1932

Abstract

Political developments in the United States and Europe have generated a resurgence in the use of the terms fascism and populism across multiple media. Fascism is a historically specific term that Benito Mussolini coined in Italy to define his regime. Over time, political analysts erased the historical specificity of fascism and deployed it as an analytic category. In contrast, populism is an analytic category that, depending on context, includes varying aggregates of popular preferences that often lack a coherent and unifying ideology. This review draws upon interdisciplinary scholarship and empirical cases to revisit the terms fascism and populism, focusing on institutionalized politics. Contemporary fascist and populist politics are increasingly global. This review argues that comparative political and historical sociologists need to develop an analytically cogent approach to researching this encroaching political phenomenon. The review suggests a research agenda that treats fascism and populism as more than conceptual categories.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-073018-022351
2019-07-30
2024-04-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/soc/45/1/annurev-soc-073018-022351.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-073018-022351&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Albright M. 2018. Fascism: A Warning New York: Harper Collins
  2. Alexander JC. 2003. The Meanings of Social Life New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  3. Alexander JC. 2006. The Civil Sphere Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  4. Allardyce G. 1979. What fascism is not: thoughts on the deflation of a concept. Am. Hist. Rev. 84:2367–88
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Art D. 2011. Inside the Radical Right: The Development of Anti-Immigrant Parties in Western Europe Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  6. Baldwin P. 1990. Social interpretations of Nazism: renewing a tradition. J. Contemp. Hist. 25:15–37
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ben-Ghiat R. 2004. Fascist Modernities: Italy, 1922–1945 Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
  8. Ben-Ghiat R. 2015. Italian Fascism's Empire Cinema Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press
  9. Berezin M. 1997. Making the Fascist Self: The Political Culture of Interwar Italy Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
  10. Berezin M. 2009. Illiberal Politics in Neoliberal Times: Culture, Security, and Populism in the New Europe Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  11. Berezin M. 2015. Globalization backlash. Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Interdisciplinary, Searchable, and Linkable Resource RA Scott, SM Kosslyn 1–11 Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Berezin M. 2017. Populism as collateral damage: opportunities for comparative analysis. Trajectories Newsl. Am. Sociol. Assoc. Comp. Hist. Sociol. Sect. 28:32–4
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Berman S. 1997. Civil society and the collapse of the Weimar Republic. World Politics 49:3401–29
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Berman S. 2019. Democracy and Dictatorship New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  15. Bermeo NG. 2003. Ordinary People in Extraordinary Times: The Citizenry and the Breakdown of Democracy Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  16. Blee KM, Creasap KA. 2010. Conservative and right-wing movements. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 36:269–86
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bonikowski B. 2016. Nationalism in settled times. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 42:427–449
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bonikowski B. 2017. Ethno‐nationalist populism and the mobilization of collective resentment. Br. J. Sociol. 68:S181–213
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Bonikowski B, Gidron N. 2016. The populist style in American politics: presidential campaign rhetoric, 1952–1996. Soc. Forces 94:41593–621
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Bonikowski B, Halikiopoulou D, Kaufmann E, Rooduijn M 2019. Populism and nationalism in a comparative perspective: a scholarly exchange. Nations Nationalism 25:158–81
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Browning C. 1992. Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland New York: Harper Collins
  22. Brubaker R. 2017a. Between nationalism and civilizationism: the European populist moment in comparative perspective. Ethnic Racial Stud 40:81191–226
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Brubaker R. 2017b. Why populism. Theory Soc 46:5357–85
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Brustein WI. 1996. The Logic of Evil: The Social Origins of the Nazi Party, 1925–1933 New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
  25. Camus JY, Lebourg N. 2017. Far-Right Politics in Europe Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press
  26. Canovan M. 1999. Trust the people! Populism and the two faces of democracy. Political Stud 47:12–16
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Connolly WE. 2017. Aspirational Fascism: The Struggle for Multifaceted Democracy Under Trumpism Minneapolis: Univ. Minn. Press
  28. Cramer KJ. 2016. The Politics of Resentment: Rural Consciousness in Wisconsin and the Rise of Scott Walker Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  29. Davidson T, Berezin M. 2018. Britain First and the UK Independence Party: social media and movement-party dynamics. Mobilization 23:4485–510
