Gene targeting by homologous recombination in pluripotent embryonic stem cells enabled the systematic creation of mouse strains with defined genetic alterations. During the past few years a rapidly growing number of gene targeted mice has provided new insights into development, selection, activation, and signaling of T and B cells, as well as into the functions of cytokines. Here we discuss the present state of targeting technology and summarize the phenotypic changes observed in gene targeted mouse strains of immunological interest. These data allow us for the first time to define genetic checkpoints in lymphocyte development that are crucial for the orderly progression of T and B cells through ontogeny and for the generation of an immune response.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error