Lysine is one of the most limiting essential amino acids in vegetative foods consumed by humans and livestock. In addition to serving as a building block of proteins, lysine is also a precursor for glutamate, an important signaling amino acid that regulates plant growth and responses to the environment. Recent genetic, molecular, and biochemical evidence suggests that lysine synthesis and catabolism are regulated by novel concerted mechanisms. These include intracellular compartmentalization of enzymes and metabolites, complex transcriptional and posttranscriptional controls of genes encoding enzymes in lysine metabolism during plant growth and development, as well as interactions between different metabolic fluxes. The recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of lysine metabolism in plants may also prove valuable for future production of high-lysine crops.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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