Cytokinins are plant hormones implicated in diverse and essential processes in plant growth and development, and key genes for the metabolism and actions of cytokinins have recently been identified. Cytokinins are perceived by three histidine kinases—CRE1/WOL/AHK4, AHK2, and AHK3—which initiate intracellular phosphotransfer. The final destination of the transferred phosphoryl groups is response regulators. The type-B response regulators (ARRs) are DNA-binding transcriptional activators that are required for cytokinin responses. On the other hand, the type-A ARRs act as repressors of cytokinin-activated transcription. How phosphorelay regulate response regulators and how response regulators control downstream events are open questions and discussed in this review.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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