efficiency of male-to female and female-to-male sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus: a study of 730 stable couples. Epidemiology 5:6570–75 [Google Scholar]
  144. Nixon S, Renwick R. 2003. Experiences of contemplating returning to work for people living with HIV/AIDS. Qual. Health Res. 13:91272–90 [Google Scholar]
  145. Operario D, Nemoto T. 2010. HIV in transgender communities: Syndemic dynamics and a need for multicomponent interventions. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 55:Suppl. 2S91–93 [Google Scholar]
  146. Organista K. 2007. Towards a structural-environmental model of risk for HIV and problem drinking in Latino labor migrants: the case of day laborers. J. Ethn. Cult. Divers. Soc. Work 16:1–295–125 [Google Scholar]
  147. Organista K, Carrillo H, Ayala G. 2004. HIV prevention with Mexican migrants: review, critique, and recommendations. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 37:S227–39 [Google Scholar]
  148. Paul JP, Catania J, Pollack L, Stall R. 2001. Understanding childhood sexual abuse as a predictor of sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men: the Urban Men's Health Study. Child Abuse Negl. 25:4557–84 [Google Scholar]
  149. Purcell DW, Johnson CH, Lansky A, Prejean J, Stein R. et al. 2012. Estimating the population size of men who have sex with men in the United States to obtain HIV and syphilis rates. Open AIDS J. 6:98–107 [Google Scholar]
  150. Quimby E, Friedman S. 1989. Dynamics of black mobilization against AIDS in New York City. Soc. Probl. 36:4403–15 [Google Scholar]
  151. Rhodes T, Singer M, Bourgois P, Friedman S, Strathdee S. 2005. The social structural production of HIV risk among injecting drug users. Soc. Sci. Med. 61:51026–44 [Google Scholar]
  152. Roth B. 1998. Feminist boundaries in the feminist-friendly organization: the women's caucus of ACT UP/LA. Gender Soc. 12:2129–45 [Google Scholar]
  153. Ryan C, Huebner D, Diaz R, Sanchez J. 2009. Family rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in white and Latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Pediatrics 123:1346–52 [Google Scholar]
  154. Schneider B. 1988. Gender, sexuality and AIDS: social responses and consequences. The Social Impact of AIDS in the US RA Berk 15–36 Cambridge, MA: ABT Press [Google Scholar]
  155. Schneider B. 1992. AIDS and class, gender, and race relations. The Social Context of AIDS: Sociological Contributions to Research in Policy J Huber, B Schneider 19–43 New York: Sage [Google Scholar]
  156. Schneider B, Stoller N. 1995. Women Resisting AIDS: Feminist Strategies of Empowerment Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  157. Schnittker J, Massoglia M, Uggen C. 2011. Incarceration and the health of the African American community. Du Bois Rev.: Soc. Sci. Res. Race 8:1133–41 [Google Scholar]
  158. Sherman S, Lilleston P, Reuben J. 2011. More than a dance: the production of sexual health risk in the exotic dance clubs in Baltimore, USA. Soc. Sci. Med. 73:3475–81 [Google Scholar]
  159. Shilts R. 1987. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic New York: St. Martin's Press [Google Scholar]
  160. Singer MC, Erickson PI, Badiane L, Diaz R, Ortiz D. et al. 2006. Syndemics, sex and the city: understanding sexually transmitted diseases in social and cultural context. Soc. Sci. Med 63:82010–21 [Google Scholar]
  161. Sobo E. 1995. Choosing Unsafe Sex: AIDS-Risk Denial Among Disadvantaged Women Philadelphia: Univ. Pa. Press [Google Scholar]
  162. Sontag S. 2001. Illness as Metaphor and AIDS and Its Metaphors New York: Macmillan [Google Scholar]
  163. Stanley L. 1999. Transforming AIDS: the moral management of stigmatized identity. Anthropol. Med. 6:1103–20 [Google Scholar]
  164. Stockdill B. 2003. Activism Against AIDS: At the Intersections of Sexuality, Race, Gender, and Class Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner [Google Scholar]
  165. Sutton MY, Lanier YA, Willis LA, Castellanos T, Dominguez K. et al. 2013. Strengthening the network of mentored, underrepresented minority scientists and leaders to reduce HIV-related health disparities. Am. J. Public Health 103:122207–14 [Google Scholar]
  166. Swidler A, Watkins S. 2007. Ties of dependence: AIDS and transactional sex in rural Malawi. Stud. Fam. Plan. 38:3147–62 [Google Scholar]
  167. Timmons JC, Fesko SL. 2004. The impact, meaning, and challenges of work: perspectives of individuals with HIV/AIDS. Health Soc. Work 29:2137–44 [Google Scholar]
