1932

Abstract

Paul DiMaggio's (1997) article urged integration of the cognitive and the cultural, triggering a cognitive turn in cultural sociology. Since then, a burgeoning literature in cultural sociology has incorporated ideas from the cognitive sciences—cognitive anthropology, cognitive psychology, linguistics, neuroscience and philosophy—significantly reshaping sociologists’ approach to culture, both theoretically and methodologically. This article reviews work published since DiMaggio's agenda-setting piece—research that builds on cross-disciplinary links between cultural sociology and the cognitive sciences. These works present new ideas on the acquisition, storage, and retrieval of culture, on how forms of personal culture interact, on how culture becomes shared, and on how social interaction and cultural environments inform cognitive processes. Within our discussion, we point to research questions that remain unsettled. We then conclude with issues for future research in culture and cognition that can enrich sociological analysis about action more generally.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-072320-095202
2021-07-31
2024-06-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/soc/47/1/annurev-soc-072320-095202.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-072320-095202&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Anderson MC, Levy BJ. 2009. Suppressing unwanted memories. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 18:189–94
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Auyero J, Swistun D. 2008. The social production of toxic uncertainty. Am. Sociol. Rev. 73:357–79
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Axelrod R. 1973. Schema theory: an information processing model of perception and cognition. Am. Political Sci. Rev. 67:1248–66
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bago B, De Neys W. 2019. Advancing the specification of dual process models of higher cognition: a critical test of the hybrid model view. Think. Reason. 26:1–30
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bachrach CA, Morgan SP. 2013. A cognitive-social model of fertility intentions. Popul. Dev. Rev. 39:459–85
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bail CA. 2014. The cultural environment: measuring culture with big data. Theory Soc 43:465–82
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Banakou D, Hanumanthu PD, Slater M. 2016. Virtual embodiment of white people in a black virtual body leads to a sustained reduction in their implicit racial bias. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 10:601
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bergen BK. 2012. Louder Than Words: The New Science of How the Mind Makes Meaning New York: Basic
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Berger J, Meredith M, Wheeler SC. 2008. Contextual priming: where people vote affects how they vote. PNAS 105:8846–49
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Blair-Loy M. 2009. Competing Devotions: Career and Family Among Women Executives Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bonikowski B, DiMaggio P. 2016. Varieties of American popular nationalism. Am. Sociol. Rev. 8:949–80
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bonilla-Silva E 2017. Racism Without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bourdieu P. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice, transl. R Nice Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bourdieu P. 1984. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Boutyline A. 2017. Improving the measurement of shared cultural schemas with correlational class analysis: theory and method. Sociol. Sci. 4:353–93
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Boutyline A, Vaisey S. 2017. Belief network analysis: a relational approach to understanding the structure of attitudes. Am. J. Sociol. 122:1371–447
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Braman D, Kahan DM, Grimmelmann J. 2005. Modeling facts, culture, and cognition in the gun debate. Soc. Justice Res. 18:283–304
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Brubaker R, Loveman M, Stamatov P. 2004. Ethnicity as cognition. Theory Soc 33:31–64
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Calcutt L, Woodward I, Skrbis Z. 2009. Conceptualizing otherness: an exploration of the cosmopolitan schema. J. Sociol. 45:169–86
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cech EA, Blair-Loy M, Rogers LE. 2018. Recognizing chilliness: how schemas of inequality shape views of culture and climate in work environments. Am. J. Cult. Sociol. 6:125–60
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cerulo KA. 2006. Never Saw It Coming: Cultural Challenges to Envisioning the Worst Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Cerulo KA. 2018. Scents and sensibility: olfaction, sense-making and meaning attribution. Am. Sociol. Rev. 83:361–89
