1932

Abstract

There has been a lack of debate between and frameworks for theories of the causes of poverty. This article proposes that most theories of poverty can be productively categorized into three broader families of theories: behavioral, structural, and political. Behavioral theories concentrate on individual behaviors as driven by incentives and culture. Structural theories emphasize the demographic and labor market context, which causes both behavior and poverty. Political theories contend that power and institutions cause policy, which causes poverty and moderates the relationship between behavior and poverty. I review each theory's arguments, contributions, and challenges. Furthermore, I explain how to integrate, classify studies into, and distinguish between theories. Ultimately, I argue that poverty research would benefit from more explicit theory and theoretical debate, as well as greater interdisciplinarity and integration between studies of the United States, rich democracies, and developing countries.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-073018-022550
2019-07-30
2024-06-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/soc/45/1/annurev-soc-073018-022550.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-073018-022550&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Acemoglu D, Robinson JA. 2012. Why Nations Fail New York: Crown
    [Google Scholar]
  2. AEI-Brookings 2015. Opportunity, Responsibility, and Security: A Consensus Plan for Reducing Poverty and Restoring the American Dream Washington, DC: Am. Enterp. Inst. Public Policy Res. and Brookings Inst.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aizer A, Eli S, Ferrie J, Lleras-Muney A 2016. The long-run impact of cash transfers to poor families. Am. Econ. Rev. 106:935–71
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Allard SW. 2017. Places in Need New York: Russell Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ananat EO. 2011. The wrong side(s) of the tracks: the causal effects of racial segregation on urban poverty and inequality. Am. Econ. J. Appl. Econ. 3:34–66
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Andreß H-J, Borgloh B, Bröckel M, Giesselmann M, Hummelsheim D 2006. The economic consequences of partnership dissolution—a comparative analysis of panel studies from Belgium, Germany, Great Britain, Italy and Sweden. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 22:533–60
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Atkinson AB. 2015. Inequality—What Can Be Done? Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Baker RS. 2015. The changing association among marriage, work, and child poverty in the United States, 1974–2010. J. Marriage Fam. 77:1166–78
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Banerjee AV, Be'nabou R, Mookherjee D 2006. Understanding Poverty Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Banerjee AV, Duflo E. 2011. Poor Economics New York: Public Affairs
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Banerjee AV, Hanna R, Kreindler G, Olken BA 2017. Debunking the stereotype of the lazy welfare recipient: evidence from cash transfer programs. World Bank Res. Obs. 32:155–84
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Barbieri P, Bozzon R. 2016. Welfare, labour market deregulation and households’ poverty risks: an analysis of the risk of entering poverty at childbirth in different European welfare clusters. J. Eur. Soc. Policy 26:99–123
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Barrientos A. 2013. Social Assistance in Developing Countries Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bertrand M, Mullainathan S, Shafir E 2004. A behavioral economics view of poverty. Am. Econ. Rev. 94:419–423
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bhattacharyya S. 2016. The historical origins of poverty in developing countries. See Brady & Burton 2016 270–92
  16. Biegert T. 2017. Welfare benefits and unemployment in affluent democracies: the moderating role of the institutional insider/outsider divide. Am. Sociol. Rev. 82:1037–64
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bitler MP, Gelbach JB, Hoynes HW 2006. Welfare reform and children's living arrangements. J. Hum. Resourc. 41:1–27
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bitler MP, Karoly LA. 2015. Intended and unintended effects of the war on poverty: what research tells us and implications for policy. J. Policy Anal. Manag. 34:639–96
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Blank RM. 2000. Fighting poverty: lessons from recent U.S. history. J. Econ. Perspect. 14:3–19
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Bloome D. 2017. Childhood family structure and intergenerational income mobility in the United States. Demography 54:541–69
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Brady D. 2009. Rich Democracies, Poor People Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Brady D, Baker RS, Finnigan R 2013. When unionization disappears: state-level unionization and working poverty in the U.S. Am. Sociol. Rev. 78:872–96
