Plant development involves specification and elaboration of axes of asymmetry. The apical-basal and inside-outside axes arise in embryogenesis, and are probably oriented maternally. They are maintained during growth post-germination and interact to establish novel axes of asymmetry in flowers and lateral organs (such as leaves). Whereas the genetic control of axis elaboration is now partially understood in embryos, floral meristems, and organs, the underlying mechanisms of axis specification remain largely obscure. Less functionally significant aspects of plant asymmetry (e.g. the handedness of spiral phyllotaxy) may originate in random events and therefore have no genetic control.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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