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cerulo KA. 2019. Embodied cognition: sociology's role in bridging mind, brain, and body. The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Sociology WH Brekhus, G Ignatow 81–100 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Cerulo KA, Ruane JM. 2014. Apologies of the rich and famous: cultural, cognitive, and social explanations of why we care and why we forgive. Soc. Psychol. Q. 77:123–49
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Chaiken S, Trope Y 1999. Dual-Process Theories in Social Psychology New York: Guilford
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Child C, Witesman EM. 2019. Optimism and bias when evaluating a prosocial initiative. Soc. Sci. Q. 100:666–77
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Clark A. 1997. Being There: Putting Brain, Body and World Together Again Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Clark A, Chalmers D. 1998. The extended mind. Analysis 58:7–19
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Collins AM, Loftus EF. 1975. A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing. Psychol. Rev. 82:407–28
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Collins R. 2004. Interaction Ritual Chains Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Coman A, Hirst W. 2011. Cognition through a social network: the propagation of induced forgetting and practice effects. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 141:321–36
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Coman A, Momennejad I, Drach RD Geana A. 2016. Mnemonic convergence in social networks: the emergent properties of cognition at a collective level. PNAS 113:8171–76
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Correll SJ, Benard S, Paik I. 2007. Getting a job: Is there a motherhood penalty?. Am. J. Sociol. 112:1297–338
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Cowan SK. 2014. Secrets and misperceptions: the creation of self-fulfilling illusions. Sociol. Sci. 1:466–92
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Cowan SK, Baldassari D. 2018.. ‘ It could turn ugly’: selective disclosure of attitudes in political discussion networks. Soc. Netw. 52:1–17
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Cuc A, Koppel J, Hirst W. 2007. Silence is not golden: a case for socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting. Psychol. Sci. 18:727–33
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Decock L, Douven I. 2014. What is graded membership?. Noûs 48:653–82
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Dewey J. 2002. Human Nature and Conduct New York: Modern Libr.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. DiMaggio P. 1997. Culture and cognition. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 23:263–87
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Dixon TL, Maddox KB. 2005. Skin tone, crime news, and social reality judgments: priming the stereotype of the dark and dangerous black criminal. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 35:1555–70
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Domínguez Rubio FD 2014. Preserving the unpreservable: docile and unruly objects at MoMA. Theory Soc 43:617–45
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Doré BP, Zerubavel N, Ochsner KN 2015. Social cognitive neuroscience: a review of core systems. APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 1 Attitudes and Social Cognition, ed. M Mikulincer, PR Shaver 693–720 Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Drost-Lopez J, Coman A. 2018. Forgetting in social chains: the impact of cognition on information propagation. J. Cogn. Cult. 18:390–409
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Enriquez LE, Saguy AC. 2016. Coming out of the shadows: harnessing a cultural schema to advance the undocumented immigrant youth movement. Am. J. Cult. Sociol. 4:107–30
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Evans JM, Baker GR, Berta W, Barnsley J 2015. Culture and cognition in health systems change. J. Health Organ. Manag. 29:874–92
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Evans JSBT. 2008. Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 59:255–78
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Evans JSBT 2009. How many dual-process theories do we need? One, two, or many?. Two Minds: Dual Processes and Beyond JSB Evans, K Frankish 33–54 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Evans JSBT, Stanovich KE. 2013. Dual-process theories of higher cognition: advancing the debate. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 8:223–41
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Farrell J. 2013. Environmental activism and moral schemas: cultural components of differential participation. Environ. Behav. 45:399–423
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Feldman J. 2013. The neural binding problem(s). Cogn. Neurodynamics 7:1–11
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Fine GA, Fields CD. 2008. Culture and microsociology: the anthill and the veldt. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 619:130–48
    [Google Scholar]
