It is classically assumed that the far field of a round turbulent jet discharging into quiescent fluid has a unique behavior characterized only by its momentum flux. However, there is now considerable evidence that different discharge conditions at the jet nozzle exit can give rise to very different far-field flows. Perhaps the most striking examples of these are the bifurcating and blooming jets produced by appropriate combinations of controlled axial and circumferential excitations at the nozzle exit. With the right excitations, a jet can be made to divide into two separate jets (bifurcating jet), each of which carries half the axial momentum and spreads in a manner similar to a single jet. Trifurcating jets can also be produced. Other excitations can produce blooming jets, in which the jet explodes into a shower of vortex rings, producing a far-field flow that is quite unlike a normal unexcited jet. Bifurcating and blooming jets exhibit much greater mixing than normal jets, suggesting possible applications in flow control. This article summarizes our work on bifurcating and blooming jets, which began with our discovery of them in the early 1980s and continued through the mid- 1990s. One of us (D.E.P.) continued exploration of flow control using excited jets, first at the McDonnell Douglas Corporation, and more recently at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The key to flow control is the manipulation of the large vortical structures in the near field of the jet. Ultimately this work, and that of others, led to full-scale testing of jet engine exhaust mixing control. There it was shown that the jet temperature downstream of the engine can be very significantly reduced by application of well-designed and easily implemented excitation at the engine discharge, thereby solving problems encountered during ground operations. Related jet control work by other investigators is included in this review.

Keyword(s): flow controlturbulencevortices

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  • Article Type: Review Article
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