  168. Treichler P. 1999. How to Have Theory in an Epidemic: Cultural Chronicles of AIDS Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  169. Trinitapoli J, Yeatman S. 2011. Uncertainty and fertility in a generalized AIDS epidemic. Am. Sociol. Rev. 76:6935–954 [Google Scholar]
  170. Updegraff J, Taylor S, Kemeny M, Wyatt G. 2002. Positive and negative effects of HIV infection in women with low socioeconomic resources. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 28:3382–94 [Google Scholar]
  171. Voisin D. 2005. The relationship between violence exposure and HIV sexual risk behaviors: Does gender matter?. Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 75:4497–506 [Google Scholar]
  172. Wacquant L. 2001. Deadly symbiosis: when ghetto and prison meet and mesh. Punishm. Soc. 3:195–133 [Google Scholar]
  173. Wagner G, Remien R, Carballo-Dieguez A, Dolezal C. 2002. Correlates of adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among members of HIV-positive mixed status couples. AIDS Care 14:1105–9 [Google Scholar]
  174. Watkins-Hayes C. 2008. The social and economic context of black women living with HIV/AIDS in the US: Implications for research. Sex, Power and Taboo: Gender and HIV in the Caribbean and Beyond D Roberts, R Reddock, D Douglas, S Reid 33–66 Kingston, Jam.: Ian Randle [Google Scholar]
  175. Watkins-Hayes C. 2013. The micro-dynamics of support seeking: the social and economic utility of institutional ties for HIV-positive women. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 647:83–101 [Google Scholar]
  176. Watkins-Hayes C, Pittman-Gay L, Beaman J. 2012. “Dying from” to “living with”: framing institutions and the coping processes of African American women living with HIV/AIDS. Soc. Sci. Med. 742012:2028–36 [Google Scholar]
  177. Weitz R. 1987. The interview as legacy: a social scientist confronts AIDS. Hastings Cent. Rep. 17:321–23 [Google Scholar]
  178. Weitz R. 1991. Life with AIDS New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  179. Whetten K, Pence B. 2013. You're the First One I've Told: The Faces of HIV in the Deep South New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  180. Wilson P. 2014. CDC locks out black providers in new AIDS technical assistance announcement. Huffington Post April 3. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/phill-wilson/cdc-locks-out-african-american-health_b_5079684.html [Google Scholar]
  181. Wilson P, Yoshikawa H. 2004. Experiences of and responses to social discrimination among Asian and Pacific Islander gay men: their relationship to HIV risk. AIDS Educ. Prev. 16:Spec. Issue68–83 [Google Scholar]
  182. Wilson W. 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  183. Wingood GM, DiClemente RJ, Mikhail I, McCree DH, Davies SL. et al. 2007. HIV discrimination and the health of women living with HIV. Women Health 46:2–399–112 [Google Scholar]
  184. Wolitski R, Fenton K. 2011. Sexual health, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in the United States. AIDS Behav. 1519–17 Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  185. World Health Organ 2013. Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDS WHO Fact Sheet No. 360, Oct. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs360/en/index.html [Google Scholar]
  186. Wright E. 2003. Deep from within the well: voices of African American women living with HIV/AIDS. African American Women and HIV/AIDS: Critical Responses D Gilbert, E Wright 29–50 Westport, CT: Praeger [Google Scholar]
  187. Wyatt G, Myers H, Williams J, Kitchen C, Loeb T. et al. 2002. Does a history of trauma contribute to HIV risk for women of color? Implications for prevention and policy. Am. J. Public Health 92:4660–65 [Google Scholar]
  188. Yelin E, Greenblatt R, Hollander H, McMaster J. 1991. The impact of HIV-related illness on employment. Am. J. Public Health 81:179–84 [Google Scholar]
  189. Zellner J, Martínez-Donate A, Sañudo F, Fernández-Cerdeño A, Sipan C. et al. 2009. The interaction of sexual identity with sexual behavior and its influence on HIV risk among Latino men: results of a community survey in northern San Diego County, California. Am. J. Public Health 99:1125–32 [Google Scholar]
  190. Zierler S, Krieger N. 1997. Reframing women's risk: social inequalities and HIV infection. Annu. Rev. Public Health 18:401–36 [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error