  52. FitzGerald C, Hurst S. 2017. Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: a systematic review. BMC Med. Ethics 18:19
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Fligstein N, Brundage JS, Schultz M. 2017. Seeing like the Fed: culture, cognition, and framing in the failure to anticipate the financial crisis of; 2008. Am. Sociol. Rev. 82:879–909
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Flynn E, Smith K 2012. Investigating the mechanisms of cultural acquisition. Soc. Psychol. 43:185–95
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Freudenburg WR, Alario M. 2007. Weapons of mass distraction: magicianship, misdirection, and the dark side of legitimation. Sociol. Forum 22:146–73
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Galantucci B, Garrod S. 2011. Experimental semiotics: a review. Front. Hum. Neurosci 5:11 https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnhum.2011.00011
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Gallese V. 2007. Embodied simulation: from mirror neuron systems to interpersonal relations. Novartis Found. Symp. 278:3–12
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Gallese V. 2018. Embodied simulation and its role in cognition. Reti Saperi Linguaggi 1:31–46
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Gallese V, Goldman A. 1998. Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading. Trends Cogn. Sci. 1:493–501
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Ghosh VE, Gilboa A. 2014. What is a memory schema? A historical perspective on current neuroscience literature. Neuropsychology 53:104–14
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Gibson JJ. 1979. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception Boston: Houghton Mifflin
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Gilboa A, Marlatte H. 2017. Neurobiology of schemas and schema-mediated memory. Trends Cogn. Sci. 21:618–31
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Goldberg A. 2011. Mapping shared understandings using relational class analysis: the case of the cultural omnivore reexamined. Am. J. Sociol. 116:1397–436
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Goldberg A, Stein SK. 2018. Beyond social contagion: associative diffusion and the emergence of cultural variation. Am. Sociol. Rev. 83:897–932
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Goldenberg A, Garcia D, Halperin E, Gross JJ. 2020. Collective emotions. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 29:154–60
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Goodwin J, Jasper JM, Polletta F 2001. Introduction: why emotions matter. Passionate Politics: Emotions and Social Movements J Goodwin, JM Jasper, F Polletta 1–26 Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Gordon RM. 2009. Folk psychology as mental simulation. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy EN Zalta Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2009/entries/folkpsych-simulation
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Guilbeault D, Becker J, Centola D 2018. Complex contagions: a decade in review. Complex Spreading Phenomena in Social Systems S Lehmann, YY Ahn 3–25 New York: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Gutsell JN, Inzlicht M. 2010. Empathy constrained: prejudice predicts reduced mental simulation of actions during observation of outgroups. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 46:841–45
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Haidt J. 2001. The emotional dog and its rational tail: a social institutionist approach to moral judgment. Psychol. Rev. 108:814–34
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Hansson N, Jacobsson K. 2014. Learning to be affected: subjectivity, sense, and sensibility in animal rights activism. Soc. Anim. 22:262–88
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Hart PS, Nisbet EC, Myers TA. 2015. Public attention to science and political news and support for climate change mitigation. Nat. Clim. Change 5:541–45
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Harvey D. 2010. The space for culture and cognition. Poetics 38:184–203
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Hasson U, Ghazanfar AA, Galantucci B, Garrod S, Keysers C. 2012. Brain-to-brain coupling: a mechanism for creating and sharing a social world. Trends Cogn. Sci. 16:114–21
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Haugeland J 1995. Mind embodied and embedded. Mind and Cognition Y Houng, J Ho 233–67 Taipei: Acad. Sinica
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Hirst W, Yamashiro JK, Coman A. 2018. Collective memory from a psychological perspective. Trends Cogn. Sci. 22:438–51
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Hoehl S, Keupp S, Schleihauf H, McGuigan N, Buttelmann D, Whiten A. 2019. Over-imitation: a review and appraisal of a decade of research. Dev. Rev. 51:90–108
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Hoffmann JP. 2014. Religiousness, social networks, moral schemas, and marijuana use: a dynamic dual-process model of culture and behavior. Soc. Forces 93:181–208
