1932

Abstract

The caste system, its salient characteristics, and its subtle and more obvious transformations, coupled with its persistence and pervasiveness, have been central to studies of Indian society. This review provides a specific view of caste and its transformations with an emphasis on the socioeconomic or labor market dimension. Such a perspective is particularly crucial as one of the distinctive features of caste is the inheritance of occupations. A major argument of modernization has been the increasing movement away from occupational inheritance. This review traces the limited support for the “Orientalist” view of caste as essentially unchanging and focuses on the fluid nature of caste and its transformation in the economic domain.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043303
2014-07-30
2024-04-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/soc/40/1/annurev-soc-071913-043303.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043303&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Ahmed I. 1978. Caste and Social Stratification among Muslims in India New Delhi: Manohar
  2. Banerjee A, Bertrand M, Datta S, Mullainathan S. 2009a. Labor market discrimination in Delhi: evidence from a field experiment. J. Comp. Econ. 37:114–27 [Google Scholar]
  3. Banerjee A, Duflo E, Ghatak M, Lafortuney J. 2009b. Marry for what: caste and mate selection in modern India NBER Work. Pap. No. 14958. Natl. Bur. Econ. Res., Cambridge, MA. http://www.nber.org/papers/w14958
  4. Banerjee B, Knight JB. 1985. Caste discrimination in the Indian urban labour market. Econ. J. Dev. Econ. 17:3277–307 [Google Scholar]
  5. Berreman G. 1991. The Brahminical view of caste. See Gupta 1991b 84–92
  6. Bertrand M, Mullainathan S. 2003. Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labour market discrimination NBER Work. Pap. No. 9873. Natl. Bur. Econ. Res., Cambridge, MA. http://www.nber.org/papers/w9873
  7. Béteille A. 1965. Caste, Class, and Power: Changing Patterns of Stratification in a Tanjore Village Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  8. Béteille A. 1969. Castes: Old and New. Essays in Social Structure and Social Stratification. New York: Asia Publ. House
  9. Béteille A. 1991a. Society and Politics in India: Essays in a Comparative Perspective London: Athlone
  10. Béteille A. 1991b. The reproduction of inequality: occupation, caste and family. Contrib. Indian Sociol. 25:13–28 [Google Scholar]
  11. Béteille A. 1992. The Backward Classes in Contemporary India Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  12. Béteille A. 1996a. Caste in contemporary India. See Fuller 1996 150–79
  13. Béteille A. 1996b. The mismatch between class and status. Br. J. Sociol. 47:3513–25 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bhatty Z. 1996. Social stratification among Muslims in India. See Srinivas 1996a 244–62
  15. Borbas G, Haslam D, Sampla B. 2007. No escape: caste discrimination in the UK. Dalit Solidar. Netw. UK Rep., London. http://dsnuk.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/No-Escape-Report-Caste-in-the-UK.pdf
  16. Bouglé C. 1971. Essays on the Caste System Transl. DF Pocock London: Cambridge Univ. Press
  17. Caldwell JC, Caldwell P, Caldwell BK, Pieris I. 1998. The construction of adolescence in a changing world: implications for sexuality, reproduction and marriage. Stud. Fam. Plan. 29:2137–53 [Google Scholar]
  18. Caldwell JC, Reddy PH, Caldwell P. 1983. The causes of marriage change in South India. Popul. Stud. 37:3343–61 [Google Scholar]
  19. Charsley S. 1998. Sanskritization: the career of an anthropological theory. Contrib. Indian Sociol. 32:2528–48 [Google Scholar]
  20. Ciotti M. 2006. In the past we were a bit “Chamar”: education as a self- and community engineering process in northern India. J. R. Anthropol. Inst. 12:4899–916 [Google Scholar]
  21. Damle YB. 1968. Reference group theory with regard to mobility in caste. See Silverberg 1968 95–102
  22. Davis K. 1941. Intermarriage in caste societies. Am. Anthropol. 43:3376–95 [Google Scholar]
