Junction flows occur when a boundary layer encounters an obstacle attached to the same surface. Physical phenomena that have been observed for blunt and streamlined obstacles are discussed for both laminar and turbulent approaching boundary layers. The pressure gradients around an obstacle produce a three-dimensional separation with horseshoe vortices that wrap around the obstacle. Except for very low Reynolds number laminar flows, these vortices are highly unsteady and are responsible for high turbulence intensities, high surface pressure fluctuations and heat transfer rates, and erosion scour in the nose region of the obstacle. Calculation methods are also reviewed; methods that capture the large-scale chaotic vortical motions should be used for computations. Some work on the control, modification, or elimination of such vortices is also reviewed.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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