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Hunzaker MBF. 2014. Making sense of misfortune: cultural schemas, victim redefinition, and the perpetuation of stereotypes. Soc. Psychol. Q. 77:166–84
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Hunzaker MBF. 2016. Cultural sentiments and schema-consistency bias in information transmission. Am. Sociol. Rev. 81:1223–50
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Hunzaker MBF, Valentino L. 2019. Mapping cultural schemas: from theory to method. Am. Sociol. Rev. 84:950–81
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Hutchins E. 1995. Cognition in the Wild Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Iacoboni M. 2009. Imitation, empathy, and mirror neurons. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 60:653–70
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Ignatow G. 2007. Theories of embodied knowledge: new directions for cultural and cognitive sociology?. J. Theor. Soc. Behav. 37:115–35
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Kahan DM. 2012. Ideology, motivated reasoning, and cognitive reflection: an experimental study. Judgm. Decis. Mak. 8:407–24
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Kahan DM, Braman D. 2006. Cultural cognition and public policy. Yale Law Policy Rev. 24:149–57
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Kahn KB, Davies PG. 2017. What influences shooter bias? The effects of suspect race, neighborhood, and clothing on decisions to shoot. J. Soc. Issues 73:723–43
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Kang J, Bennett M, Carbado D, Casey P. 2011. Implicit bias in the courtroom. UCLA Law Rev. 59:1124–86
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Kashima Y, Coman A, Pauketat JVT, Yzerbyt V. 2019. Emotion in cultural dynamics. Emot. Rev. 12:48–64
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Keane W. 2003. Semiotics and the social analysis of material things. Lang. Commun. 23:409–25
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Kitts J. 2003. Egocentric bias or information management? Selective disclosure and the social roots of norm misperception. Soc. Psychol. Q. 66:222–37
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Koikkalainen S, Kyle D. 2016. Imagining mobility: the prospective cognition question in migration research. J. Ethn. Migr. Stud. 42:759–76
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Kostiner I. 2003. Evaluating legality: toward a cultural approach to the study of law and social change. Law Soc. Rev. 37:323–68
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Lakoff G, Johnson M 1999. Philosophy in the Flesh, Vol. 4: New York: Basic
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Lamont M, Swidler A. 2014. Methodological pluralism and the possibilities and limits of interviewing. Qual. Soc. 37:153–71
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Lande B. 2007. Breathing like a soldier: culture incarnate. Soc. Rev. 55:95–108
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Lave J. 1988. Cognition in Practice: Mind, Mathematics, and Culture in Everyday Life Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Lembo A. 2020. He heard, she heard: toward a cultural sociology of the senses. Sociol. Forum 35:443–64
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Leschziner V, Brett G. 2019. Beyond two minds: cognitive, embodied, and evaluative processes in creativity. Soc. Psychol. Q. 82:340–66
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Leschziner V, Green AI. 2013. Thinking about food and sex: deliberate cognition in the routine practices of a field. Sociol. Theor. 31:116–44
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Levinson JD. 2007. Forgotten racial equality: implicit bias, decision making, and misremembering. Duke Law J. 57:345–424
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Lieberman MD 2003. Reflective and reflexive judgment processes: a social cognitive neuroscience approach. Social Judgments: Implicit and Explicit Processes JP Forgas, KD Williams, W Von Hippel 47–67 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Lizardo O. 2007.. “ Mirror neurons,” collective objects and the problem of transmission: reconsidering Stephen Turner's critique of practice theory. J. Theor. Soc. Behav. 37:319–50
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Lizardo O. 2017. Improving cultural analysis: considering personal culture in its declarative and nondeclarative modes. Am. Sociol. Rev. 82:88–115
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Lizardo O, Strand M. 2010. Skills, toolkits, contexts and institutions: clarifying the relationship between different approaches to cognition in cultural sociology. Poetics 38:205–28
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Lluch JG. 2019. Unpacking political identity: race, ethnicity, and nationhood in a federal political system. Ethnopolitics 18:178–200
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Luft A. 2020. Theorizing moral cognition: culture in action, situations, and relationships. Socius 6:1–15