  23. de Zwart F. 2000. The logic of affirmative action: caste, class and quotas in India. Acta Sociol. 43:3235–49 [Google Scholar]
  24. Desai S, Dubey A. 2011. Caste in 21st century India: competing narratives. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 46:1140–49 [Google Scholar]
  25. Desai S, Kulkarni V. 2008. Changing educational inequalities in India in the context of affirmative action. Demography 45:2245–70 [Google Scholar]
  26. Deshpande A. 2011. The Grammar of Caste: Economic Discrimination in Contemporary India New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press
  27. Deshpande A, Newman KS. 2007. Where the path leads: the role of caste in post-university employment expectations. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 42:414133–40 [Google Scholar]
  28. Deshpande A, Weisskopf TW. 2010. Does affirmative action affect productivity in the Indian railways? Work. Pap. 185, Cent. Dev. Econ., Delhi Sch. Econ. http://www.cdedse.org/pdf/work185.pdf
  29. Deshpande R, Palshikar P. 2008. Occupational mobility: how much does caste matter?. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 43:3461–70 [Google Scholar]
  30. Dickey S. 2012. The pleasures and anxieties of being in the middle: emerging middle-class identities in urban south India. Mod. Asian Stud. 46:3559–99 [Google Scholar]
  31. Dirks NB. 2001. Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  32. Driver ED. 1962. Caste and occupational structure in central India. Soc. Forces 41:126–31 [Google Scholar]
  33. Dube L. 2001. Anthropological Explorations in Gender: Intersecting Fields New Delhi: Sage
  34. Dube SC. 1955. Indian Village London: Routledge & Kegan Paul
  35. Dumont L. 1970 (1998). Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and Its Implications Transl. M Sainsbury London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson
  36. Fanselow FS. 1996. The disinvention of caste among Tamil Muslims. See Fuller 1996 202–26
  37. Fuller CJ. 1996. Caste Today New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press
  38. Fuller CJ, Narasimhan H. 2008a. Companionate marriage in India: the changing marriage system in a middle-class Brahman subcaste. J. R. Anthropol. Inst. 14:4736–54 [Google Scholar]
  39. Fuller CJ, Narasimhan H. 2008b. From landlords to software engineers: migration and urbanization among Tamil Brahmans. Comp. Stud. Soc. Hist. 50:1170–96 [Google Scholar]
  40. Fuller CJ, Narasimhan H. 2013. Marriage, education, and employment among Tamil Brahman women in South India, 1891–2010. Mod. Asian Stud. 47:153–84 [Google Scholar]
  41. Galanter M. 1978. Who are the other backward classes? An introduction to a constitutional puzzle. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 13:43–441812–28 [Google Scholar]
  42. Galanter M. 1984. Competing Equalities: Law and the Backward Classes in India New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press
  43. Galanter M. 2005. The long half-life of reservations. India's Living Constitution: Ideas, Practices, Controversies Z Hasan, E Sridharan, R. Sudarshan 306–18 London: Anthem [Google Scholar]
  44. Ghurye GS. 1932. Caste and Race in India London: Kegan Paul Trench Trübner
  45. Gupta D. 1991a. Hierarchy and difference: an introduction. See Gupta 1991b 1–21
  46. Gupta D. 1991b. Social Stratification New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press
  47. Gupta D. 2005. Caste and politics: identity over system. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 34:1409–27 [Google Scholar]
  48. Harriss J. 2012. Reflections on caste and class, hierarchy and dominance. Seminar May, Issue 633. http://www.india-seminar.com/2012/633/633_john_harriss.htm#top
  49. Harriss J, Jeyaranjan J, Nagaraj K. 2010. Land, labour and caste politics in rural Tamil Nadu in the 20th century: Iruvelpattu (1916–2008). Econ. Polit. Wkly. 45:3147–61 [Google Scholar]
  50. Harriss-White B. 2003. India Working: Essays on Economy and Society Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  51. Harriss-White B, Vidyarthee K, Basile E, Dixit A, Joddar P. 2013. Dalits and Adivasis in India's Business Economy: Three Essays and an Atlas New Delhi: Three Essays Collect.
