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Abstract

▪ Abstract

Online, continuous, two-phase flow measurement is often necessary, particularly in the oil and gas industry. In this article, we describe some of the commercially most important techniques for gas-liquid, gas-solid, liquid-solid, and liquid-liquid flows, and provide associated illustrative sketches and regime maps. These techniques involve Venturi pressure drop, Coriolis, electromagnetic, and cross-correlation flow meters, gamma-ray absorption and gradio-manometer densitometers, and local electrical and fiber-optic sensors, for which we describe the principles of operation and interpretation. References are given to more comprehensive texts and papers; these are representative rather than exhaustive. It is emphasized that empirical calibration is the norm and that detailed fluid-mechanical analysis has so far played little part in instrument design and operation.

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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.fluid.36.050802.121935
2004-01-21
2024-06-25
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  • Article Type: Review Article
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