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Lyons A, Kashima Y. 2003. How are stereotypes maintained through communication? The influence of stereotype sharedness. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 85:989–1005
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Maister L, Slater M, Sanchez-Vives MV, Tsakiris M. 2015. Changing bodies changes minds: owning another body affects social cognition. Trends Cogn. Sci. 19:6–12
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Markle G. 2019. Understanding pro-environmental behavior in the US: insights from grid-group cultural theory and cognitive sociology. Sustainability 11:532
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Martin JL. 2011. The Explanation of Social Action Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Martin JL, Desmond M 2010. Political position and social knowledge. Sociol. Forum 25:1–26
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Massey DS. 2007. Categorically Unequal: The American Stratification System New York: Russell Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  114. McAdam D, Tarrow S, Tilly C. 2003. Dynamics of contention. Soc. Mov. Stud. 2:99–102
    [Google Scholar]
  115. McDonnell TE. 2014. Drawing out culture: productive methods to measure cognition and resonance. Theor. Soc. 43:247–74
    [Google Scholar]
  116. McDonnell TE, Bail CA, Tavory I. 2017. A theory of resonance. Sociol. Theor. 35:1–14
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Miles A. 2015. The (re)genesis of values: examining the importance of values for action. Am. J. Sociol. 80:680–704
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Miles A, Charron-Chénier R, Schleifer C. 2019. Measuring automatic cognition: advancing dual-process research in sociology. Am. Sociol. Rev. 84:308–33
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Miles LK, Nind LK, Macrae CN. 2010. Moving through time. Psychol. Sci. 21:222–23
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Mische A. 2014. Measuring futures in action: projective grammars in the Rio+20 debates. Theor. Soc. 43:437–64
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Molinsky AL, Grant AM, Margolis JD. 2012. The bedside manner of homo economicus: how and why priming an economic schema reduces compassion. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 119:27–37
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Momennejad I, Duker A, Coman A. 2019. Bridge ties bind collective memories. Nat. Commun. 10:1578
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Moore R. 2017. Fast or slow: sociological implications of measuring dual-process cognition. Sociol. Sci. 4:196–223
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Muscatell KA, Morelli SA, Falk EB, Way BM, Pfeifer JH et al. 2012. Social status modulates neural activity in the mentalizing network. Neuroimage 60:1771–77
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Newen A, Gallagher S, De Bruin L 2018. The Oxford Handbook of 4E Cognition Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Norton M. 2019. Cultural sociology meets the cognitive wild: advantages of the distributed cognition framework for analyzing the intersection of culture and cognition. Am. J. Cult. Sociol. 8:41–18
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Pagis M. 2015. Evoking equanimity: silent interaction rituals in vipassana meditation retreats. Qual. Soc. 38:39–56
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Paluck EL, Shepherd H, Aronow P. 2016. Changing climates of conflict: a social network experiment in 56 schools. PNAS 113:566–71
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Patterson O. 2014. Making sense of culture. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 40:1–30
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Peck TC, Seinfeld S, Aglioti SM, Slater M. 2013. Putting yourself in the skin of a black avatar reduces implicit racial bias. Conscious. Cogn. 22:779–87
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Pennycook G, Fugelsang JA, Koehler DJ. 2015. What makes us think? A three-stage dual-process model of analytic engagement. Cogn. Psychol. 80:34–72
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Pitts-Taylor V. 2013. I feel your pain: embodied knowledges and situated neurons. Hypatia 28:852–69
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Quillian L. 2008. Does unconscious racism exist?. Soc. Psychol. Q. 71:6–11
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Rackin H, Bachrach CA. 2016. Assessing the predictive value of fertility expectations through a social-cognitive model. Popul. Res. Policy Rev. 35:527–51
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Ramachandran VS. 2011. The Tell-Tale Brain: A Neuroscientist's Quest for What Makes Us Human New York: Norton
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Ray V. 2019. A theory of racialized organizations. Am. Sociol. Rev. 84:26–53
