The assembly of chloroplast metalloproteins requires biochemical catalysis. Assembly factors involved in the biosynthesis of metalloproteins might be required to synthesize, chaperone, or transport the cofactor; modify or chaperone the apoprotein; or catalyze cofactor-protein association. Genetic and biochemical approaches have been applied to the study of the assembly of chloroplast iron-sulfur centers, cytochromes, plastocyanin, and the manganese center of photosystem II. These have led to the discovery of NifS-homologues and cysteine desulfhydrase for iron-sulfur center assembly, six loci () for -type cytochrome assembly, four loci for cytochrome assembly (), the CtpA protease, which is involved in pre-D1 processing, and the locus, which is involved in holoplastocyanin accumulation. New assembly factors are likely to be discovered via the study of assembly-defective mutants of , cyanobacteria, , maize, and via the functional analysis of candidate cofactor metabolizing components identified in the genome databases.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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