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Brady D, Blome A, Kleider H 2016. How politics and institutions shape poverty and inequality. See Brady & Burton 2016 117–40
  24. Brady D, Bostic A. 2015. Paradoxes of social policy: welfare transfers, relative poverty and redistribution preferences. Am. Sociol. Rev. 80:268–98
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Brady D, Burton LM 2016. The Oxford Handbook of the Social Science of Poverty Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Brady D, Finnigan R, Hübgen S 2017. Rethinking the risks of poverty: a framework for analyzing and comparing prevalences and penalties. Am. J. Sociol. 123:740–86
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Brady D, Kaya Y, Beckfield J 2007. Reassessing the effect of economic growth on well-being in less developed countries, 1980–2003. Stud. Comp. Int. Dev. 42:1–35
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Burton LM, Cherlin A, Winn D-M, Estacion A, Holder-Taylor C 2009. The role of trust in low-income mothers’ intimate unions. J. Marriage Fam. 71:1107–24
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Calnitsky D. 2018. Structural and individualistic theories of poverty. Sociol. Compass 12:e12640
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Carter MR, Barrett CB. 2006. The economics of poverty traps and persistent poverty: an asset-based approach. J. Dev. Stud. 42:178–99
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Carter MR, Lybbert TJ. 2012. Consumption versus asset smoothing: testing the implications of poverty trap theory in Burkina Faso. J. Dev. Econ. 99:255–64
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Clark KB. 1965. Dark Ghetto New York: Harper and Row
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Collier P. 2006. The Bottom Billion Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Contreras R. 2012. The Stickup Kids Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Crowder K, South SJ. 2005. Race, class, and changing patterns of migration between poor and nonpoor neighborhoods. Am. J. Sociol. 110:1715–63
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Cruz MS, Ahmed A. 2018. On the impact of demographic change on economic growth and poverty. World Dev 105:95–106
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Dahl GB, Kostol AR, Mogstad M 2014. Family welfare cultures. Q. J. Econ. 129:1711–52
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Deaton A. 2013. The Great Escape Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Desmond M, Western B. 2018. Poverty in America: new directions and debates. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 44:305–18
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Dohan D. 2003. The Price of Poverty Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Duflo E. 2006. Poor but rational?. Understanding Poverty AV Banerjee, R Be'nabou, D Mookherjee 367–78 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Durlauf SN. 2011. Groups, social influences and inequality. Poverty Traps S Bowles, SN Durlauf, K Hoff 141–75 Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Edwards F. 2016. Saving children, controlling families. Am. Sociol. Rev. 81:575–95
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Fitzgerald J, Ribar D. 2004. Welfare reform and female headship. Demography 41:189–212
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Fodor E, Horn D. 2015. “Economic development” and gender equality: explaining variations in the gender poverty gap after socialism. Soc. Probl. 62:286–308
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Fox L, Wimer C, Garfinkel I, Kaushal N, Waldfogel J 2015. Waging war on poverty: poverty trends using a historical supplemental poverty measure. J. Policy Anal. Manag. 34:567–92
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Galbraith JK. 1998. The Affluent Society New York: Mariner Books
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Gans HJ. 1995. The War Against the Poor New York: Basic Books
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Gennetian LA, Shafir E. 2015. The persistence of poverty in the context of financial stability: a behavioral perspective. J. Policy Anal. Manag. 34:904–36
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Gibson‐Davis CM, Edin K, McLanahan S 2005. High hopes but even higher expectations: the retreat from marriage among low‐income couples. J. Marriage Fam. 67:1301–12
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Giesselmann M. 2014. The impact of labour market reform policies on insiders’ and outsiders’ low-wage risk. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 30:549–61
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Gilens M. 1999. Why Americans Hate Welfare Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Gordon D. 1972. Theories of Poverty and Underemployment Lexington, MA: Lexington Books