  52. Jaffrelot C. 2000. The rise of the Other Backward Classes in the Hindi belt. J. Asian Stud. 59:186–108 [Google Scholar]
  53. Jaffrelot C. 2012. The caste based mosaic of Indian politics. Seminar May, Issue 633. http://www.india-seminar.com/2012/633/633_christophe_jaffrelot.htm
  54. Jayaram N. 1996. Caste and Hinduism: changing protean relationship. See Srinivas 1996a 69–86
  55. Jeffrey C, Jeffery R, Jeffery P. 2004a. “A useless thing!” or “nectar of the gods”? The cultural production of education and young men's struggles for respect in liberalizing north India. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 94:4961–81 [Google Scholar]
  56. Jeffrey C, Jeffery R, Jeffery P. 2004b. Degrees without freedom: assessing the impact of formal education on Dalit young men in north India. Dev. Chang. 35:5963–86 [Google Scholar]
  57. Jodhka SS. 1997. From “book-view” to “field-view”: social anthropological constructions of the Indian village Work. Pap. No. 5, QEHWPS05, Queen Elizab. House, Oxford Dep. Int. Dev., Univ. Oxford. http://www3.qeh.ox.ac.uk/pdf/qehwp/qehwps05.pdf
  58. Jodhka SS. 2010. Dalits in business: self-employed scheduled castes in north-west India. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 45:1141–48 [Google Scholar]
  59. Jodhka SS. 2012a. Caste: Oxford India Short Introductions. New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press India
  60. Jodhka SS. 2012b. The problem. Seminar May, Issue 633. http://www.india-seminar.com/2012/633/633_the_problem.htm
  61. Jodhka SS, Newman KS. 2010. In the name of globalization: meritocracy, productivity, and the hidden language of caste. Blocked by Caste: Economic Discrimination in Modern India S Thorat, KS Newman 52–87 New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press India [Google Scholar]
  62. Jodhka SS, Shah G. 2010. Comparative contexts of discrimination: caste and untouchability in South Asia Work. Pap. No. 5, Indian Inst. Dalit Stud., Delhi. http://www.dalitstudies.org.in/images/stories/1005.pdf
  63. Kapadia K. 1991. Discourses of gender and caste in rural South India: an analysis of the ideology of impurity. CMI Rep. D 1991:4, Chr. Michelsen Inst., Dep. Soc. Sci. Dev., Dev. Res. Action Progr., Bergen, Nor.
  64. Kapur D, Prasad CB, Pritchett L, Babu DS. 2010. Rethinking inequality: Dalits in Uttar Pradesh in the market reform era. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 45:3539–49 [Google Scholar]
  65. Karanth GK. 1996. Caste in contemporary rural India. See Srinivas 1996a 87–109
  66. Kumar S. 2013. Changing Electoral Politics in Delhi from Caste to Class New Delhi: Sage
  67. Kumar S, Heath AF, Heath O. 2002a. Changing patterns of social mobility. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 37:404091–96 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kumar S, Heath AF, Heath O. 2002b. Determinants of social mobility in India. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 37:292983–87 [Google Scholar]
  69. Kumar V. 2004. Understanding Dalit diaspora. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 39:1114–16 [Google Scholar]
  70. Kumar V. 2010. Teaching caste and the Hindu social order: Dalits in Indian sociology. Sociology in India: Intellectual and Institutional Practices M Chaudhuri 360–80 Jaipur, India: Rawat [Google Scholar]
  71. Lambert H. 1996. Caste, gender and locality in rural Rajasthan. See Fuller 1996 93–123
  72. Lynch O. 1969. The Politics of Untouchability: Social Mobility and Social Change in a City of India New York: Columbia Univ. Press
  73. Madan TN. 1991. Dumont on the nature of caste in India. See Gupta 1991b 74–83
  74. Madheswaran S, Attewell P. 2007. Caste discrimination in the Indian urban labour market: evidence from the National Sample Survey. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 42:414146–53 [Google Scholar]
