The C oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle plus the C reductive photosynthetic carbon cycle coexist. Both are initiated by Rubisco, use about equal amounts of energy, must regenerate RuBP, and result in exchanges of CO and O to establish rates of net photosynthesis, CO and O compensation points, and the ratio of CO and O in the atmosphere. These concepts evolved from research on O inhibition, glycolate metabolism, leaf peroxisomes, photorespiration, 18O/16O exchange, CO concentrating processes, and a requirement for the oxygenase activity of Rubisco. Nearly 80 years of research on these topics are unified under the one process of photosynthetic carbon metabolism and its self-regulation.


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