The need to develop new diagnostics for turbulent flows at supersonic and hypersonic regimes is discussed. New experimental results can be obtained in supersonic flows by using the collective light scattering method. Typical results obtained by this method in a supersonic mixing layer are illustrated. The collective light scattering method is a directional densitometer (with a new type of spectral analysis of density fluctuations), a nonparticle anemometer, a Mach-meter (or thermometer), and a directional remote microphone. Various other optical techniques that can be applied for point, line-of-sight, or imaging measurements are reviewed. For point measurements, light-scattering methods such as Raman, Rayleigh, or electron beam fluorescence are discussed, but only briefly, since they are of little use, especially when enthalpy is very high and flow naturally bright. Emphasis is placed instead on nonlinear laser spectroscopy such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, which has recently been successful in determining temperature and density in high-enthalpy shocks. A description of diode laser absorption spectroscopy follows. A high data-rate instrument now routinely gives the static temperature and the velocity of the stream in the hot shot facility F4 of ONERA, at stagnation enthalpies in excess of 15 MJ/kg. Finally, electron beam fluorescence imaging in the same facility has made it possible to perform measurements of velocity across the external boundary layer into the flow core using a high-energy–pulsed electron gun.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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