    [Google Scholar]
  30. de Grazia V. 1981. The Culture of Consent New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  31. de la Torre C. 2018a. Populism revived: Donald Trump and the Latin American leftist populists. Americas 75:4733–53
    [Google Scholar]
  32. de la Torre C 2018b. Routledge Handbook of Global Populism London: Routledge
  33. Duggan C. 2013. Fascist Voices: An Intimate History of Mussolini's Italy New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  34. Durkheim É 2013. Professional Ethics and Civic Morals London: Routledge
  35. Eatwell R. 1994. Why are fascism and racism reviving in western Europe. Political Q 65:3313–25
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Eatwell R, Goodwin M. 2018. National Populism: The Revolt Against Liberal Democracy London: Pelican
  37. Eichengreen B. 2018. The Populist Temptation: Economic Grievance and Political Reaction in the Modern Era New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  38. Finchelstein F. 2017. From Fascism to Populism in History Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
  39. Finchelstein F, Urbinati N. 2018. On populism and democracy. Populism 1:115–37
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Fritzsche P. 1990. Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  41. Fritzsche P. 1998. Germans into Nazis Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  42. Fukuyama F. 2018. Identity: The Demand for Dignity and the Politics of Resentment New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
  43. Funke M, Schularick M, Trebesch C 2018. The financial crisis is still empowering far-right populists: why the effects haven't faded. Foreign Aff Sept. 13. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2018-09-13/financial-crisis-still-empowering-far-right-populists
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Galston W. 2018. Anti-Pluralism: The Populist Threat to Liberal Democracy New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
  45. Gentile E. 1998. Il culto del littorio: la sacralizzazione della politica nell'Italia fascista Rome: Laterza
  46. Gentile G. 1928. The philosophic basis of fascism. Foreign Policy 6:2290–304
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Gest J. 2016. The New Minority: White Working-Class Politics in an Age of Immigration and Inequality New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  48. Geva D. 2018. Daughter, mother, captain: Marine Le Pen, gender, and populism in the French National Front. Soc. Politics. In press. https://doi.org/10.1093/sp/jxy039
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  49. Gidron N, Hall PA. 2017. The politics of social status: economic and cultural roots of the populist right. Br. J. Sociol. 68:S57–84
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Gleason A. 1995. Totalitarianism: The Inner History of the Cold War New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  51. Goldhagen DJ. 1996. Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust New York: Alfred A. Knopf
  52. Griffin R. 1991. The Nature of Fascism New York: St. Martin's Press
  53. Hall PA, Soskice DW 2001. Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  54. Hochschild AR. 2016. Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right New York: The New Press
  55. Holmes DR. 2000. Integral Europe: Fast-Capitalism, Multiculturalism, Neofascism Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  56. James H. 2016. Déclassé: nothing new under the sun. Am. Interest 12:217–24
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Jansen RS. 2011. Populist mobilization: a new theoretical approach to populism. Sociol. Theory 29:275–96
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Jansen RS. 2017. Revolutionizing Repertoires: The Rise of Populist Mobilization in Peru Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  59. Judis JB. 2016. The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics New York: Columbia Glob. Rep.
  60. Kazin M. 2017. The Populist Persuasion: An American History Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press
  61. Kitschelt H. 1995. The Radical Right in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press
  62. Klandermans B, Mayer N 2006. Extreme Right Activists in Europe: Through the Magnifying Glass New York: Routledge
  63. Koshar R 1990. Splintered Classes: Politics and the Lower Middle Classes in Interwar Europe New York: Holmes and Meier
  64. Laclau E. 2007. On Populist Reason London: Verso
  65. Lamont M, Silva GM, Welburn J, Guetzkow J, Mizrachi N et al. 2016. Getting Respect: Responding to Stigma and Discrimination in the United States, Brazil, and Israel Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  66. Laqueur W. 1996. Fascism: Past, Present, Future New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  67. Levitsky S, Ziblatt D. 2018. How Democracies Die New York: Crown
  68. Levy C. 1999. Fascism, national socialism and conservatives in Europe, 1914–1945: issues for comparativists. Contemp. Eur. Hist. 8:197–126
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Linz JJ. 1976. Some notes toward a comparative study of fascism in sociological historical perspective. Fascism: A Reader's Guide W Laqueur 13–78 Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Linz JJ. 1980. Political space and fascism as a late-comer. Who Were the Fascists: Social Roots of European Fascism SU Larsen, B Hagtvet, JP Myklebust 153–89 Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Linz JJ. 2000. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes London: Lynne Riener