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Reger J. 2004. Organizational “emotion work” through consciousness-raising: an analysis of a feminist organization. Qual. Soc. 27:205–22
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Reynolds JR, Baird CL. 2010. Is there a downside to shooting for the stars? Unrealized educational expectations and symptoms of depression. Am. Sociol. Rev. 75:151–72
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Ridgeway CL. 2014. Why status matters for inequality. Am. Sociol. Rev. 79:1–16
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Ridgeway CL, Erickson KG. 2000. Creating and spreading status beliefs. Am. J. Sociol. 106:579–615
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Rosch E. 1973. On the internal structure of perception and semantic categories. Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language TE Moore 111–44 New York: Academic
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Rotolo M. 2020. Religion imagined: the conceptual substructures of American religious understandings. Sociol. Forum 35:167–88
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Ryan D. 2006. Getting the word out: notes on the social organization of notification. Sociol. Theor. 24:228–54
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Rydgren J. 2007. The power of the past: a contribution to a cognitive sociology of ethnic conflict. Sociol. Theor. 25:225–44
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Sampson RJ, Bean L 2006. Cultural mechanisms and killing fields: a revised theory of community-level racial inequality. The Many Colors of Crime: Inequalities of Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America RD Peterson, LI Krivo, J Hagan 8–36 New York: NYU Press
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Schaap J, van der Waal J, de Koster W 2019. Improving empirical scrutiny of the habitus: a plea for incorporating implicit association tests in sociological research. Sociology 53:967–76
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Schafer MH. 2014. Schema via structure? Personal network density and the moral evaluation of infidelity. Sociol. Forum 29:120–36
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Schubert TW. 2004. The power in your hand: gender differences in bodily feedback from making a fist. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 30:757–69
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Schubert TW, Semin GR. 2009. Embodiment as a unifying perspective for psychology. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 39:1135–41
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Schwarz O. 2015. The sound of stigmatization: sonic habitus, sonic styles, and boundary work in an urban slum. Am. J. Sociol. 121:205–42
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Senkowski D, Schneider TR, Foxe JJ, Engel AK. 2008. Crossmodal binding through neural coherence: implications for multisensory processing. Trends Neurosci 31:401–9
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Shariff AF, Willard AK, Andersen T, Norenzayan A. 2016. Religious priming: a meta-analysis with a focus on prosociality. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 20:27–48
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Shaw L. 2015. Mechanics and dynamics of social construction: modeling the emergence of culture from individual mental representation. Poetics 52:75–90
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Shea N. 2018. Representation in Cognitive Science Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Shepherd H. 2011. The cultural context of cognition: what the implicit association test tells us about how culture works. Sociol. Forum 26:121–43
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Shepherd H, Marshall EA. 2018. The implicit activation mechanism of culture: a survey experiment on associations with childbearing. Poetics 69:1–14
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Shteynberg G. 2010. A silent emergence of culture: the social tuning effect. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 99:683–89
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Shteynberg G. 2015. Shared attention. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 10:579–90
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Sieweke J. 2014. Imitation and processes of institutionalization—insights from Bourdieu's theory of practice. Schmalenbach Bus. Rev. 66:24–42
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Sloman SA. 1996. The empirical case for two systems of reasoning. Psychol. Bull. 119:3–22
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Smith EB, Brands RA, Brashears ME, Kleinbaum AM. 2020. Social networks and cognition. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 46:159–74
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Smith ER 1998. Mental representation and memory. Handbook of Social Psychology D Gilbert, S Fiske, G Lindzey 391–445 New York: McGraw-Hill
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Smith ER, DeCoster J. 2000. Dual-process models in social and cognitive psychology: conceptual integration and links to underlying memory systems. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 4:108–31