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Gornick J, Jäntti M. 2012. Child poverty in cross-national perspective: lessons from the Luxembourg Income Study. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 34:558–68
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Gornick JC, Smeeding TM. 2018. Redistributional policy in rich countries: institutions and impacts in nonelderly households. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 44:441–68
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Gottlieb A. 2017. Incarceration and relative poverty in cross-national perspective: the moderating roles of female employment and the welfare state. Soc. Serv. Rev. 91:293–318
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Guo G, Harris KM. 2000. The mechanisms mediating the effects of poverty on children's intellectual development. Demography 37:431–47
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Hannum E, Xie Y. 2016. Education. See Brady & Burton 2016 462–85
  59. Harding D. 2010. Living the Drama Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Harknett K, McLanahan SS. 2004. Racial and ethnic differences in marriage after the birth of a child. Am. Sociol. Rev. 69:790–811
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Harrington M. 1981. The Other America New York: Penguin
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Heuveline P, Weinshenker M. 2008. The international child poverty gap: Does demography matter. Demography 45:173–91
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Hoynes HW, Page ME, Stevens AH 2006. Poverty in America: trends and explanations. J. Econ. Perspect. 20:47–68
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Huber E, Stephens JD. 2001. Development and Crisis of the Welfare State Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Huber E, Stephens JD. 2012. Democracy and the Left Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Hunt MO, Bullock HE. 2016. Ideologies and beliefs about poverty. See Brady & Burton 2016 93–116
  67. Iceland J, Hernandez E. 2017. Understanding trends in concentrated poverty: 1980–2014. Soc. Sci. Res. 62:75–95
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Jacques O, Noel A. 2018. The case for welfare state universalism, or the lasting relevance of the paradox of redistribution. J. Eur. Soc. Policy 28:70–85
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Jefferson PN. 2012. The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Poverty Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Jencks C. 1992. Rethinking Social Policy New York: Harper
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Kaida L. 2015. Ethnic variations in immigrant poverty exit and female employment: the missing link. Demography 52:485–511
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Katz MB. 2013. The Undeserving Poor Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Kohler U, Ehlert M, Grell B, Heisig JP, Radenacker A, Wörz M 2012. Verarmungsrisiken Nach Kritischen Lebensereignissen in Deutschland und den U.S.A. Kölner Z. Soziol. Sozialpsychol. 64:223–45
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Korpi W. 1983. The Democratic Class Struggle Boston: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Korpi W, Palme J. 1998. The paradox of redistribution and strategies of equality: welfare state institutions, inequality, and poverty in the western countries. Am. Sociol. Rev. 63:661–87
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Krishna A. 2011. One Illness Away Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Ku I, Lee W, Lee S, Han K 2018. The role of family behaviors in determining income distribution: the case of South Korea. Demography 55:877–99
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Lamont M, Small M. 2008. How culture matters: enriching our understandings of poverty. The Colors of Poverty D Harris, A Lin 76–102 New York: Russell Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Levine JA. 2013. Ain't No Trust Oakland: Univ. Calif. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Levine JR. 2016. Community-based organizations as nonelected neighborhood representatives. Am. Sociol. Rev. 81:1251–75
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Lichter DT, Graefe DR, Brown JB 2003. Is marriage a panacea? Union formation among economically disadvantaged unwed mothers. Soc. Probl. 50:60–86
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Lichter DT, Parisi D, Taquino MC 2012. The geography of exclusion: race, segregation and concentrated poverty. Soc. Probl. 59:364–88
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Lohmann H. 2009. Welfare states, labor market institutions and the working poor: a comparative analysis of 20 European countries. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 25:489–504
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Lohmann H, Marx I 2018. Handbook of Research on In-Work Poverty Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Marx I, Salanauskaite L, Verbist G 2016. For the poor, but not only the poor: on optimal pro-poorness in redistributive policies. Soc. Forces 95:1–24