  75. Manor J. 2012. Accommodation and conflict. Seminar May, Issue 633. http://www.india-seminar.com/2012/633/633_james_manor.htm
  76. Marriott M. 1968. Multiple reference in Indian caste systems. See Silverberg 1968 103–14
  77. Mayer A. 1996. Caste in an Indian village: change and continuity 1954–1992. See Fuller 1996 32–63
  78. McMillan A. 2005. Standing at the Margins: Representation and Electoral Reservation in India New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press
  79. Merton RK. 1957. Social Theory and Social Structure Glencoe, IL: Free Press
  80. Metcalf H, Rolfe H. 2010. Caste discrimination and harassment in Great Britain NIESR Rep. 101213, Natl. Inst. Econ. Soc. Res., Gov. Equal. Off., London. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/85522/caste-discrimination.pdf
  81. Michelutti L. 2008. The Vernacularisation of Democracy: Politics, Caste and Religion in India New Delhi: Routledge
  82. Munshi K, Rosenzweig M. 2006. Traditional institutions meet the modern world: caste, gender, and schooling choice in a globalizing economy. Am. Econ. Rev. 96:41225–52 [Google Scholar]
  83. Munshi K, Rosenzweig M. 2009. Why is mobility in India so low? Social insurance, inequality, and growth NBER Work. Pap. No. 14850. Natl. Bur. Econ. Res., Cambridge, MA. http://www.nber.org/papers/w14850
  84. Natarajan B. 2012. From jati to samaj. Seminar May, Issue 633. http://www.india-seminar.com/2012/633/633_balmurli_natrajan.htm
  85. Naudet J. 2008. ‘Paying back to society’: upward social mobility among Dalits. Contrib. Indian Sociol. 42:3413–41 [Google Scholar]
  86. Osella F, Osella C. 1999. From transience to immanence: consumption, life-cycle and social mobility in Kerala, South India. Mod. Asian Stud. 33:4989–1020 [Google Scholar]
  87. Osella F, Osella C. 2000. Social Mobility in Kerala: Modernity and Identity in Conflict London: Pluto
  88. Osella F, Osella C. 2003. Migration and the commoditisation of ritual: sacrifice, spectacle and contestations in Kerala, India. Contrib. Indian Sociol. 37:1–2109–39 [Google Scholar]
  89. Panini MN. 2001. Caste, race and human rights. Econ. Pol. Wkly. 36:353344–46 [Google Scholar]
  90. Parry J. 1980. Ghosts, greed and sin: the occupational identity of the Benares Funeral Priests. Man 15:188–111 [Google Scholar]
  91. Polanyi K. 2001. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time Boston: Beacon
  92. Raheja GG. 1988. India: caste, kingship, and dominance reconsidered. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 17:1497–522 [Google Scholar]
  93. Raheja GG. 1989. Centrality, mutuality and hierarchy: shifting aspects of inter-caste relationships in North India. Contrib. Indian Sociol. 23:179–101 [Google Scholar]
  94. Ram N. 1988. Mobile Scheduled Castes: Rise of a New Middle Class Delhi: South Asia Books
  95. Ram N. 1995. Social mobility and status identification among scheduled castes: a synoptic view. Social Inequality in India: Profiles of Caste, Class, Power and Social Mobility KL Sharma 440–58 Jaipur, India: Rawat [Google Scholar]
  96. Ramu GN, Wiebe PD. 1973. Occupational and educational mobility in relation to caste in urban India. Sociol. Soc. Res. 58:184–94 [Google Scholar]
  97. Reddy DS. 2005. The ethnicity of caste. Anthropol. Q. 78:3543–84 [Google Scholar]
  98. Shah AM, Desai IP. 1988. Division and Hierarchy: An Overview of Caste in Gujarat Delhi: Hindustan
  99. Shah G. 2004. Introduction: caste and democratic politics. Caste and Democratic Politics in India G Shah 1–23 London: Anthem [Google Scholar]
  100. Sheth DL. 1991. The future of caste in India: a dialogue. Contrib. Indian Sociol. 25:2331–42 [Google Scholar]
  101. Sheth DL. 1999. Secularisation of caste and making of new middle class. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 34:34–352502–10 [Google Scholar]