  72. Lipset SM. 1981. Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press. , Expand. ed..
  73. Luzzatto S. 1999. The political culture of fascist Italy. Contemp. Eur. Hist. 8:2317–34
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Mammone A. 2015. Transnational Neofascism in France and Italy New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  75. Mann M. 2004. Fascists New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  76. Merkl PH. 1980. Comparing fascist movements. Who Were the Fascists: Social Roots of European Fascism SU Larsen, B Hagtvet, JP Myklebust 752–83 Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Michelet J. 1973. The People Urbana: Univ. Ill. Press
  78. Miller-Idriss C. 2018. The Extreme Gone Mainstream: Commercialization and Far Right Youth Culture in Germany Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  79. Moffitt B. 2016. The Global Rise of Populism: Performance, Political Style, and Representation Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press
  80. Molnar V. 2016. Civil society, radicalism and the rediscovery of mythic nationalism. Nations Nationalism 22:1165–85
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Mosse GL. 1979. Towards a general theory of fascism. International Fascism, 1920–1945 W Laqueur, GL Mosse 1–45 London: Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Mosse GL. 1991. The Nationalization of the Masses: Political Symbolism and Mass Movements in Germany from the Napoleonic Wars Through the Third Reich Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press
  83. Mounk Y. 2018. The People Versus Democracy: Why Our Freedom Is in Danger and How to Save It Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  84. Mudde C. 2004. The populist zeitgeist. Gov. Oppos. 39:4541–63
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Mudde C. 2007. Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  86. Mudde C, Kaltwasser CR. 2017. Populism: A Very Short Introduction Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  87. Mudde C, Kaltwasser CR. 2018. Studying populism in comparative perspective: reflections on the contemporary and future research agenda. Comp. Political Stud. 51:131667–93
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Müller J-W. 2016. What Is Populism Philadelphia: Univ. Pa. Press
  89. Norris P, Inglehart R. 2018. Cultural Backlash: Trump, Brexit and Authoritarian Populism New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
  90. Parsons T. 1942. Some sociological aspects of the fascist movements. Soc. Forces 21:2138–47
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Paxton RO. 2004. The Anatomy of Fascism New York: Alfred A. Knopf
  92. Payne SG. 1980. Fascism: Comparison and Definition Madison: Univ. Wisc. Press
  93. Payne SG. 1995. A History of Fascism, 1914–1945 Madison: Univ. Wisc. Press
  94. Polanyi K. 1935. The essence of fascism. Christianity and the Social Revolution J Lewis, K Polanyi, DK Kitchin 359–94 London: Victor Gollancz
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Pound E. 1936. Jefferson and/or Mussolini: L'idea Statale: Fascism as I Have Seen It London: Stanley Nott
  96. Ranciere J. 2016. The populism that is not to be found. What Is a People A Badiou, P Bordieu, J Butler, G Didi-Huberman, S Khiari, J Ranciere101–6 New York: Columbia Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Riley DJ. 2010. The Civic Foundations of Fascism in Europe: Italy, Spain, and Romania, 1870–1945 Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Roberts KM. 2007. Latin America's populist revival. SAIS Rev. Int. Aff. 27:13–15
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Rydgren J. 2007. The sociology of the radical right. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 33:241–62
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Rydgren J 2018. The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  101. Schmitter P, Karl T. 1991. What democracy is…and is not. J. Democr. 2:375–88
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Skocpol T, Williamson V. 2016. The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism New York: Oxford Univ. Press. , Updated ed..
  103. Smith RM. 2015. Political Peoplehood Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  104. Somers MR. 1995. What's political or cultural about political culture and the public sphere? Toward an historical sociology of concept formation. Sociol. Theory 13:2113–44
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Stanley J. 2018. How Fascism Works: The Politics of Us and Them New York: Random House
  106. Stone M. 1998. The Patron State: Culture and Politics in Fascist Italy Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  107. Sunstein C. 2018. It can happen here. N.Y. Rev. Books 65:11 https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2018/06/28/hitlers-rise-it-can-happen-here/
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Urbinati N. 1998. Democracy and populism. Constellations 5:1110–24
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Williams R. 1983. Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society New York: Oxford Univ. Press
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-073018-022351
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-073018-022351
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error