This article describes some of the fundamental ideas underlying methods for induced-drag prediction and reduction. A review of current analysis and design methods, including their development and common approximations, is followed by a survey of several approaches to lift-dependent drag reduction. Recent concepts for wing planform optimization, highly nonplanar surfaces, and various tip devices may lead to incremental but important gains in aircraft performance. Focusing on relatively high-aspect-ratio subsonic wings, the review suggests that opportunities for new concepts remain, but the greatest challenge lies in their integration with other aspects of the system.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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