  102. Silverberg J. 1968. Social Mobility in the Caste System in India: An Interdisciplinary Symposium The Hague: Mouton
  103. Singh Y. 1994. Modernization of Indian Tradition Jaipur, India: Rawat
  104. Sivaram P. 1990. Social Mobility: A Sociological Study New Delhi: Discov. Publ. House
  105. Sørensen AB. 2001. The basic concepts of stratification research: class, status, and power. Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective DB Grusky 287–300 Boulder, CO: Westview [Google Scholar]
  106. Sorokin PA. 1927. Social Mobility London: Harper & Row
  107. Srinivas MN. 1956. A note on Sanskritization and Westernization. J. Asian Stud. 15:4481–96 [Google Scholar]
  108. Srinivas MN. 1962. Caste in Modern India and Other Essays London: Asia Publ. House
  109. Srinivas MN. 1966. Social Change in Modern India Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  110. Srinivas MN. 1987. The Dominant Caste and Other Essays New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press
  111. Srinivas MN. 1991. Varna and caste. See Gupta 1991b 28–34
  112. Srinivas MN. 1996a. Caste: Its Twentieth Century Avatar New Delhi:: Viking
  113. Srinivas MN. 1996b. Village, Caste, Gender, and Method: Essays in Indian Social Anthropology New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press
  114. Srinivas MN. 2002. Collected Essays New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press
  115. Srinivas MN. 2003. An obituary on caste as a system. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 38:5455–59 [Google Scholar]
  116. Srinivas MN, Damle YB, Shahani S, Béteille A. 1959. Caste: a trend report and bibliography. Curr. Sociol. 8:3135–83 [Google Scholar]
  117. Stevenson HNC. 1954. Status evaluation in the Hindu caste system. J. R. Anthropol. Inst. G. B. Irel. 84:1–245–65 [Google Scholar]
  118. Tharamangalam J. 1996. Caste among Christians in India. See Srinivas 1996a 263–91
  119. Thorat S, Attewell P. 2007. The legacy of social exclusion: a correspondence study of job discrimination in India. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 42:414141–45 [Google Scholar]
  120. Thorat S, Newman KS. 2010. Blocked by Caste: Economic Discrimination in Modern India New Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press
  121. Thorat S, Sadana N. 2009. Caste and ownership of private enterprises. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 44:2313–16 [Google Scholar]
  122. Treiman DJ. 1970. Industrialization and social stratification. Social Stratification: Research and Theory for the 1970s EO Laumann 207–34 Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merril [Google Scholar]
  123. Vaid D. 2004. Gendered inequality in educational transitions. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 39:353927–38 [Google Scholar]
  124. Vaid D. 2007. Class mobility among women and men in India DPhil Thesis, Oxford Univ., Oxford, UK
  125. Vaid D. 2012. The caste-class association: an empirical analysis. Asian Surv. 52:2395–422 [Google Scholar]
  126. Vaid D, Heath AF. 2010. Unequal opportunities: class, caste and social mobility. Diversity and Change in Modern India: Economic, Social and Political Approaches AF Heath, R Jeffery. Proc. Br. Acad. 159 129–164 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  127. Weber M. 1958. The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism Transl. HH Gerth, D Martindale Glencoe, IL: Free Press
  128. Weber M. 1978. Distribution of power within the political community: class, status, party. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology G Roth, C Wittich 926–40 Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043303
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error