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Smith-Greenaway E, Yeatman S 2019. Unrealized educational expectations and mental health: evidence from a low-income country. Soc. Forces 98:1112–42
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Sonnett JK, Johnson A, Dolan MK 2015. Priming implicit racism in television news: visual and verbal limitations on diversity. Sociol. Forum 30:328–47
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Squire LR. 1992. Declarative and nondeclarative memory: multiple brain systems supporting learning and memory. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 4:232–43
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Srivastava SB, Banaji MR. 2011. Culture, cognition, and collaborative networks in organizations. Am. Sociol. Rev. 76:207–33
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Stanovich KE 2009. Distinguishing the reflective, algorithmic, and autonomous minds: Is it time for a tri-process theory?. Two Minds: Dual Processes and Beyond JSBT Evans, K Frankish 55–88 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Steensland B. 2006. Cultural categories and the American welfare state: the case of guaranteed income policy. Am. J. Sociol. 111:1273–326
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Stephens GJ, Silbert LJ, Hasson U. 2010. Speaker-listener neural coupling underlies successful communication. PNAS 107:14425–30
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Summers-Effler E, Van Ness J, Hausmann C. 2015. Peeking in the black box: studying, theorizing, and representing the micro-foundations of day-to-day interactions. J. Contemp. Ethnogr. 44:450–79
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Swidler A. 2001. Talk of Love Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Swidler A. 2008. Comment on Stephen Vaisey's ‘Socrates, Skinner, and Aristotle: three ways of thinking about culture in action. Sociol. Forum 23:614–18
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Taylor MA, Stoltz DS, McDonnell TE. 2019. Binding significance to form: cultural objects, neural binding, and cultural change. Poetics 73:1–16
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Vaisey S. 2009. Motivation and justification: a dual-process model of culture in action. Am. J. Sociol. 114:1675–715
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Vaisey S, Lizardo O. 2010. Can cultural worldviews influence network composition?. Soc. Forces 88:1595–618
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Valian V. 2005. Beyond gender schemas: improving the advancement of women in academia. Hypatia 20:198–213
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Vannini P, Waskul D, Gottschalk S. 2013. The Senses in Self. , Society and Culture New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Vila-Henninger LA. 2015. Toward defining the causal role of consciousness: using models of memory and moral judgment from cognitive neuroscience to expand the sociological dual-process model. J. Theor. Soc. Behav. 45:238–60
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Villanueva G. 2019.. ‘ Animals are their best advocates’: interspecies relations, embodied actions, and entangled activism. Anim. Stud. J. 8:190–217
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Wacquant L. 2004. Body and Soul Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Ward D, Silverman D, Villalobos M. 2017. The varieties of enactivism. Topoi Int. Rev. Philos. 36:365–75
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Winchester D. 2016. A hunger for God: embodied metaphor as cultural cognition in action. Soc. Forces 95:585–606
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Winchester D, Green KD 2019. Talking yourself into it: how and when accounts shape motivation for action. Soc. Theory 37:257–81
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Wood ML, Stoltz DS, Van Ness J, Taylor MA. 2018. Schemas and frames. Soc. Theory 36:244–61
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Wuthnow R. 2007. Cognition and religion. Soc. Relig. 68:341–60
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Wuthnow R. 2008. Prayer, cognition, and culture. Poetics 36:333–37
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Yeshurun Y, Swanson S, Simony E, Chen J, Lazaridi C et al. 2017. Same story, different story. Psychol. Sci. 28:307–19
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Zerubavel N, Bearman PS, Weber J, Ochsner KN. 2015. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks. PNAS 112:15072–77
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Zhong C, Leonardelli GJ. 2008. Cold and lonely: Does social exclusion literally feel cold?. Psychol. Sci. 19:838–42
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Zimmer H, Mecklinger A, Lindenberger U. 2006. Handbook of Binding and Memory Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-072320-095202
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error