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Massey DS. 2016. Segregation and the perpetuation of disadvantage. See Brady & Burton 2016 370–93
  87. Massey DS, Fischer MJ. 2000. How segregation concentrates poverty. Ethn. Racial Stud. 23:670–91
    [Google Scholar]
  88. McEwen CA, McEwen BS. 2017. Social structure, adversity, toxic stress, and intergenerational poverty: an early childhood model. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 43:445–72
    [Google Scholar]
  89. McLanahan SS. 2009. Fragile families and the reproduction of poverty. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 621:111–31
    [Google Scholar]
  90. McLoyd VC, Jocson RM, Williams AB 2016. Linking poverty and children's development: concepts, models, and debates. See Brady & Burton 2016 141–65
  91. Michener J. 2018. Fragmented Democracy Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Milazzo A, van de Walle D 2017. Women left behind? Poverty and headship in Africa. Demography 54:1119–45
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Misra J, Moller S, Strader E, Wemlinger E 2012. Family policies, employment and poverty among partnered and single mothers. Res. Soc. Stratif. Mobil. 30:113–28
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Moffitt RA. 2002. From welfare to work: what the evidence shows Policy Brief 13 Brookings Inst. Washington, DC:
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Moffitt RA. 2015. The deserving poor, the family, and the U.S. welfare system. Demography 52:729–49
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Moller S, Bradley D, Huber E, Nielsen F, Stephens JD 2003. Determinants of relative poverty in advanced capitalist democracies. Am. Sociol. Rev. 68:22–51
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Mouw T. 2000. Job relocation and the racial gap in unemployment in Detroit and Chicago, 1980 to 1990. Am. Sociol. Rev. 65:730–53
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Mullainathan S, Shafir E. 2013. Scarcity New York: Times Books
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Nelson K. 2012. Counteracting material deprivation: the role of social assistance in Europe. J. Eur. Soc. Policy 22:148–63
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Nunn N. 2008. The long-term effects of Africa's slave trades. Q. J. Econ. 123:139–76
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Nussbaum M. 2004. Women's education: a global challenge. Signs 29:325–55
    [Google Scholar]
  102. O'Brien RL, Robertson CL. 2018. Early-life Medicaid coverage and intergenerational economic mobility. J. Health Soc. Behav. 59:300–15
    [Google Scholar]
  103. O'Connell HA. 2012. The impact of slavery on racial inequality in poverty in the contemporary U.S. South. Soc. Forces 90:713–34
    [Google Scholar]
  104. O'Connor A. 2001. Poverty Knowledge: Social Science, Social Policy, and the Poor in Twentieth-Century U.S. History Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  105. O'Connor A. 2016. Poverty knowledge and the history of poverty research. See Brady & Burton 2016 169–92
  106. Owens A. 2015. Housing policy and urban inequality: Did the transformation of assisted housing reduce poverty concentration. Soc. Forces 94:325–48
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Pattillo M, Robinson JN III 2016. Poor neighborhoods in the metropolis. See Brady & Burton 2016 342–68
  108. Pernia E, Deolalikar A 2003. Poverty. Growth and Institutions in Developing Asia New York: Palgrave Macmillan
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Piven FF, Cloward R. 1993. Regulating the Poor New York: Vintage
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Piven FF, Minnite LC. 2016. Poor people's politics. See Brady & Burton 2016 751–73
  111. Purser G. 2016. The circle of dispossession: evicting the urban poor in Baltimore. Crit. Sociol. 42:393–415
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Quillian L. 2012. Segregation and poverty concentration: the role of the three segregations. Am. Sociol. Rev. 77:354–79
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Rainwater L, Smeeding TM. 2003. Poor Kids in a Rich Country New York: Russell Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Rank MR. 2005. One Nation, Underprivileged Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Rank MR. 2011. Rethinking American poverty. Contexts 10:16–21
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Ravallion M. 2016. The Economics of Poverty Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Ravallion M, Chen S. 2007. China's (uneven) progress against poverty. J. Dev. Econ. 82:1–42
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Rendon MG. 2014. “Caught up”: how urban violence and peer ties contribute to high school noncompletion. Soc. Probl. 61:61–82
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Rosenfeld J, Laird J. 2016. Unions and poverty. See Brady & Burton 2016 800–19
  120. Rothwell DW, McEwen A. 2017. Comparing child poverty risk by family structure during the 2008 recession. J. Marriage Fam. 79:1224–40
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Ryan W. 1976. Blaming the Victim New York: Vintage
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Rylko-Bauer B, Farmer P. 2016. Structural violence, poverty, and social suffering. See Brady & Burton 2016 47–74
  123. Salehi-Isfahani D, Mostafavi-Dehzooei MH. 2018. Cash transfers and labor supply: evidence from a large-scale program in Iran. J. Dev. Econ. 135:349–67
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Sawhill IV. 1988. Poverty in the U.S.: Why is it so persistent. J. Econ. Lit. 26:1073–119
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Sawhill IV. 2003. The behavioral aspects of poverty. Public Interest 153:Fall79–93
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Schwartz S, Carpenter KM. 1999. The right answer for the wrong question: consequences of type III error for public health research. Am. J. Public Health 89:1175–80
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Scruggs L, Allan JP. 2006. The material consequences of welfare states: benefit generosity and absolute poverty in 16 OECD countries. Comp. Political Stud. 39:880–904
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Seim J. 2017. The ambulance: toward a labor theory of poverty governance. Am. Sociol. Rev. 82:451–75
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Sen A. 1999. Development as Freedom New York: Anchor Books
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Shaefer HL. 2010. Identifying key barriers to unemployment insurance for disadvantaged workers in the U.S. J. Soc. Policy 39:439–60
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Sharkey P. 2013. Stuck in Place Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Small ML, Harding DJ, Lamont M 2010. Reconsidering culture and poverty. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 629:6–27
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Sosnaud B. 2016. Living wage ordinances and wages, poverty, and unemployment in US cities. Soc. Serv. Rev. 90:3–34
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Soss J, Fording RC, Schram SF 2011. Disciplining the Poor Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Steinberg S. 2011. Poor reason: culture still doesn't explain poverty. Boston Review Jan. 13. http://bostonreview.net/Steinberg.php
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Streib J, Verma S, Welsh W, Burton LM 2016. Life, death, and resurrections: the culture of poverty perspective. See Brady & Burton 2016 247–69
  137. Stuart F. 2016. Down, Out, and Under Arrest Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Sugrue TJ. 1996. The Origins of the Urban Crisis Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Sullivan E. 2017. Displaced in place: manufactured housing, mass eviction, and the paradox of state intervention. Am. Sociol. Rev. 82:243–69
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Tach L, Emory AD. 2017. Public housing redevelopment, neighborhood change, and the restructuring of urban inequality. Am. J. Sociol. 123:686–739
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Tomaskovic-Devey D. 1991. A structural model of poverty creation and change: political economy, local opportunity, and U.S. poverty, 1959–1979. Res. Soc. Stratif. Mobil. 10:289–322
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Turney K. 2015. Paternal incarceration and children's food insecurity: a consideration of variation and mechanisms. Soc. Serv. Rev. 89:335–67
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Vaisey S. 2010. What people want: rethinking poverty, culture, and educational attainment. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 629:75–101
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Vandecasteele L. 2011. Life course risks or cumulative disadvantage? The structuring effect of social stratification determinants and life course events on poverty transitions in Europe. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 27:246–63
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Wacquant L. 2009. Punishing the Poor Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Watkins-Hayes C, Kovalsky E. 2016. The discourse of deservingness: morality and the dilemmas of poverty relief in debate and practice. See Brady & Burton 2016 193–220
  147. Wildeman C. 2014. Parental incarceration, child homelessness, and the invisible consequences of mass imprisonment. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 651:74–96
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Wilson WJ. 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Wilson WJ. 1996. When Work Disappears New York: Knopf
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Wodtke GT. 2013. Duration and timing of exposure to neighborhood poverty and the risk of adolescent parenthood. Demography 50:1765–88
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-073018-022550
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-soc-073018-022550
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error